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Founded  by 

GOL.DWIN    SMITH       I      IQOl 











Oxford  University  Press,  Amen  House,  London,  E.G.  4 


Geoffrey  Gumberlege,  Publisher  to  the  University 








Aerial  View  ok  Chipping  Ongar  from  the  North-East 
The  castle  mound  is  shown  in  the  mid-foreground 

Copyright  Aerojilms 














Dedication.         .         .         .  ""^^^ 

••••■.....         V 


List  of  Illustrations  and  Maps 
Editorial  Note     . 

Essex  V.C.H.  Committee 

Qasses  of  Public  Records  used       .... 
Classes  of  Documents  in  the  Essex  Record  Office  used 
Note  on  Abbreviations 


Ongar  Hundred  . 

Fyfield    . 
Kelvedon  Hatch 


High  Laver     . 
Little  Laver    . 

Magdalen  Laver 




Norton  MandeviUe 
Chipping  Ongar 
High  Ongar    . 
Abbess  Roding 

Beaucharap  Roding 







Where  not  otherwise  stated.  Architectural  De- 
scriptions by  Margaret  Tomlinson;  bridges, 
roads,  postal  services,  and  public  services 
(except  in  ChigweU)  by  Gladys  A.  Ward; 
Roman  Catholicism  from  information  sup- 
plied by  the  Revd.  B.  C.  Foley;  Methodist 
Churches  (except  in  Lambourne)  by  G.  Har- 
rington; all  other  Nonconformist  Churches 
by  W.  R.  PowELL;Primary  Schools  by  A.F.J. 
Brown;  Charities  by  Susan  Reynolds. 

By  W.  R.  Powell 

By  Audrey  M.  Taylor        .... 

By  E.  J.  Erith.  Architectural  Descriptions 

from  information  supplied  by  the  Ministry 

of  Housing  and  Local  Government    . 

By  Audrey  M.  Taylor        .... 

By  W.  R.  Powell 

By  E.  E.  Barker,  W.  R.  Powell,  and  Audrey 

M.  Taylor  ..... 

By  W.  R.  Powell.  Parish  Government  and 

Poor  Relief  by  D.  M.  M.  Shorrocks 
By  Audrey  M.  Taylor        .... 
By  Audrey  M.  Taylor.   Parish  Government 

and  Poor  Relief  by  J.  H.  Holmes 
By  Audrey  M.  Taylor.   Parish  Government 

and  Poor  Relief  by  J.  H.  Holmes 

By  W.  R.  Powell.  Architectural  Descriptions 

from  information  supphed  by  the  Ministry 

of  Housing  and  Local  Government   . 

By  Audrey  M.  Taylor.    Parish  Government 

and  Poor  Rehef  by  D.  M.  M.  Shorrocks  . 

By  E.  E.  Barker,  W.  R.  Powell,  and  Audrey 

M.  Taylor    ..... 
By  W.  R.  Powell       .... 
By  W.  R.  Powell       .... 
By  W.  R.  Powell       . 
By  W.  R.  Powell.    Parish  Government  and 

Poor  Relief  by  D.  M.  M.  Shorrocks.         .     i88 
By  W.  R.  Powell.    Parish  Government  and 
Poor  Relief  by  D.  M.  M.  Shorrocks         .     197 










ES.  IV 



Shelley   . 
Stanford  Rivers 

Stapleford  Abbots 
Staple  ford  Tawney 

Stondon  Massey 

Theydon  Bois 

Theydon  Garnon  ..... 
Theydon  Mount  ..... 
North  "Weald  Bassett         .... 

Analysis  of  Some  Medieval  Tax  Assessments: 
Ongar  Hundred  ..... 

Analysis  of  Hearth   Tax    Assessments    for 
Ongar  Hundred,  1662,  1670,  and  1674  . 

Analysis  of  Bishop  Compton's  Census  of  1676: 
Ongar  Hundred  ..... 


By  Audrey  M.  Taylor        .... 

By  W.  R.  Powell.  Parish  Government  and 
Poor  Relief  by  J.  H.  Holmes    . 

By  Audrey  M.  Taylor        .... 

By  Audrey  M.  Taylor.  Parish  Government 
and  Poor  Relief  by  D.  M.  M.  Shorrocks     . 

By  E.  E.  Barker,  W.  R.  Powell,  and  Audrey 
M.  Taylor.  Architectural  Descriptions  by 
J.  H.  Farrer  and  Cynthia  E.  Booth. 
Parish  Government  and  Poor  Relief  by 
D.  M.  M.  Shorrocks     .         .         .         . 

By  A.  A.  DiBBEN 

By  A.  A.  DiBBEN 

ByA.  A.  Dibben         .         .         .         . 

By  W.  R.  Powell. 

Parish  Government  and 

Poor  Relief  by  D.  M.  M.  Shorrocks , 

By  M.  W.  Beresford  .         .         . 

By  K.  H.  Burley         ... 

By  K.  H.  Burley       ... 
ByW.  R.Powell       .         .         .         , 









The  three  maps  are  based  on  the  Ordnance  Survey,  and  like  the  illustration  of  painted  glass  facing  page  185 
are  published  with  the  sanction  of  the  Controller  of  H.M.  Stationery  Office,  Crown  Copyright  reserved. 
Additional  information  for  the  map  facing  p.  1 10  was  supplied  by  the  ChigweU  Urban  District  Council. 
The  drawings  of  Fyfield  Hall  and  Lampetts  are  by  Miss  Cynthia  Booth,  based  on  a  survey  made  by  the 
National  Buildings  Record  in  1954.  Thanks  for  the  loan  of  photographs  and  other  pictures  are  due  to  Mrs.  C. 
Blaxall  (Kelvedon  Hatch  Old  Church),  the  Cement  and  Concrete  Association  (Bank  of  England  Printing 
Works),  Mr.  D.  A.  J.  Buxton  (Town  Hall,  Chipping  Ongar),  the  Minister  and  Deacons  of  White  Roding 
Congregational  Church  (Abbess  Roding  Congregational  Church),  and  the  Minister  and  Deacons  of  Chipping 
Ongar  Congregational  Church  (Stanford  Rivers  Congregational  Church);  and  to  the  National  Buildings 
Record  and  the  Essex  Record  Office  for  the  loan  of  several  photographic  and  other  prints.  The  portrait 
facing  p.  280  is  reproduced  by  courtesy  of  the  Mayor  and  Corporation  of  Saffron  Walden.  The  block  for 
the  illustration  of  Lucton  Secondary  Modem  School  was  lent  by  the  Essex  Education  Committee.  Unless 
otherwise  stated,  all  photographs  were  taken  in  1955  by  Mrs.  Margaret  Tomlinson. 

Air  View  of  Chipping  Ongar,  6  June  195 1      . frontispiece 

Map  of  the  Hundred  of  Ongar,  drawn  by  Cynthia  Booth page       3 

Arms  of  ChigweU  Urban  District,  granted  195 1 „        18 

Buckhurst  Hill.  Air  View  from  the  west,  4  June  1952 facing 

ChigweU  Village  ............. 

Barns  at  Rookwood  Hall,  Abbess  Roding.  Photograph  by  G.  N.  Kent,  1940      .         .       „ 
Dews  Hall,  Lambourne,  refronted  c.  1740,  demolished  c.  1840.  Drawn  by  J.  P.  Neale 

and  included  in  his  Fietcs  of  the  Seats  of  Noblemen  and  Gentlemen  in  England . . .  (2nd 

Ser.),  Vol.  i  (1824) 

Luxborough  House,  ChigweU,  rebuilt  1716-20,  demolished  c.  1800.  Dravm  by  Metz. 

From  a  print,  published  in  1783  by  Harrison  &  Co.,  in  the  Essex  Record  Office  „ 

Fyfield  Hall,  sections  and  plan '.         .         .         . 

Lampetts,  Fyfield,  sections  and  plan • 

Fyfield  Church /»"».? 

Bomb  Damage  at  Navestock  Church.  Photograph  by  G.  N.  Kent,  1940    .         .         .       „ 
Fyfield  Church:  chancel  in  1834.  Drawn  by  A.  Suckling  and  published  in  his  Memorials 

of  the  ...  Architecture  of  Essex  {l%if<;,) » 

Lambourne  Church  in  1825.  Drawn  by  J.  P.  Neale.  From  a  print,  published  1825,  in  the 

Essex  Record  Office  .......■•••>> 

Greenstead  Church  in  1748.  From  Fetusta  Monumenta  (Sec.  Antiq.),  Vol.  ii  (1789)  .       » 

Kelvedon  Hall,  built  f.  1743.  Photograph  from  Co»»/ry  Z:»/^  1941 

Lambourne  Place,  formerly  the  Rectory,  built  f.  1740 

Map  of  Loughton,  drawn  by  Cynthia  Booth  and  Margaret  Tomlinson       ...         .       „ 

Loughton  Street  Plan,  drawn  by  Cynthia  Booth > 

Mid-20th-century  Buildings  at  Debden. 

Roman  Catholic  Church  of  St.  Thomas  More,  opened  1953 

Bank  of  England  Printing  Works  (Architects,  Easton  &  Robertson;  Consulting  En- 
gineers, Ove  Arup  &  Partners).   Interior  of  main  printing  haU  under  construction, 


Nonconformist  Churches. 

Abbess  Roding  Congregational  Church,  buUt  1729,  demolished  c.  1900.  From  an  oil 
painting       ....••••••••"" 

Stanford  Rivers  Congregational  Church,  built  1820,  burnt  1927.  From  a  photograph  of 

1927 •         •         ■         •   -  " 

Buckhurst  HiU:  Palmerston  Road  Congregational  Church,  buUt  1874    .         .         .       „ 

Loughton:  Methodist  Church,  built  1903 " 

Former  village  school  at  Greenstead,  built  f.  1846 ' 

County  Primary  School,  High  Ongar,  built  1 867  .         •         •         •        _•         •       " 











Loughton  County  High  School  for  Girls,  built  1908 facing  page  127 

Lucton  Secondary  Modem  School,  Debden,  built  1950 „  „  127 

Navestock  Hall,  built  early  1 8th  century,  demolished  1 8 1 1 .  Drawn  by  J.  Chapman.  From 

J  ...  History  of  Essex  6y  a  Gentleman, 'Wol.  in  {ij-ji) »»  »  136 

The  former  Rectory,  Stondon  Massey,  built  early  17th  century,  demolished  c.  1800. 

Drawn  by  'C.H.'  From  The  Gentleman's  Magazine,  Ixxv  (i),  facing  p.  105  (1805).       „  „  136 

Wynter's  Armourie,  Magdalen  Laver,  containing  part  of  a  14th-century  aisled  hall      .       „  „  137 

Black  Bailor  Guildhall  Cottage,  Moreton,  probably  a  Guildhall  off.  1473  .         .         .       „  »  I37 

Former  Steam  Mill,  Navestock „  „  156 

Town  Hall,  Chipping  Ongar,  demolished  1896-7.  Photograph  off.  1890  .  .  .  „  »  156 
Castle  House  and  the  Moatof  Ongar  Castle  in  1832.  From  Thomas  Wright's  ffij/ffry  of 

...  Essex,  ii,  ■^■^0 „  „  157 

Greenstead  Hall  in  the  later  1 8th  century.  From  A  New  Display  of  the  Beauties  of  England 

(3rd  ed.).  Vol.  i  (1776) ,,  „  157 

High  Ongar  Church:  i2th-centuryTympanum.  Photographby  G.N.Kent,  1942         .       „  „  184 

Litde  Laver  Church:  12th-century  Font  Bowl ,  „  184 

Painted  Glass  in  High  Ongar  Church:  Arms  of  Jane  Seymour.   From  Hist.  Men.  Com. 

£wf;ir,  Vol.  ii  (1924),  plate  facing  p.  xixvii »  »  185 

Shelley  Hall,  Mural  Painting  of  f.  1590.  From  .E.^.T  (1913)  n.s.  xii,  26.         .         •       „  „  185 

Beauchamp  Roding  Church  .............  202 

Magdalen  Laver  Church       .............  202 

Toot  HiU  Windmill,  Stanford  Rivers.  Shattered  by  lightning  1829.  Print  as  sold  for  the 

benefit  of  the  miller           .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .       „  „  210 

Old  Loughton  Hall,  burnt  1836.  Fromanearly-igth-century  water-colour, £..1^.7.(1903) 

N.s.  viii,  345 ,,  ,,  226 

Albyns,  Stapleford  Abbots  (derelict  in  1955).   From  an  estate  map  of  1654,  E.R.O. 

D/DC27/1121 „  >,  226 

The  River  Roding  and  Passingford  Mill  from  Passingford  Bridge „  ,,232 

Loughton:  Trees  in  Epping  Forest  showing  the  effects  of  lopping       .         .         .         •       »  »  232 

Cutlers  Forge,  Stapleford  Tawney          .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .       „  „  233 

Stanford  Rivers:  Tent  and  Tarpaulin  Factory,  formerly  the  Ongar  Union  Workhouse  .  „  „  233 
Post-Reformation  Churches. 

Kelvedon  Hatch  Old  Church,  built  1750-3.  Photograph  byConstanceBlaxall,f.  1942      „  „  270 

Theydon  Bois,  built  1850          ............  270 

Theydon  Mount,  built  161 1-14 „  »  270 

The  Church  and  Priest's  House,  Theydon  Garnon.  DrawTiand  published  by  W.  Franklin 

in  1818.  From  a  print  in  the  Essex  Record  Office.         ......„„  271 

Stondon  Massey  Church  in  1833.  Drawn  by  A.  Suckling,  and  published  in  his  Memorials 

of  the  ...  Architecture  of  Essex  (\%\')^         ........„„  271 

Portrait  of  Sir  Thomas  Smyth  (151 3-77).  By  an  unknown  artist.  The  original,  which  is 

in  Saffron  Walden  Town  Hall,  was  presented  to  the  corporation  by  Sir  Charles  Smyth 

in  1771  and  is  presumed  to  have  been  copied  about  that  time  from  an  earlier  work     .       „  „  280 

Hill  Hall.  East  front,  reconstructed  f.  1 7 14.  Photograph  from  Coa»/ry  Z,//f,  1908  .  „  ,,281 
Hill  Hall.  The  Great  Hall  before  20th-century  alterations.  Photograph  from  Country 

Life,  1908 „  »  281 

Semi-detached  Houses  at  Theydon  Bois,  built  f.  1900       ......„„  286 

Post-1945  Housing  Estate  at  North  Weald »  »  286 



The  first  volume  of  the  Victoria  History  of  Essex  was  published  in  1903 
and  the  second  in  1 907.  A  little  work  on  other  volumes  was  put  in  hand  in 
1907  and  1909,  but  nothing  came  of  it,  and  it  was  not  until  1950  that  any 
desire  to  add  to  the  Essex  volumes  in  the  series  openly  displayed  itself. 
In  that  year,  however,  two  conferences  of  the  Local  Authorities  in  Essex, 
specially  convened,  resolved  to  raise  a  local  fund  so  that  work  on  the  history 
of  their  county  might  be  resumed.  The  three  County  Boroughs,  and  most 
of  the  Municipal  Boroughs,  Urban  Districts,  and  Rural  Districts  agreed  to 
contribute  in  proportion  to  their  populations,  and  the  money  thus  found 
was  used  to  meet  the  local  editorial  expenses.  The  Essex  County  Council 
extended  some  useful  practical  help.  A  'Victoria  History  of  the  County  of 
Essex  Committee'  was  set  up  in  1951  to  ensure  a  proper  use  of  the  money, 
and  appointed  a  local  editor  (Mr.  W.  R.  Powell)  and  assistant  editor  (Miss 
Audrey  M.  Taylor).  It  has  met  ever  since  under  the  chairmanship  of  Sir 
John  Ruggles-Brise,  Bt.,  and  besides  a  few  co-opted  individuals,  consists 
of  representatives  of  the  participating  Local  Authorities  and  the  learned 
societies  in  Essex.  Mr.  J.  G.  O'Leary,  Public  Librarian  of  Dagenham,  who 
had  cheerfully  shouldered  the  burden  of  appealing  for  financial  support, 
undertook  the  duties  of  secretary.  With  this  Committee  the  University  of 
London  agreed  to  collaborate,  and  so  was  formed  another  of  those  partner- 
ships for  the  promotion  of  local  historiography,  the  prototype  of  which  is 
described  in  the  editorial  note  prefixed  to  the  seventh  volume  of  The 
Victoria  History  of  Wiltshire.  The  University  of  London  will  ever  grate- 
fully recall  the  local  generosity  which  made  this  partnership  possible,  and 
the  Essex  Authorities  the  opportunity  thus  afforded  them  of  bringing  out 
in  instalments  a  modern  history  of  their  county. 

The  present  volume  presents  some  special  features.  Thanks  to  the  exten- 
sive system  of  topographical  indexing  adopted  in  the  Essex  Record  Office 
it  has  been  possible  to  exploit  the  large  accumulations  of  historical  material 
in  that  Office  in  systematic  fashion.  This  has  enabled  contributors  to  pre- 
pare fuller  accounts  of  parish  government,  the  administration  of  poor 
reUef,  and  the  maintenance  of  roads  and  bridges  than  have  as  yet  appeared 
in  the  series,  while  the  history  of  the  descent  of  land  since  the  17th  century 
has  been  enriched,  as  perhaps  never  before,  by  the  use  of  private  estate  • 
documents.  Secondly,  the  publication  by  the  County  Council  of  Essex 
Parish  Records  1240-1894  so  recently  as  1950  suggested  that  the  brief 
descriptions  of  the  earlier  parochial  registers  of  each  parish,  commonly 
included  in  the  topographical  volumes  of  the  History,  might  be  dispensed 
with  here.  Thirdly,  in  1921  the  Royal  Commission  on  Historical  Monu- 
ments published  the  second  volume  of  its  report  upon  the  buildings  of  the 
county  earlier  than  171 4.  The  existence  of  this  volume  rendered  com- 
parable treatment  of  the  buildings  in  Ongar  hundred  superfluous,  but  the 



ground  had  to  be  traversed  anew  in  pursuit  of  later  buildings  falling  outside 
the  Commission's  purview.  In  the  course  of  this  inquiry  it  was  found  pos- 
sible to  correct  or  amplify  some  statements  appearing  in  the  Commission's 
reports,  particularly  in  the  light  of  recent  research  on  medieval  timber- 
framed  structures.  In  later  volumes,  however,  it  is  probable  that  a  less- 
detailed  treatment  of  the  buildings  will  be  found  advisable,  especially  in 
areas  that  are  richer  in  architectural  interest  than  this  one.  Similarly,  other 
features  may  be  modified  where  this  can  be  done  without  rendering  them 
less  scholarly. 

The  compilers  have  received  help  from  many  people  living  in  Essex  or 
connected  with  the  county.  The  Essex  Education  Committee,  the  County 
Planning  Department,  and  Chigwell  Urban  District  Council  permitted 
access  to  certain  records  and  answered  questions.  The  Eastern  and  North 
Thames  Gas  Boards,  the  Eastern  Electricity  Board,  and  the  London 
Co-operative  Society  also  supplied  much  information.  The  records  of  the 
Wanstead  and  Woodford  Methodist  Circuit  were  examined  by  permission 
of  the  Revd.  J.  R.  S.  Hutchinson.  Information  from  the  records  of  the 
Essex  Congregational  Union  was  communicated  by  Mr.  J.  S.  Appleby. 
The  Ministry  of  Housing  and  Local  Government  allowed  the  use  of  their 
unpublished  lists  of  buildings  of  architectural  or  historical  interest.  Certain 
architectural  descriptions,  notably  those  of  medieval  houses,  owe  much  to 
the  Royal  Commission  on  Historical  Monuments,  and  in  the  parish  of 
Fyfield  special  surveys  were  made  on  request  by  the  National  Buildings 
Record.  Many  local-  residents,  whose  kindness  is  acknowledged  in  footnotes, 
gave  information  or  permitted  the  inspection  of  their  houses.  The  galley 
proof  of  each  parish  article  was  read  by  at  least  one  person,  usually  the  in- 
cumbent, living  or  working  in  the  parish,  and  many  valuable  suggestions 
resulted.  The  County  Archivist  (Mr.  F.  G.  Emmison)  and  his  staff  per- 
formed special  services  at  all  stages,  Mr.  Emmison  himself  reading  many  of 
the  articles  in  draft  or  in  proof.  Mr.  D.  W.  Hutchings  of  Ongar  carried  out 
field  surveys  for  all  parishes,  gave  much  information,  supplied  references 
from  periodicals,  and  read  the  whole  volume  in  proof. 

R.  B.  PUGH 






Col.  Sir  Francis  Whitmore,  Bt.,  k.c.b.,  c.m.c,  d.s.o.,  Her  Majesty's  Lieutenant 


Sir  John  Ruggles-Brise,  Bt.,  o.b.e.. 

T.D.,  D.L. 

Representatives  of  the  following  Local  Authorities* 

County  Boroughs: 

East  Ham                  West  Ham                Southend-on-Sea 

Municipal  Boroughs: 


Chelmsford            Chingford 



Harwich                Ilford 



Romford                Walthamstow 
Urban  Districts: 

Wanstead  and  Woodford 


Braintree  and  Hocking         Brentwood 


Canvey  Isknd 

Chigwell                              Clacton 


Frinton  and  Walton 

Halstead                               Harlow 



Thurrock                             Waltham  H 

oly  Cross           West  Mersea 



Lexden  and  Winstree 

Rural  Districts: 

Epping  and  Ongar 



Representatives  of  the  following  Societies 

Barking  and  District  Archaeological  Society 
Brentwood  and  District  Historical  Society 
Chingford  Antiquarian  Society 
Essex  Archaeological  Society 
Essex  Field  Club 

Roman  Essex  Society 

Southend-on-Sea  and  District  Antiquarian  and  Historical  Society 

Waltham  Abbey  Historical  Society 

Walthamstow  Antiquarian  Society 

Woodford  and  District  Historical  Society 

W.  Addison,  Esq.")" 
Councillor  H.  A.  BRiDCEf 
Alderman  A.  L.  Clarke 
Alderman  L.  DANsiEf  (resigned  1954) 
F.  G.  Emmison,  EsQ.f 

Co-opted  Members 

M.  Fitch,  EsQ.f  (from  1954) 

M.  R.  Hull,  EsQ-f 

K.  J.  Lace,  Esq. 

E.  O.  Reed,  Esq. 

G.  O.  Rickword,  Esq. 

F.  W.  Steer,  EsQ.f  (resigned  1953) 

•  The  following  Local  Authorities,  not  being  regular  subscribers,  have  made  donations:  the  Municipal  Borough  of  Saffron 
Waldon;  the  Urban  District  of  Basildon.  t  Members  of  Editorial  Committee. 



Editorial  Committee 
Alderman  D.  Thorogood  (Chairman)         Professor  H.  C.  Darby,  o.b.e. 
Professor  F.  J.  Fisher  Canon  J.  L.  Fisher 

E,  R.  Gamester,  Esq.  (from  1954)  Mrs.  G.  A.  Ward 

together  with  the  persons  marked  with  a  dagger 

County  Secretary:  J.  G.  O'Leary,  EsQ.f 

Treasurer:  C.  H.  Chown,  EsQ.f  (resigned  1955)     Alderman  D.  L.  FoRBEsf  (from  1955) 

General  Editor:  R.  B.  Pugh,  EsQ.f 

Essex  Editor:  W.  R.  Powell,  EsQ.f 
t  Members  of  Editorial  Committee 






Ci  Proceedings,  Early 

Cz  Proceedings,  Series  I 

G3  Proceedings,  Series  II 

C5  Proceedings,  Six  Clerks'  Series,  Bridges 

C6  „             „           „           Collins 

C8  „            „          „          Mitford 

Cio  „            „          „          Whit- 


C21  Depositions,  Country,  Eliz.  I — Chas.  I 

C47  Miscellanea 

C54  Close  Rolls 

C60  Fine  Rolls 

C66  Patent  Rolls 

C78  Decree  Rolls 

C99  Forest  Proceedings 

C132  Inquisitions  post  mortem.  Series  I: 

Henry  III 

C133  Edw.  I 

C135  Edw.  Ill 

C136  Ric.  II 

C137  Hen.  IV 

C138  Hen.  V 

C139  Hen.  VI 

G140  Edw.  IV 

C141  Ric.  Ill 

C142  Inquisitions  post  mortem.  Series  II 

C143  Inquisitions  ad  quod  damnum 

C145  Miscellaneous  Inquisitions 

C146  Ancient  Deeds,  Series  C 

Court  of  Common  Pleas 

CP2  5(i)  Feet  of  Fines,  Series  I 

CP25(2)  „          „          „           II 

CP40  Plea  Rolls 

CP43  Recovery  Rolls 

Exchequer,  Treasury  of  the  Receipt 

E32  Forest  Proceedings 

E40  Ancient  Deeds,  Series  A 

Exchequer,  Queen's  Remembrancer 

E 1 3  3  Barons'  Depositions 

E134  Depositions  by  Commission 

E137  Estreats 

E150  Inquisitions  post  mortem.  Series  II 

E164  Miscellaneous  Books,  Series  I 

E179  Subsidy  Rolls,  &c. 

E210  Ancient  Deeds,  Series  D 

Exchequer,  Augmentation  Office 

E301  Certificate  of  Chantries  and  Colleges 

E3 1 5  Miscellaneous  Books 

E3  2 1  Proceedings  of  Court  of  Augmentation 

E326         Ancient  Deeds,  Series  B 

Exchequer,  First  Fruits  and  Tenths 

E331  Bishops'    Certificates   of  Institution   to 


Exchequer,  Lord  Treasurer's  Remembrancer 
E  372        Pipe  Rolls 

Home  Office 

HO67       Acreage  Returns 
HO107      Census  Returns 

Duchy  of  Lancaster 

DL25        Ancient  Deeds,  Series  L 
DL30        Court  Rolls 

Justices  Itinerant 

JIi  Assize  Rolls,  Eyre  Rolls,  &c. 

Special  Collections 
SC2  Court  Rolls 

State  Paper  Office 

SP12  State  Papers  Domestic,  Eliz.  I. 


Sr44  »»  '»  " 

Court  of  Wards  and  Liveries 
Wards  5     Feodaries'  Surveys 

Court  of  Star  Chamber 

St.  Ch.  8    Proceedings,  Jas.  I. 

Court  of  Requests 

Req.  2       Proceedings 

Chas.  I. 
Entry  Books 




Court  of  Quarter  Sessions 
Q/SR         Sessions  Rolls 
Q/SB         Sessions  Bundles 
Q/SO         Sessions  Order  Books 
Q/AB         County  Bridges 
Q/AC        Committees 
Q/RDc       Inclosure  Awards 
Q/RRp      Returns  of  Papists'  Estates 
Q/RRw      Returns  of  Nonconformists'  and  Roman 

Catholics'  places  of  worship 
Q/RTh      Hearth  Tax  Assessments 
<2/RPl        Land  Tax  Assessments 
Q/RPr       Registers  of  Parliamentary  Electors 
Q/RUm     Public  Undertakings:  plans  of  schemes 
Q/RSg       Deputations  to  Gamekeepers 
<2/RSw      Workhouse  Agreements 
Q/RLv       Recognizances   of  Licensed   Victuallers 

and  Alehouse-keepers 
Q/CP        Clerkof  the  Peace:  Precedents 

Q/CR        Clerk  of  the  Peace:  Parliamentary  Re- 

County  Council  Transferred  Records 

G/EM       Poor  Law  Guardians,    Epping    Union: 

Minute  Books 


Poor   Law   Guardians,   Ongar   Union: 

Minute  Books 

eposited  Records 


Estate  and  Family  Archives  (many  sub- 



Archdeaconry  of  Essex  Records 


Diocesan    Records:    Tithe    Apportion- 

ments and  Maps 


Parish  Records 


Charity  Records 


Turnpike  Records 


T/  (Document  or  collection  indicated  by 

addition  of  another  letter) 

Some  of  the  foregoing  classes  contain  sub-classes  which  are  denoted  by  additional  letters,  not  shown  here  but 
fully  cited  in  footnotes  in  this  volume.  The  group  called  'Transcripts'  includes  all  forms  of  copies  or  catalogues 
of  documents  of  which  the  originals  are  elsewhere.  The  wills  proved  in  the  court  of  the  Archdeacon  of  Essex 
(D/AE),  cited  in  this  volume  as  'Archd.  Essex',  were  transferred  from  Somerset  House,  London,  to  the  Essex 
Record  Office  while  this  volume  was  being  printed. 




Among  the  abbreviations  and  short  titles  used  the  following  may  require  elucidation: 
Essex  Archaeological  Society 

CA.  Belh  Essex 
Ch.  Plate  Essex 


Essex  Par.  Recs. 
Feet  ofF.  Essex 

Hist.  Essex  by  Gent. 
Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex 

Morant,  Essex 
Newcourt,  Repert. 

PJi.  Essex  (E.P.N.S.) 

Essex  Record  Office 

C.  Deedes  and  H.  B.  Walters,  Tie  Church  Bells  of  Essex  (1909) 

G.  M.  Benton,  F.  W.  Galpin,  and  W.  J.  Pressey,  The  Church  Plate  of 

Essex  (1926) 
The  Transactions  of  the  Essex  Archaeological  Society 
The  Essex  Review 

Essex  Parish  Records,  ed.  E.  J.  Erith  (1950) 
Feet  of  Fines  for  Essex  (E.A.S.,  issued  in  parts:  Vol.  i,  1899-1910;  Vol.  ii, 

1913-28;  Vol.  iii,  1929-49;  Vol.  iv,  pt.  I,  1947) 
A  New  and  Complete  History  of  Essex  by  a  Gentleman  (6  vols.  1769-72) 
Royal  Commission  on  Historical  Monuments  (England):  An  Inventory  of 

the  Historical  Monuments  in  Essex  (4  vols.  1916-23) 
P.  Morant,  The  History  and  Antiquities  of  Essex  (2  vols.  1768) 
R.  Newcourt,  Repertorium  Ecclesiasticum  Parochiale  Londinense  (2  vols. 

P.  H.  Reaney,  The  Place  Names  of  Essex  (English  Place  Name  Society,  xii, 




THE  hundred  of  Ongar,  lying  in  the  south-west  of  the  county  is 
roughly  oval  in  shape  and  about  17  miles  long.  Although  only  10 
miles  from  London  at  the  nearest  point  and  27  miles  at  the  farthest  it 
is  still  mainly  rural.  The  River  Roding  flows  south-west  through  the 
hundred.  In  the  summer  it  is  usually  no  more  than  a  narrow  stream  but  is  some- 
times severely  swollen  in  winter,  and  the  repair  of  its  many  bridges  was  a  serious 
problem  down  to  the  19th  century.  In  the  Roding  valley  the  land  is  never 
more  than  200  ft.  above  sea-level.  Elsewhere  it  is  usually  under  300  ft.  and 
there  are  few  hills. 

The  south-west  corner  of  the  hundred  is  largely  urbanized,  for  here  is 
Chigwell  Urban  District,  which  includes  the  towns  of  Loughton  (with  Debden), 
Buckhurst  Hill,  and  Hainault,  and  now  has  a  population  of  about  56,000. 
Even  here,  however,  the  forests  of  Epping  and  Hainault  and  the  old  houses  and 
cottages  of  Chigwell  recall  a  simpler  society.  Farther  north  and  east  there  is 
gently  undulating  country  with  high  hedges,  meadows,  ploughed  fields, 
streams,  and  spinneys  as  far  as  Chipping  Ongar.  The  soil  of  this  south-western 
half  of  the  hundred  is  mainly  London  Clay,  with  some  areas  of  Boulder  Clay 
and  some  patches  of  glacial  sand  or  gravel.'  It  is  a  land  of  mixed  farming,  with 
many  dairy  herds  and  sheep. 

Chipping  Ongar,  which  gave  its  name  to  the  hundred  and  was  for  long  the 
principal  place  in  it,  was  an  ancient  market-town  and  contained  a. Norman 
castle.  Though  very  small  it  still  has  some  local  importance  as  the  administra- 
tive centre  of  the  Ongar  Rural  District.  North  of  it  the  landscape  changes. 
There  are  low  hedges,  few  trees  or  meadows,  and  the  roads  are  narrow.  The 
soil  is  almost  entirely  Boulder  Clay.  It  is  good  corn  land  and  cattle  are  com- 
paratively rare.  The  end  of  the  hundred  is  reached  at  Beauchamp  Roding  and 
Abbess  Roding,  which  are  as  remote  and  isolated  as  any  part  of  Essex. 

Nucleated  villages  are  unusual  but  there  are  many  hamlets  and  scattered 
farms.  The  older  farm  buildings  are  timber-framed  and  either  plastered  or 
weather-boarded.  They  are  often  enclosed  by  moats,  especially  in  the  north. 
Brick  houses  of  the  i8th  century  and  later  are  fairly  common.  Few  are  older, 
but  among  them  is  Hill  Hall  (in  Theydon  Mount),  a  16th-century  mansion 
noted  for  its  early  use  of  renaissance  detail.  In  and  after  the  1 6th  century  the 
south-western  part  of  the  hundred  was  a  fashionable  residential  area  for  wealthy  ' 
landowners  and  a  number  of  large  houses  were  built  there.  In  the  1 8th  century 
and  later  landscape  gardeners  transformed  the  surroundings  of  some  of  these  - 
houses.  In  most  parishes  the  church  stands  on  an  isolated  site  beside  the  princi- 
pal manor  house,  and  is  usually  a  small  flint  building  with  a  short,  shingled 
spire.  But  by  far  the  best-known  church,  the  Saxon  church  at  Greenstead,  is 
not  of  flint  at  all,  but  has  walls  of  timber. 

■  For  the  geology  of  the  area  see  F.C.H.  Essex,  i,  I  (map),  which  still  represents  the  latest  information 
available  cartographically. 


In  1086  the  west  of  the  hundred — Loughton,  Chigwell,  the  Theydons,  and 
North  Weald — and  the  area  around  Chipping  Ongar  were  thickly  wooded.^ 
By  the  end  of  the  1 6th  century  the  only  large  areas  of  woodland  remaining 
were  Epping  and  Hainault  forests.  Most  of  Hainault  Forest  was  destroyed 
about  i860  but  Epping  Forest  was  preserved  after  a  notable  controversy. 
Hardly  any  evidence  has  been  found  of  open-field  arable  cultivation  in  the 
hundred.  Commons  survive  in  several  parishes.  In  others  they  were  inclosed 
in  the  i8th  or  19th  centuries  but  in  most  they  had  been  inclosed  before  1700. 
Apart  from  the  forest  inclosures  the  landscape  of  the  hundred  probably  changed 
little  between  the  Conquest  and  the  middle  of  the  19th  century.  Building 
development  started  in  the  south-west  about  i860,  when  the  railway  from 
London  was  extended  to  Loughton,  Epping,  and  Ongar,  and  continued  slowly 
until  1939.  Since  1945  the  London  County  Council  has  built  two  large 
housing  estates,  at  Debden  and  Hainault. 

Until  the  19th  century  most  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  hundred  were  engaged 
in  agriculture  and  its  ancillary  trades.  There  were  many  water-mills  along  the 
Roding  and  a  few  windmills  on  higher  ground.  Brickmaking  was  carried  on 
in  many  parishes  in  the  London  Clay  area  and  there  was  a  little  beer-brewing 
with  hops  grown  locally.  Agriculture  is  still  predominant  outside  the  towns. 
Brickmaking  continues  in  a  few  places  but  brewing  has  entirely  ceased.  There 
are  light  industries  in  Loughton  and  Buckhurst  Hill  but  the  towns  are  mainly 

Domesday  Book  lists  some  40  estates  under  Ongar  hundred. 3  Seven  other 
estates,  though  not  so  listed,  seem  clearly  in  this  hundred  in  1086.+  These  47 
estates  contained  103  hides  in  26  villages  distinguished  by  separate  names. 
Most  of  these  villages  later  gave  their  names  to  the  parishes  of  the  hundred,  but 
there  were  several  exceptions.  The  Domesday  Theydon  was  later  split  into  the 
three  parishes  of  Theydon  Bois,  Theydon  Garnon,  and  Theydon  Mount.  The 
Domesday  Laver  similarly  became  three  parishes  and  Stapleford  and  Ongar 
each  became  two  parishes.  The  Domesday  Rodinges,  to  which  three  Ongar 
hundred  and  thirteen  Dunmow  hundred  entries  relate,  was  eventually  divided 
into  eight  parishes,  two  of  which  were  in  Ongar  hundred.  In  contrast  to  these 
places  where  'the  fission  of  vills'  occurred  were  some  which  later  became  part 
of  parishes  larger  than  themselves:  Alderton  and  Debden,  which  were  separate 
Domesday  villages  were  later  included  in  the  parish  of  Loughton,  Woolston 
Was  merged  in  Chigwell  parish,  Passfield  in  High  Ongar,  and  Little  Stanford 
in  Stanford  Rivers.  The  case  of  Stanford  is  specially  interesting,  for  it  shows 
the  process  of  fission  starting  in  1086  but  later  reversed.  This  may  also  have 
happened  in  two  other  places:  there  are  separate  references  in  Domesday  to 
Fyfield  and  'the  other  Fyfield'  and  to  Navestock  and  'the  other  Navestock',  but 
there  was  no  later  fission  in  either  village.  One  place  which  later  became  a 
parish  in  this  hundred  is  not  specifically  mentioned  in  Domesday:  Stondon 
Massey  which  was  probably  included  in  an  entry  for  Margaret  Roding  (Dun- 
mow  hundred).  The  connexion  between  Stondon  Massey  and  Margaret 
Roding  was  subsequently  maintained  by  the  payment  of  tithes  from  Marks 
Hall  in  Margaret  Roding  to  the  Rector  of  Stondon.  A  tithe-rent  charge  is  still 

2  Cf.  F.C.H.  Essex,  {,375. 

5  Ibid.  ^2j—^j\.  passim.  Occasional  ambiguities  in  Domesday  Book  make  the  total  doubtful  to  within  two 
or  three.  4  y.C.H.  Essex,  i,  537^,  538a,  540<?,  554a. 


paid  by  the  owner  of  Marks  Hall  to  the  Rector  of  Stondon,  and  until  early  in 
the  19th  century  the  parishioners  of  Stondon  included  Marks  Hall  in  their 
annual  beating  of  the  parish  bounds.  Loughton,  which  in  1086  was  partly  in 
Becontree  hundred,  was  from  the  14th  century  or  earlier  wholly  in  that  of 

*   Marks  Hall  in  Margaret  Roding  has  always  paid  tithe  to  Stondorj  Massey 

Ongar.  North  Weald  Bassett  seems  to  have  been  partly  in  Harlow  half-hundred 
in  1086  and  continued  to  be  thus  divided  between  Harlow  and  Ongar.s  One 
very  small  place,  Plumtuna,  has  not  been  certainly  identified.^ 

The  13th-century  eyre  rolls  give  little  additional  information  about  the  com- 
position of  Ongar  hundred.  Stondon  Massey  is  mentioned  in  the  roll  for  1 226- 
7.7    In  the  same  year  a  tithing  of  Epping  was  listed  under  Ongar  hundred  ;8 

5  Ibid,  i,  397,  ii,  350. 
'  J.I.  1/229. 

Ibid,  i,  529. 

But  see  P.N.  Essex  (E.P.N.S.),  153. 


this  was  probably  part  of  Theydon  Garnon,  whose  boundary  in  later  times  ran 
through  the  middle  of  Epping  town.'  In  and  after  the  13  th  century  there  were 
usually  reckoned  to  be  26  parishes  in  the  hundred,  including  North  Weald  and 
Loughton.  Greenstead,  a  very  small  parish  adjoining  Chipping  Ongar,  was 
sometimes  omitted  from  official  lists.' 0  In  the  Middle  Ages  the  parishes  in 
Ongar  hundred  were  normally  identical  with  the  'vills'.  There  were  occasional 
exceptions:  in  the  taxation  assessment  of  1 320,  for  example  (see  below,  p.  300), 
Norton  Mandeville  was  included  in  High  Ongar.  The  same  assessment  and 
others  of  the  14th  century  listed  under  Ongar  hundred  the  hamlet  of  Roding 
Morrell,  which  was  situated  locally  in  White  Roding  parish  (Dunmow  hundred). 
For  the  purpose  of  these  assessments  Roding  Morrell  was  included  in  Abbess 
Roding,  but  there  was  never  any  permanent  and  parochial  connexion  between 
them.  The  inclusion  of  Roding  Morrell  in  Ongar  hundred  possibly  originated 
in  the  acquisition  of  the  tenancy  in  chief  of  the  manor  of  Roding  Morrell  by  the 
lords  of  Ongar  hundred." 

A  document  concerning  the  hundred  drawn  up  in  1543-6  and  based  on 
earlier  records  includes  a  list  of  'the  names  of  the  vills,  parishes  and  hamlets'  in 
the  hundred. 12  Marden  Ash  (in  High  Ongar)  and  Greenstead  appear  to  have 
been  grouped  with  Chipping  Ongar,  and  Ashlyns  (a  detached  part  of  High 
Ongar)  with  Bobbingworth.  Chivers  End  was  mentioned  as  a  hamlet  of  High 
Ongar:  it  was  probably  identical  with  the  Passfield  of  1086.  Barringtons  was 
mentioned  as  a  hamlet  of  Chigwell  and  Abridge  of  Lambourne.  There  was  an 
entry  for  Roding  Morrell  and  one  for  Westwood  (a  detached  part  of  High  Ongar), 
which  was  grouped  with  Chipping  Ongar.  Apart  from  the  above  all  the  places 
mentioned  were  parishes. 

Saxton's  Map  of  Essex,  1 5j6  shows  hundred  boundaries  and  the  location  of 
parish  churches.  It  correctly  places  the  26  churches  of  Ongar  hundred,  al- 
though the  hundred  boundary  is  inaccurately  drawn  in  relation  to  some  natural 
features,  for  example  in  the  south-west  corner,  at  Chigwell.  Morrell  Roding  is 
not  shown  as  belonging  to  the  hundred. '^  The  Map  of  Essex,  iSyS,  by  John 
Ogilby  and  William  Morgan,  has  a  more  accurate  delineation  of  the  hundred 
boundary.  That  of  Robert  Morden  and  Joseph  Pask,  about  1690,  shows 
Thornwood  (in  North  Weald)  as  in  Harlow  hundred.  That  of  Philip  Overton 
and  Thomas  Bowles,  1726,' also  shows  Hastingwood  (in  North  Weald)  as  in 
Harlow  hundred,  Berwick  Berners  (in  Abbess  Roding)  as  in  Dunmow  hundred, 
and  Roding  Morrell  as  a  detached  part  of  Ongar  hundred.'*  Chapman  and 
Andre's  Map  of  Essex,  lyjj  shows  the  hundred  boundaries  with  precision. 
C.  and  J.  Greenwood's  Map  of  Essex,  1824  is  the  first  to  give  parish  boundaries, 
but  the  delineation  of  these  is  often  inaccurate.  The  first  edition  of  the  Ordnance 
Survey  6  inch  Map  (published  1868-84)  indicates  parish  boundaries  precisely 
and  shows  the  detached  parts  of  several  parishes,  in  this  hundred  notably  High 
Ongar,  Magdalen  Laver,  and  North  Weald.  The  origin  of  such  detachments, 
where  it  can  be  explained,  lies  in  the  manorial  and  church  history  of  the 
parishes  concerned. 's 

The  census  reports  of  1 801-41  give  Roding  Morrell  as  a  separate  hamlet  of 

'  See  Theydon  Garnon.  Epping  parish  was  in  Waltham  half-hundred. 
'"  e.g.  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  204-6.  "  Morant,  Essex,  ii,  471. 

'2  E.R.O.,  D/DRg  1/197,  and  see  further  below. 

'3  Copies  of  this  and  the  other  maps  mentioned  below  are  all  in  the  Essex  Record  Office. 
'*  For  Berwick  Berners  see  also  Morant,  Essex,  i,  138.  '5  See  especially  High  Ongar,  Church. 



Ongar  hundred.  Those  of  1811-41  note  that  Thornwood  and  Hastingwood 
were  in  Harlow  hundred  and  those  of  1 821-41  show  Berwick  Berners  as  in 
Dunmow  hundred.'^  The  1851  census,  though  not  arranged  by  hundreds, 
states  that  the  hamlet  of  Birds  Green  was  partly  in  Beauchamp  Roding  and 
partly  in  Willingale  Doe  (Dunmow  hundred).  In  the  late  i8th  and  early  19th 
centuries  Birds  Green  was  for  some  purposes  certainly  reckoned  as  part  of 
Dunmow  hundred,  though  no  evidence  has  been  found  that  this  was  so  at  any 
earlier  date. 

The  lordship  of  Ongar  hundred  was  given  by  Henry  II  to  Richard  de  Lucy." 
It  descended  along  with  the  manor  of  Chipping  Ongar  (q.v.)  to  the  Rivers 
family  and  subsequently  to  the  Staffords,  earls  of  Stafford,  and  later  dukes  of 
Buckingham.  At  various  times  in  the  14th  and  1 5th  centuries  the  hundred  was 
in  the  king's  hands  for  short  periods  owing  to  the  minority  or  forfeiture  of  its 
owners.18  It  was  finally  forfeited  to  the  Crown  along  with  the  manor  of  Chip- 
ping Ongar  in  152 1.  In  that  year  Henry  VIII  appointed  his  yeoman  Robert 
Stoner  as  bailiff  and  'wardstaff'  of  the  hundred,' «  and  in  1543  the  hundred  was 
granted  for  life  to  John  Stoner,  serjeant-at-arms.20  In  1547  it  was  granted  to 
Richard  Rich  on  his  creation  as  a  baron.^'  It  descended  along  with  Paslow 
Hall  in  High  Ongar  (q.v.)  until  the  death  in  1673  of  Charles  Rich,  Earl  of 
Warwick.  In  the  subsequent  partition  of  the  earl's  estates  the  hundred  was 
allotted  to  Henry  St.  John,  who  in  1689  granted  it  to  Philip  and  Rowland 
Traherne."  In  1694  the  Trahernes  conveyed  it  to  Sir  Eliab  Harvey  of 
Barringtons  in  Chigwell  (q.v.)  and  it  subsequently  descended  along  with 
Barringtons.  Vice-Admiral  Sir  Eliab  Harvey  was  lord  of  the  hundred  in  1 8 14.^2 

The  original  meeting-place  of  the  hundred  is  not  definitely  known.  The  site 
of  Ongar  castle  and  Toot  Hill  in  Stanford  Rivers  have  both  been  suggested. ^^ 
In  and  after  the  1 5th  century  Ongar  hundred  was  closely  associated  with 
Harlow  half-hundred,  whose  lordship  had  also  been  acquired  by  the  Staffords.^s 
From  the  late  i6th  century  Ongar  and  Harlow  were  grouped  with  Waltham 
half-hundred,  the  common  meeting-place  being  at  Waltham  Holy  Cross.26 
These  Waltham  meetings,  however,  were  probably  for  business  other  than  that 
anciently  associated  with  the  hundred.  It  is  not  known  whether  separate  meet- 
ings for  Ongar  hundred  alone  were  held  in  the  1 7th  century. 

On  a  quo  warranto  inquiry  in  1277  John  de  Rivers,  lord  of  the  hundred, 
claimed  no  return  of  writs  within  the  hundred  except  the  withdrawal  from  the 
sheriff  of  the  King's  debts  and  the  execution  of  the  other  orders  of  the  king 
therein."  As  to  pleas  of  withernam  he  said  that  the  hundred  had  been  grante  d 
by  Henry  II  to  his  ancestor  Richard  de  Lucy  and  that  Richard  and  his  descen- 
dants had  had  those  pleas.  The  Crown  advocate  rejoined  that  in  Henry  II's 
time  there  were  no  such  pleas  and  that  in  any  case  they  were  not  mentioned  in 
Richard  de  Lucy's  charter. 

'*  But  in  and  after  1 83 1  the  population  was  enumerated  in  Abbess  Roding  as  part  of  Ongar  hundred 

'7  Plac.  Quo  Warranto  (Rec.  Com.),  232;  Rot.  Hundr.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  I53- 

'8  e.g.  Cal.  Fine  R.  1413-22,  362;  Cal.  Pat.  \ifil-ll,  561. 

'9  L.  y  P.  Hen.  Fill,  iii  (2),  p.  973. 

20  L.  y  P.  Hen.  Fill,  xviii  (i),  p.  193.  According  to  the  1 543  grant  Stoner  was  to  be  bailiff  and  wardstaff 
of  the  hundred,  not  its  lord,  but  the  1 547  grant  to  Rich,  quoting  that  of  1 543,  states  that  the  hundred  had  been 
granted  to  Stoner  for  life.  "  C"'-  P"'-  '  547-8,  i  lo-i  i. 

"  E.^.T.  N.s.  ix,  402;  E.R.O.,  D/DCw  T26.  "  E.  Ogborne,  Htst.  Essex,  236. 

^  E.A.T.  N.s.  xviii,  192.  ^5  Morant,  Essex,  ii,  482;  E.R.O.,  D/DP  M570,  585,  588,  595. 

2*  Norden,  Description  of  Essex,  1 594  (Camd.  Soc),  12;  E.R.O.  Guide,  i,  3- 

"  Plac.  Quo  Warranto  (Rec.  Com.),  232. 


On  the  same  occasion  Rivers  also  claimed  view  of  frankpledge.  This  was  not 
opposed  but  in  fact  before  1 277  this  jurisdiction  had  in  some  cases  already  been 
alienated  to  the  lords  of  individual  manors.  It  was  stated  in  1 274-5  that  the 
lords  of  Fyfield,  Stapleford  Tawney,  Woolston  (in  Chigwell),  Stapleford 
Abbots,  Loughton,  Navestock,  Beauchamp  Roding,  and  Theydon  (Mount.?) 
possessed  view  of  frankpledge  and  the  assize  of  bread  and  ale,  that  the  lord 
of  Woolston  also  had  gallows  and  the  lord  of  North  Weald  Bassett  had  all 

In  the  document  of  1 543-6,  already  mentioned,  the  lord  of  the  hundred 
held  no  courts  leet  in  any  of  these  places  nor  in  Chipping  Ongar,  Greenstead, 
Stanford  Rivers,  Abbess  Roding,  and  Shelley.  At  four  other  places,  Norton 
Mandeville,  Roding  Morrell,  High  Laver,  and  Navestock,  courts  leet  were  said 
to  be  held  by  the  lords  of  the  manor  but  the  common  fine  was  customarily  paid 
by  them  to  the  lord  of  the  hundred.  During  the  Middle  Ages  the  manors  of 
Chipping  Ongar  and  Stanford  Rivers  (q.v.)  were  held  in  demesne  by  the  lords 
of  the  hundred  and  there  was  thus  no  need  to  include  them  in  the  list  of  leets. 
At  Greenstead,  which  was  also  omitted  from  the  list,  the  lords  of  the  hundred 
were  tenants  in  chief  of  the  manor.^'  Courts  leet  for  the  manor  of  Abbess 
Roding  (q.v.)  were  certainly  being  held  in  the  1 5th  century.  But  it  is  clear 
that  the  document  of  1 543-6,  so  far  as  it  relates  to  courts  leet,  does  not  describe 
16th-century  practice,  for  it  omits  many  manorial  leets  that  are  known  to  have 
existed  in  the  14th  and  15th  centuries. 

At  High  Ongar  (q.v.)  courts  leet  were  being  held  for  the  manor  of  Paslow 
Hall  at  least  as  early  as  1271,  and  for  that  of  Newarks  Norton  in  1487.  At 
Abbess  Roding,  in  addition  to  the  leet  of  the  capital  manor,  there  was  one  for 
Berwick  Berners  manor  in  and  after  1382.  At  Kelvedon  Hatch  (q.v.)  there 
was  a  court  leet  from  1390. 

The  manuscript  of  1 543-6  quoted  above  was  probably  drawn  up  for  John 
Stoner  when  he  acquired  the  hundred  and  revised  somewhat  during  the  next 
three  years.^o  It  includes  the  text  of  the  grant  of  the  hundred  to  Stoner,  and 
states  that  the  customs  and  duties  it  records  were  observed  in  the  time  of  Edward 
III  and  Robert  Bruce,  King  of  Scots,  and  long  before  'when  the  Saxons 
inhabited  this  realm'.  In  support  of  this  statement  it  refers  to  ancient  records 
made  by  Humphrey  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Hertford  [sic]  and  Essex,  Constable  of 
England,  and  'lord  of  the  said  liberties  and  hundreds'  dated  at  Pleshey,  10  July 
II  Edward  III  (1337)  and  to  other  records  'written  in  the  Saxon  tongue'. 
These  records  have  not  been  traced.  Humphrey  de  Bohun  (d.  1361)  is  not 
known  to  have  held  the  hundred  of  Ongar,  but  his  successor  and  namesake 
Humphrey  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford  and  Essex  (d.  1373)  held  the  hundred 
of  Harlow,  which  later  came  into  the  possession  of  the  earls  of  Stafford,  the  lords 
of  Ongar  hundred.  The  document  of  1 543-6  was  probably  prepared  so  that 
Stoner  might  exact  his  legal  dues  as  lord  of  the  hundred.  All  tenants'  names  in 
it  were  up  to  date  but  the  section  relating  to  the  courts  leet  and  some  others 
described  below  certainly  did  not  represent  16th-century  practice;  an  anti- 
quarian interest  may  have  led  to  their  inclusion.    Probably  much  of  the  docu- 

28  Ro/.  Hundr.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  1 53.  For  North  Weald  see  also  Cat.  Anct.  D.  i,  A.  755. 

^'  But  Roding  Morrell,  which  was  included  in  the  list,  was  also  held  in  chief  by  the  lords  of  the  hundred. 

30  E.R.O.,  D/DRg  1/197.  The  MS.  was  formerly  in  the  Round  collection  at  Birch  Hall,  Colchester.  It  was 
calendared  in  Hist.  MSS.  Com.  J4th  Rep.  Apf.  ft.  IX,  p.  5,  and  was  also  described  and  partly  printed  by  W.  C. 
Waller,  E.A.T.  n.s.  ix,  212-19. 


ment  was  indeed   based   on  early- 14th-century   records   and   described   the 
customs  of  that  period. 

The  document  lists  the  names  and  tenements  of  all  those  owing  suit  at  the 
three  weeken  court  or  other  courts  of  the  hundred,  and  the  names  and  tene- 
ments of  those  liable  by  reason  of  tenure  to  maintain  prisons  and  pounds.  It 
also  lists  the  vills  which  by  custom  came  to  the  sheriff's  tourn,  in  each  case  with 
the  reeve,  the  copyhold  tenants  from  which  the  four  suitors  at  the  tourn  were 
chosen,  and  the  free  suitors  at  the  tourn.  These  places  are  identical  with  those 
in  which,  according  to  the  document,  courts  leet  were  held  by  the  lord  of  the 
hundred,  or  from  which  he  received  the  common  fine,  except  that  Abbess 
Roding  and  Beauchamp  Roding  occur  only  in  the  tourn  list. 

The  document  describes  at  length  the  annual  ceremony  of  the  wardstaff  of 
the  hundred. 31  This  started  on  the  Sunday  before  Hock  Monday,  when  the 
hundred  bailiff  cut  a  willow  wand  from  Abbess  Roding  Wood:  this  was  the 
wardstaff,  which  gave  its  name  to  the  bailiff's  alternative  title.  The  staff  was 
conveyed  from  the  wood  to  Rookwood  Hall,  where  it  was  placed  in  the  hall. 
There  it  remained  while  the  bailiff  refreshed  himself.  It  was  then  taken  'by 
sun  shining'  to  Wardhatch  Lane  near  Longbarns  (in  Beauchamp  Roding)  and 
was  there  met  by  the  lord  of  Rookwood  Hall  with  all  tenants  of  the  Abbess 
Roding  'Watch',  whose  duty  it  was  to  guard  the  staff.  The  lord  of  Rookwood 
Hall  had  also  prepared  'a  great  rope  called  a  barr'  which  he  now  caused  to  be 
stretched  across  the  lane  to  stop  passers-by.  The  wardstaff  was  laid  beside  the 
rope  while  the  bailiff  called  the  roll  of  the  watch,  and  charged  them  'to  watch 
and  keep  the  ward  in  due  silence  so  that  the  king  be  harmless  and  the  country 
scapeless'.  The  watch  lasted  until  sunrise  next  day,  when  the  lord  of  Rook- 
wood Hall  took  up  the  wardstaff  and  made  a  notch  in  it,  signifying  that  he  and 
his  men  had  performed  their  duty  for  the  year.  Finally  he  handed  the  staff  to 
the  bailiff  to  be  taken  to  the  lord  of  the  manor  of  Fyfield,  delivering  as  he  did 
so  'the  tale  of  the  wardstaff',  a  narrative  in  Middle  English  verse  relating  how 
his  watch  had  carried  out  its  duty.^^  The  staff  was  then  presented  to  the  lord  of 
Fyfield  Hall,  who  examined  the  notch  made  in  it  by  the  lord  of  Rookwood 
and  then  went  through  a  ceremony  similar  to  that  at  Abbess  Roding.  The 
Fyfield  Watch,  which  was  kept  at  the  'Three  Wants'  in  Fyfield,  was  followed  on 
successive  days  by  seven  other  watches  at  different  places  in  the  hundred,  pro- 
ceeding in  a  clockwise  direction. 

Elsewhere  in  the  same  document  there  are  details  of  the  number  of  men  in 
each  watch,  and  the  names  and  tenements  of  those  who  were  bound  to  provide 
the  men.  The  smallest  watches  were  those  of  Abbess  Roding  (3  men)  and 
Theydon  Garnon  (5),  the  largest  Magdalen  Laver  (19)  and  Chigwell  (14). 
Those  who  furnished  the  men  for  the  watches  had  to  pay  %d.  a  man,  probably 
for  food.   The  lord  of  Lambourne  Hall  also  provided  straw  for  his  watch.33 

There  is  a  reference  to  the  wardstaff  of  Harlow  hundred  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  IID+  but  the  earliest  contemporary  reference  that  has  been  found  to  the 
wardstaff  of  Ongar  was  in  1 33  i,  when  Robert  William  of  Havering,  who  had 
been  outlawed  for  felony,  was  said  to  have  held  land  in  Lambourne  for  which 

3'  This  part  has  been  printed:  Salmon,  Hist.  Essex,  68-70;  Morant,  Essex,  i,  126-7. 

32  Although  the  narrative  appears  to  be  basically  in  Middle  English  it  is  not  entirely  homogeneous  and  there 
are  some  later  word  forms. 

33  For  the  watches  and  their  services  see  E.A.T.  n.s.  ix,  216-19. 
3+  Morant,  Essex,  i,  127  n. 


he  paid  is.  a  year  to  the  bailiff  of  the  hundred  for  sheriff's  aid,  did  suit  at  the 
three  weeken  court,  and  paid  2{J.  a  year  for  the  wardstaff.  He  had  to  find  two 
men  to  watch  the  wardstaff  for  a  night  and  to  pay  /\.J.  a  year  for  this,  and  also 
had  to  provide  a  pound  for  distraints  taken  in  the  hundred  for  debts  owed  to 
the  king  and  a  prison  to  guard  prisoners  taken  in  the  hundred  for  a  day  and  a 
night.35  It  seems  unlikely  that  a  wardstaff  ceremony  was  still  observed  in  the 
1 6th  century,  but  references  to  the  wardstaff  occur  in  records  as  late  as  the 
reign  of  James  I.^^ 

35  Ca/.  Inf.  Misc.  ii,  p.  286.  3*  Morant,  Essex,  i,  127  n. 



Bobbingworth,  commonly  called  Bovinger,  is  a 
parish  immediately  to  the  north-west  of  Chipping 
Ongar.'  The  middle  element  in  the  name  of  the  parish 
suggests  early  Saxon  settlement.^  Bobbingworth  now 
has  an  area  of  2,595  acres. ^  It  was  formerly  1,642  acres 
but  was  increased  in  1946  by  the  incorporation  of  the 
detached  part  of  High  Ongar  lying  immediately  to  the 
west  of  Bobbingworth  and  of  the  detached  part  of 
Moreton  (^  acre)  lying  to  the  north-east  of  Ashlyns  (see 
below).*  In  1801  the  population  was  216. s  By  1841 
it  had  grown  to  357;  then  it  declined  to  270  in  1901.* 
In  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century  it  was  a  httle  above 
300  until  the  incorporation  of  the  detached  part  of  High 
Ongar  brought  it  to  483  in  1951.' 

The  land  rises  from  about  150  ft.  above  sea-level  in 
the  east  and  200  ft.  in  the  north  to  3  30  ft.  in  the  extreme 
south-west.  A  stream  flowing  into  the  Cripsey  Brook 
forms  part  of  the  northern  boundary.  Reynkyns  Wood 
lies  on  the  western  boundary.  The  road  from  Chipping 
Ongar  to  Epping  enters  the  parish  by  Ackingford  Bridge 
over  the  Cripsey  Brook  and  runs  north-west.  About 
200  yds.  from  Ackingford  Bridge  Pensons  Lane,  for- 
merly called  Finings  or  Pinions  Lane,  runs  south-west- 
ward to  Greenstead.  Nearly  J  mile  farther  along  on  the 
north  side  of  the  Ongar-Epping  road  lies  Waterend 
Farm,  a  building  probably  of  the  17th  century  but  with 
additions  on  three  sides  of  late  1 8th-century  or  early 
I  gth-century  date.  Bilsdens*  is  J  mile  west  of  Waterend, 
to  the  south  of  the  road.  About  i  mile  from  the  bridge 
the  main  road  is  joined  by  Blake  Hall  Lane  which  leads 
north  to  the  village  of  Bobbingworth.  Blake  Hall' 
stands  in  a  park  to  the  east  of  the  lane.  The  rectory'"  is 
near  the  north  entrance  to  the  park.  About  100  yds. 
farther  north  a  small  gate  leads  to  a  thatched  and 
weather-boarded  tithe  barn  of  the  17th  or  1 8th  century. 
At  this  point  the  lane  branches,  one  branch,  known  as 
Gainthorps  Road,  running  northwards  towards  More- 
ton,  and  the  other,  known  as  Church  Road,  running 
westwards  past  the  church  and  school."  The  church  is 
on  the  south  side  of  Church  Road  immediately  to  the 
west  of  Gainthorps  Road.  A  short  lane  divides  the 
church  from  the  school  on  the  west  and  leads  south  to 
Bobbingworth  Hall.'^  On  the  south-east  side  of  the 
churchyard  is  an  incomplete  moat,  suggesting  the  pre- 
sence of  an  earlier  manor  house. 

On  the  east  side  of  Gainthorps  Road,  some  400  yds. 
from  the  church,  stands  Gainthorps  Cottage,  a  timber- 
framed  house  recently  converted  from  two  tenements; 
it  dates  from  the  i6th  or  early  17th  century.  A  little 
farther  along  this  road  are  four  pairs  of  council  houses. 
Opposite  these  houses  a  lane  leads  westward  to  New- 
house,  a  timber-framed  farm-house,  of  the  i6th  or  early 
17th  century,  built  on  a  half-H  plan.  The  wings  origin- 
ally projected  to  the  north  with  a  small  staircase  block 
in  the  angle  of  the  east  wing."  There  are  two  pairs  of 
council  houses  on  the  lane  leading  to  Newhouse  Farm. 

Hobban's  Farm  is  J  mile  west  of  the  church,  to  the 
north  of  Church  Road.  It  is  an  18th-century  house, 
similar  in  appearance  to  Bobbingworth  Hall.  Opposite 
Hobbans,  Church  Road  is  joined  by  a  road  running 
south  to  Lower  Bobbingworth  Green  and  Greenstead. 
At  the  Green  is  Sayers  Farm,  a  square  red  brick  house 
apparently  rebuilt  in  the  middle  of  the  19th  century. 
At  Notts  Corner,  about  300  yds.  west  of  Hobban's 
Farm,  Church  Road  is  joined  by  a  road  which  runs 
north  to  Padler's  End  and  by  Mill  Road  which  runs 
south  from  Notts  Corner  to  meet  the  Epping-Ongar 
road  at  the  hamlet  of  Bovinger  Mill.  Here  the  single- 
story  brick  and  roughcast  buildings,  including  the  pre- 
sent post-ofBce,  standing  to  the  north  of  the  site  of  the 
old  mill,  formed  the  mill-house  and  an  adjoining 

About  J  mile  north  of  Notts  Corner  on  the  east  side 
of  the  road  to  Padler's  End  stands  Muggin's  Farm,  an 
18th-century  house.  About  J  mile  farther  north  a  lane 
leads  west  to  Bobbingworth  Lodge,  a  farm-house  of  the 
17th  century,  much  altered  about  1920.  A  fine  brick 
chimney-stack  with  six  octagonal  shafts  was  damaged 
by  blast  in  1944  and  later  rebuilt  to  its  original  design. 

Five  pairs  of  council  houses  stand  on  the  east  side  of 
Moreton  Bridge  Road,  in  the  north-east  corner  of  the 
parish,  near  Moreton  Bridge.  Ashlyns  is  in  the  north- 
west, and  Cold  Harbour  in  the  south-west,  of  the  pre- 
sent parish  of  Bobbingworth.''  Wardens  Farm,  to  the 
south  of  Bovinger  Mill,  is  timber-framed  and  weather- 
boarded  and  probably  dates  from  the  second  half  of  the 
1 7th  century.  It  is  built  on  a  half-H  shaped  plan  with 
wings  projecting  to  the  north-west.  The  front  was 
faced  with  brickwork  in  the  i8th  century.  Ashlyns, 
Cold  Harbour,  and  Wardens  were  all  in  High  Ongar 
parish  until  1946. 

References  in  the  sessions  rolls  to  communications  in 
Bobbingworth  chiefly  relate  to  Ackingford  Bridge.'* 

In  1582  and  in  1600  Finings  Lane,  from  Ackingford 
Bridge  to  Greenstead  Green,  was  said  to  be  in  decay, 
the  parish  of  Bobbingworth  being  responsible  for  its  up- 
keep." In  161 8  it  was  said  that  Bobbingworth  and 
Shelley  shared  the  responsibility  for  the  highway  lead- 
ing from  Ongar  via  Shelley  Bridge  to  Moreton.''  This 
road  evidently  then,  as  now,  lay  partly  in  Bobbing- 
worth, partly  in  Shelley,  and  partly  on  the  boundary 
between  these  two  parishes. 

The  London-Ongar  railway,  which  was  opened  in 
1865,  runs  across  the  south  of  Bobbingworth."  Blake 
Hall  station  on  this  line  is  situated  about  i  mile  south 
of  Lower  Bobbingworth  Green  in  the  parish  of  Stanford 

Postal  facilities  were  extended  to  Bobbingworth 
when  a  receiving  office  was  set  up  at  Moreton  in  1 846.^" 
it  had  its  own  sub-post-office  in  1874.^'  According  to 
the  county  directories  letters  came  through  the  Ongar 

'  O.S.  2\  in.  Map,  sheet  52/50. 

^  Chief  Elements  in  Eng.  Place-Names 
(E.P.N.S.  i  (2)),  42. 

2  Inf.  from  Essex  County  Council, 

*  Census  Retns.  1931;  County  of  Essex 
{Rural  Parishes)  Confirm.  Order  l')46. 

5  V.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  350. 

<•  Ibid. 

7  Census  Retns.  1 9 1 1  f.  j  Inf.  from  Essex 

County  Council. 

8  See  below,  Manor  of  Bilsdens. 

»  See  below,  Manor  of  Blake  Hall. 

'0  See  below,  Church. 

' '  See  below,  Schools. 

'2  See  below,  Manor  of  Bobbingworth. 

'3  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  22. 

•♦  Inf.  from  Mrs.  Burling  at  1 1  Bovinger 
Mill,  opposite  site  of  old  mill. 

"  For  Ashlyns  see  High  Ongar. 
"  See  Chipping  Ongar,  p.  157. 
"  E.R.O.,  e/SR  8o/5«,  149/43. 
■8  E.R.O.,  (2/SBa  1/32. 
"  See  Chipping  Ongar,  p.  158. 
2"  P.M.G.    Mins.     1846,    vol. 

87,    p. 

"  Ibid.  1874,  vol.  132,  min.  4759. 

ES.  IV 


Water  was  supplied  in  the  village  by  the  Herts,  and 
Essex  Waterworks  Co.  in  1899.^^  Two  of  the  four 
pairs  of  council  houses  in  Gainthorps  Road  have  a 
sewerage  system.*-'  There  is  no  supply  of  gas,*-*  but 
electricity  was  laid  on  in  195 1  .^s  There  is  a  small  parish 
room,  and  a  large  army  hut  at  Blake  Hall  can  be  used 
for  meetings.**  A  branch  of  the  county  library  was 
opened  in  February  1939."  The  football  and  cricket 
clubs  have  their  own  grounds.*' 

Bobbingworth  has  always  been  a  rural  parish  devoted 
almost  exclusively  to  agriculture.  The  large  landowners 
were  all  resident  in  the  parish  from  the  last  quarter  of 
the  1 6th  century  until  the  beginning  of  the  1 8th  cen- 
tury.*" It  is  not  clear  whether  the  owners  of  Blake  Hall 
were  resident  in  the  parish  during  the  first  quarter  of 
the  1 8th  century.  By  1735  the  lord  of  the  manor, 
Richard  Clarke,  lived  at  the  manor  house  but  did  not 
farm  the  estate.'"  He  let  Blake  Hall  manor  farm  to 
Robert  Crabb  and  Bilsdens  farm  to  Samuel  Corney.3' 
These  two  farms  continued  to  be  let  until  after  Capel 
Cure  purchased  the  estate  in  1789."  After  John  Poole 
sold  the  manor  of  Bobbingworth  to  Charles  Houblon  in 
1708,  the  owners  of  Bobbingworth  Hall  were  generally 
not  resident  in  the  parish  until  J.  A.  Houblon  sold  the 
estate  to  Capel  Cure  in  1834.33 

In  1840  the  parish  consisted  of  1,628  acres-S-*  Capel 
Cure  of  Blake  Hall  owned  1,058  acres  of  which  he 
farmed  nearly  700  acres  himself.35  He  let  Water  End 
Farm  (297  acres)  to  Jonathan  Lewis,  and  Hobban's 
Farm  (61  acres)  to  G.  Pavitt.3*  This  Capel  Cure,  son  of 
the  purchaser  of  Blake  Hall,  was  a  conscientious  farmer 
and  landlord.  After  his  father's  death  in  18 16  he 
kept  a  notebook  recording  his  farming  activities 
and  the  entries  show  him  to  have  been  energetic  and 
methodical.37  He  toured  his  estate  personally  and 
carefully  noted  down  the  area  of  the  individual  farms, 
their  state  of  cultivation,  the  condition  of  the  buildings, 
the  repairs  which  he  had  ordered,  and  the  industry  of 
the  tenant  farmers.3  8  He  put  a  new  tenant  into  Bilsdens 
in  1827,  some  three  years  after  he  had  observed  that  this 
farm  was  'shamefully  mismanaged'.''  But  he  was  kind 
and  encouraging  to  industrious  tenants.  On  a  rent  day 
in  1828  he  gave  a  rebate  of  j^io  to  one  tenant  'who  is 
an  industrious  man,  with  a  large  family'.-*"  At  the  end 
of  his  estate  notebook  Capel  Cure  copied  a  well-known 
passage  from  Sydney  Smith:  'there  are  so  many  tempta- 
tions in  the  life  of  a  country  gentleman  to  complete 
idleness,  so  many  examples  of  it,  and  so  much  loss  to 
the  community  from  it,  that  every  exception  to  the 
practice  is  deserving  of  great  praise' .■♦'  Capel  Cure 
himself  was  certainly  one  of  the  exceptions. 

In  1840  there  were  only  two  other  substantial 
owners  in  the  parish;  J.  Stacey  owned  Perrils  Farm 
(89  acres)  and  Sayers  Farm  (112  acres),  both  of  which 
he  farmed  himself,  and  G.  Thistlewood  owned,  but 

"  Inf.  from  Herts.  Sc  Essex  Waterworks 

"  Inf.  from  Canon  E.  H.  Gallop,  Rector 
of  Bobbingworth. 

M  Ibid. 

"  Inf.  from  Ea»t.  Elec.  Bd. 

"  Inf.  from  Canon  Gallop. 
,    "  Inf.  from  County  Librarian. 

*'  Inf.  from  Canon  Gallop. 

">  See  below.  Manors  of  Bobbingworth, 
Blake  Hall,  Bilsdens. 

»  E.R.O.,  D/DCcTi/3. 

>■  Ibid.;  D/P  127/8. 

»  E.R.O.,  e/RPl  685-700. 

"  See  below,  Manor  of  Bobbingworth. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  38. 

35   Ibid.  36   Ibid. 

3'  E.R.O.,  D/DCc  E6. 

38  Ibid.  3«  Ibid. 

«  Ibid.  41  Ibid. 

«  E.R.O.,  D/CT  38. 

«3  Ibid. 

■M  E.R.O.,  D/DCc  E6. 

•»5  ff'Aile's  Dir.  Essex  (1848),  414. 

<'  E.R.  xl,  163.    Photograph  at  E.R.O. 

«'  Ibid. 

■"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (i()iz,  J914). 

*''  Inf.  from  Mrs.  Burling. 

5°  H'hite's  Dir.  Essex  (1848),  414. 

5'  E.R.O.,  D/DCc  E6.  The  evidence 
suggests  that  J.  Lewis  may  have  been 
Cure's  estate  manager.    He  also  acted  as 

did  not  occupy,  Newhouse  Farm  (i  ig  acres).**  There 
was  only  one  other  farm  of  over  40  acres.-" 

Then,  as  now,  there  was  mixed  farming  in  Bobbing- 
worth. A  three-course  rotation  of  crops  was  generally 
followed,  wheat,  barley,  and  either  beans  or  clover 
being  the  usual  crops.** 

In  1 848  there  were  in  the  parish  a  cornmiller,  who 
was  also  a  baker,  and  a  land  surveyor.*^  The  windmill 
was  a  wooden  post-mill,  turned  by  hand,  with  a  brick 
'round  house'  below.**  It  probably  dated  from  the 
1 8th  century  and  the  post,  which  was  inscribed  '1640', 
may  have  been  an  earlier  one  reused.*'  The  mill  be- 
came disused  between  191 2  and  1914.*'  The  upper 
part  of  it  was  blown  down  in  1923;*'  the  round  house 
stood  for  some  time  afterwards. 

The  land  surveyor  mentioned  in  1 848  was  Jonathan 
Lewis. 50  It  was  probably  the  same  Jonathan  Lewis 
who  drew  up  some  of  the  local  tithe  maps  at  this 
period  and  who  did  much  surveying  and  other  work 
for  Capel  Cure  on  the  Blake  Hall  estate.^' 

This  estate,  totalling  some  3,800  acres  in  Bobbing- 
worth and  other  parishes,^*  must  have  employed  a  con- 
siderable amount  of  domestic  as  well  as  agricultural 
labour  in  the  middle  of  the  19th  century. 

In  1066  BOBBINGWORTH  was  held  by  2  free- 
men as  I  hide  and  30  acres  and  was  worth 
MANORS  40^.53  In  1086  it  was  held  of  Ranulf 
brother  of  Ilger  by  Richard  and  was  worth 
60J.S*  In  the  early  13th  century  it  seems  to  have  been 
held  in  chief  by  Hamon  de  Hamon  ap- 
parently left  as  his  heir  Serlo  de  Marcy,  lord  of  Stondon 
Massey  (q.v.),  who  was  dead  by  1 244.5*  In  that  year 
Serlo's  sisters  and  heirs,  Alice  wife  of  John  de  Merk 
and  Agnes  wife  of  Nicholas  Spigurnel  agreed  to  divide 
between  them  the  tenements  in  Bobbingworth  and  else- 
where which  Denise,  widow  of  Hamon,  and  Agnes, 
widow  of  Serlo,  then  held  in  dower. s'  Afterwards  it 
was  evidently  agreed  that  the  Spigurnels  should  hold 
the  Bobbingworth  tenements  of  the  Merks,  forin  13 11- 
12  William  son  and  heir  of  Ralph  de  Merk  granted  the 
overlordship  of  these  tenements  to  Humphrey,  Earl  of 
Hereford  and  Essex  (d.  1322)  who  in  1 3 1 2-1 3  granted 
it  in  fee  tail  to  his  youngest  son  William  de  Bohun, 
later  Earl  of  Northampton. ss  In  1328  the  manor  of 
Bobbingworth  was  held  of  William  by  the  service  of 
\  knight's  fee. 5'  He  died  in  1360  and  was  succeeded 
by  his  son  Humphrey,  later  Earl  of  Hereford  and  of 
Essex.*"  After  Humphrey's  death  in  1373  the  over- 
lordship passed  through  his  daughter  Eleanor  to  Anne 
wife  of  Edmund  Earl  of  March.*'  After  the  deaths  of 
Edmund  (1425)  and  Anne  (1432)  the  overlordship 
passed  to  Anne's  brother  Humphrey,  Duke  of  Bucking- 
ham (d.  1460).**  In  1475  the  manor  was  held  of 
Humphrey's  widow  Anne.*3  In  1485  and  1493  it  was 
held  of  Jasper,  Duke  of  Bedford  (d.  1495)  and  his 

overseer  of  the  parish  for  many  years  before 
1827  (see  below.  Parish  Government  and 
Poor  Relief). 

52  See  below,  Manor  of  Blake  Hall. 

53  V.C.H.  Essex,  i,  540,2. 
5«  Ibid. 

55  Feet  of  F,  Essex,  i,  148-q. 
ss  Ibid.  57  Ibid. 

58  DL25/1592,  1453. 

59  Cat.  Inq.  p.m.  vii,  p.  104. 
'"  Complete  Peerage,  vi,  472-3. 
*'  C 1 37/90;  Ci  ;i()l  1 2  ;  Complete  Peerage, 

vi,  474-5,  viii,  453.  Anne  was  grand- 
daughter of  Eleanor. 

<>^  Complete  Peerage,  ii,  388. 

"  C140/52. 




wife  Katherine  whose  first  husband  had  been  Henry 
Stafford,  Duke  of  Buckingham  (d.  I483).*'* 

Nicholas  Spigurnel  died  before  1 27 5 .*5  Sir  Edmund 
Spigurnel,  son  of  Nicholas,  died  in  1295-6  leaving  his 
widow  Clarice  to  hold  for  her  life  i  messuage,  i 
carucate  of  land,  and  50J.  rent  in  Bobbingworth.**  In 
1297  his  brother  and  heir  John  granted  the  reversion 
of  this  estate  after  the  death  of  Clarice  to  Henry 
Spigurnel,  probably  his  younger  brother,  and  to  the 
heirs  of  Henry.*^  In  1328  Henry  Spigurnel  died  in 
possession  of  this  estate,  which  was  then  described  as  a 
manor.*^  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Thomas  who 
in  1332  quitclaimed  all  his  rights  in  the  manor  to 
Robert  de  Hakeney,  citizen  of  London,  and  his  wife 
Katherine.*'  In  1361  Thomas  son  of  Robert  de 
Hakeney  granted  an  annuity  of  ^^lo  from  the  manor  to 
James  de  Lacy  and  his  heirs.'o  Thomas  de  Hakeney 
left  at  least  one  sister,  Katherine,  as  his  heirJ'  In  1 389 
Maud  de  Enfield,  who  was  perhaps  the  widow  of  John 
de  Enfield  and  perhaps  also  the  sister  of  Thomas  de 
Hakeney,  granted  the  reversion  of  the  manor,  then 
held  for  hfe  by  Joan  wife  of  Luke  Morell,  to  Ralph  de 
Tyle  and  his  wife  Alice,  daughter  of  John  de  Enfield, 
to  John  their  son  and  to  the  heirs  of  Alice.'^  In  1403 
Thomas  Horsman  and  his  wife  Margaret  and  John 
Abberbury  and  his  wife  Alice  granted  the  reversion  of 
the  manor,  after  the  death  of  Joan  Morell,  to  Sir  John 
Ashley  and  his  heirs.'s  The  conveyances  of  1389  and 
1403  led,  after  the  death  of  Joan  Morell,  to  a  contest 
for  possession  of  the  estate. 

Joan  Morell  died  on  t6  May  i409.7't  At  that  time 
Alice  and  Ralph  de  Tyle  and  their  son  John  were  dead 
and  the  next  of  kin  of  Alice  was  her  cousin  Thomas,  a 
minor,  son  of  her  father's  brother  Thomas  de  Enfield." 
On  22  May  1409  William  Wodeward  and  his  wife 
Agnes,  a  kinswoman  of  Thomas,  were  granted  custody 
of  the  manor.'*  Shortly  afterwards,  by  letters  patent 
which  apparently  were  antedated  to  20  May  1409  the 
custody  of  the  manor  was  given  to  Helming  Legat, 
who  was  closely  connected  with  Sir  John  Ashley,  and 
William  Loveney."  The  grant  to  the  Wodewards  was 
annulled  and  they  were  removed  from  possession  of 
the  estate.'*  They  then  proceeded  to  complain  by  peti- 
tion in  Parliament  and  in  June  1410  the  case  was 
examined  by  the  king's  council."  In  the  course  of  the 
hearing  Helming  Legat  stated  that  at  the  instance  of 
Sir  John  Ashley  he  had  released  all  his  claim  in  the 
estate  to  John  Habhale,  a  servant  of  Ashley.*"  At  the 
close  of  the  hearing  the  council  declared  that  the  grant 
to  Legat  and  Loveney  should  be  revoked  on  the 
ground  that  when  it  was  made  the  grantees  did  not 
fulfil  their  legal  obligation  of  revealing  other  gifts  which 
they  had  received  from  the  king.*'  At  the  same  time 
the  council  secured  an  acknowledgement  by  Loveney 

that  the  letters  patent  dated  20  May  were  sealed  after 
the  letters  dated  22  May.*^  In  accordance  with  the 
council's  judgement  the  Wodewards  were  restored  as 
custodians  of  the  estate  in  October  1410.*' 

It  is  not  clear  whether  Sir  John  Ashley  took  any 
further  steps  to  obtain  possession  of  the  manor  after  his 
attempt  in  1409.  An  inquisition  taken  in  14 12 
declared  that  Thomas  de  Enfield  was  the  heir  to  the 
estate  in  virtue  of  the  fine  of  1389.**  By  1420,  how- 
ever, a  lawsuit  was  begun  to  contest  Thomas's  claim. *5 
In  1420  William  Ashley,  brother  and  heir  of  Sir  John, 
came  to  an  agreement  with  Nicholas  Thorley  whereby 
Nicholas  was  to  pay  the  costs  of  the  action  and  a  further 
70  marks  to  William  in  return  for  which  William  was 
to  enfeoff  him  with  the  manor  or  with  half  of  it,  if  only 
half  was  recovered.**  It  is  not  clear  how  far  the  action 
was  pursued.  In  January  1424  an  inquisition  declared 
that  in  virtue  of  the  fine  of  1389  Thomas  de  Enfield, 
who  had  come  of  age  in  October  1423,  was  entitled  to 
the  estate.*'  In  March  1424  Thomas  conveyed  what 
he  described  as  'all  my  manor  of  Bobbingworth'  to  Sir 
Lewis  Robessart  and  others  who  granted  it  to  Nicholas 
Thorley.**  In  August  1424  William  Ashley  conveyed 
what  he  also  described  as  'my  manor  of  Bobbingworth' 
to  Nicholas  Thorley  and  the  heirs  of  Nicholas.*' 

In  1442  Sir  Nicholas  Thorley  died  leaving  as  his 
heir  Walter  Estoft,  son  of  his  sister  Katherine.'"  Alice, 
Countess  of  Oxford  and  widow  of  Nicholas,  ap- 
parendy  held  a  life  interest  in  the  manor  of  Bobbing- 
worth." In  1445  she  granted  this  life  interest  to  her 
son  John  de  Vere,  12th  Earl  of  Oxford,  and  to  Sir 
Reynold  West  and  Richard  Wentworth  who  im- 
mediately sold  it  to  Sir  Thomas  Tyrell.'^  At  the  same 
time  Sir  Thomas  purchased  the  reversion  from  Walter 
Estoft.'s  In  January  1464  Sir  Thomas  Tyrell  con- 
veyed the  manor  to  Sir  Peter  Arderne  and  others  who 
in  December  1466  granted  it  to  Walter  Wrytell.'* 
After  Walter's  death  in  1475  the  manor  of  Bobbing- 
worth followed  the  same  descent  as  that  of  High  Laver 
(q.v.)  until  1 5 10." 

In  1 5 10,  when  they  made  a  partition  of  the  rest  of 
their  inheritance,  James  and  Eleanor  Walsingham  and 
Edward  and  Gresilda  Waldegrave  agreed  that  they, 
and  the  heirs  of  Eleanor  and  Gresilda,  should  hold 
Bobbingworth  manor  in  common.'*  In  1575,  how- 
ever, the  owners  of  the  manor.  Sir  Thomas  Walsing- 
ham, grandson  of  James  and  Eleanor,  and  John 
Rochester  of  Terhng,  son  of  William,  son  of  Gresilda 
by  her  first  husband  John  Rochester,  made  a  physical 
division  of  it."  It  was  agreed  that  John  Rochester's 
share  of  the  estate  should  be  the  manor  house  which, 
with  its  appurtenant  6  acres,  was  then  in  the  occupa- 
tion of  John  Poole  who  was  a  freeholder  and  copyholder 
of  the  manor;  175  acres  of  demesne  land  of  which  117 

'♦  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  VIl,  i,  pp.  61-63, 
383;  Complete  Peerage,  ii,  73.  See  note 
under  High  Laver  manor. 

65  CH3/+/6. 

"  Feel  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  84;  C.  Moor,  Kts. 
of  Ed'w.  I,  iv  (Harl.  Soc.  Ixxxiii),  269. 

<>■>  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  8+;  C.  Moor,  Kts. 
of  Edtv.  I,  iv,  269. 

68   Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  vii,  p.  104.. 

*">  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T96/6. 

">  Cal.  Close,  1360-4,  258. 

'■  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T96/37. 

"  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  m,  211;  C 137/90. 

"  Feet  ofF.  Essex,  iii,  240.  Alice  Abber- 
bury may  formerly  have  been  Alice  dcTyle. 
Alternatively  she  and  Margaret  Horsman 
may    have    been    sisters    of   Thomas    de 

"  C137/90. 

75    Ibid. 

'6  Cal.  Pat.  1408-13,  231,  240;  Cal. 
Fine  R.  xiii,  148,  192-3. 

"  Cal.  Pat.  1408-13,  231,  240;  Cal. 
Fine  R.  xiii,  192-3. 

'8  Cal.  Pat.  1408-13,  231,  240;  Cal. 
Fine  R.  xiii,  192-3. 

79  Cases  Before  King's  Council  1243-1482 
(Selden  Soc.  xxxv),  9^-95  j  Cal.  Pat.  1408- 
13,  240;  Cal.  Fine  R.  xiii,  192-3. 

80  Cases  Before  King's  Council  1243-1482, 


8"  Ibid.  94.  "  Ibid. 

83  Cal.  Pat.  1408-13,  240;  Cal.  Fine  R. 
xiii,  192-3. 

*♦  Cl  37/90. 

85  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T96/28. 

8«  Ibid.  87  C139/13. 

88  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T96/33-35. 

89  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T96/31. 
9"  Complete  Peerage,  x,  236. 

9'  E.R.O.,     D/DB     T96/41-42;     CP 


92  Ibid. 

93  Cal.  Close,  1441-7,  392-3. 
9«  E.R.O.,  D/DBT96/51. 

95  C 1 42/2 1/2;  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  yil, 
i,  pp.  61-63,  383;  L.  Sf  P.  Hen.  Fill, 
i,  p.  103. 

96  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T96/69. 

97  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T98;  yisits.  of  Essex 
(Harl.  Soc),  97,  280. 

I  I 


acres  lay  together,  56  acres  which  were  in  the  occupa- 
tion of  four  copyholders  at  rents  totalling  £,z  1 3/.  a 
year;  and  the  rents,  amounting  to  {j.  19/.  i,d.  a  year, 
and  services  of  all  the  twelve  freeholders.'*  The  share 
of  Sir  Thomas  Walsingham  was  to  be  218  acres  of 
demesne  land  which  lay  in  two  parcels  of  122  acres 
and  71  acres  and  several  smaller  ones,  and  44  acres 
which  were  in  the  occupation  of  four  copyholders  at 
rents  totalling  C't  4^-  *  year." 

John  Rochester  was  dead  by  1584.'  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  second  son  Edward  who  in  1 586  sold  his 
half  of  Bobbingworth  manor  to  the  above  mentioned 
John  Poole.*  This  estate  afterwards  became  known  as 
the  manor  oi  BOBBINGWORTH  HALL.^ 

The  demesne  land  acquired  by  Sir  Thomas  Walsing- 
ham in  I  5  7  5  was  sold  by  his  son  Sir  Thomas  Walsingham 
in  1598  to  Robert  Bourne,  owner  of  Blake  Hall  (see 
below).*  The  greater  part,  if  not  all,  of  this  land  after- 
wards remained  as  a  permanent  part  of  Blake  Hall 
estate,  some  of  it  being  attached  to  the  manor  of  Blake 
Hall  and  some  of  it  to  the  manor  of  Bilsdens  (see 

John  Poole  died  in  1602  having  devised  Bobbing- 
worth Hall  to  his  son  John  with  the  stipulation  that 
his  widow  Lora  was  to  have  'her  dwelling  and  house 
room  in  the  new  parlour  belonging  to  Bobbingworth  hall 
and  the  two  upper  rooms  over  the  same  parlour'.*  John 
Poole  the  son,  a  London  alderman,  died  in  1633.'  His 
considerable  estate  consisted  largely  of  claims  on 
foreigners  and  these  had  to  be  recovered  before 
legacies  totalling  about  ;^lo,ooo  could  be  paid.*  He 
devised  the  manor  of  Bobbingworth  to  his  wife  Anne 
for  life  and  then  to  his  brother  Richard  after  whose 
death  John  son  of  Richard  was  to  inherit  the  estate.' 
Richard  Poole  died  in  about  1642."*  In  1674  John 
Poole,  son  of  Richard,  made  a  settlement  on  his  own 
son  John  when  the  latter  married  Mary  Powel."  By 
this  the  manorial  rights,  the  capital  messuage  with  its 
appurtenances,  and  93^  acres  passed  immediately  to 
John  the  son  who  was  also  to  receive  a  further  71  acres 
on  the  death  of  his  father.'*  The  elder  John  retained 
the  free  disposition  of  about  12  acres.''  Immediately 
after  the  settlement  he  leased  to  the  younger  John  39i 
acres  of  the  71  acres  in  which  he  retained  a  life  interest, 
at  a  rent  of  ^20  a  year.'*  The  elder  John  died  in  about 
1676."  The  younger  John  died  before  1701,  leaving 
his  widow  Mary  to  enjoy  a  life  interest  in  the  manorial 
royalties,  the  manor  house,  and  93^  acres  under  the 
terms  of  the  settlement  of  1674.'*  He  left  the  71  acres 
which  he  had  inherited  on  his  father's  death  to  his  son 
John  who  was  also  to  have  the  reversion  of  Mary's 
estate.'^    In  1701  John  Poole  mortgaged  his  rever- 

»«  E.R.O  ,  D/DB  T98.  w  Ibid. 

•  Ibid.  »  Ibid.  3  Ibid. 
4  CPz5(2)/.38/,7so. 
»  E.R.O.,  D/DCc  E6;  T/M  210,  213. 

Morant  stated  {Eisex,  i,  148)  that  the 
eatate  which  Walsingham  sold  to  Bourne 
in  1598  was  reattached  to  Bobbingworth 
Hall  by  the  Houblons  in  the  i8th  cent., 
but  surveys  of  c.  1725,  1804,  and  1820 
make  it  clear  that  at  least  160  acres  re- 
mained attached  to  Blake  Hall. 

«  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T98.  This  is  a  large 
group  of  documents. 

»  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T96/83. 

•  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T98. 
»  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T96/83. 

'»  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T98. 

■'  Ibid.  "  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

•*  Ibid.  »  Ibid.  '«  Ibid. 

"  Ibid.  "  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

sionary  interest  to  Charles  Houblon  for  ^^600.'*  In 
1704  he  sold  to  Houblon  for  ;^i,o8o  the  71  acres  he 
had  in  hand."  In  1708  Houblon  also  bought  the 
manor  house  and  the  lands  mortgaged  to  him  by  John 
Poole  in  1701,  Mary  Poole  selling  her  life  interest  for 
^^498   and  John   Poole  his  reversionary   interest   for 

The  estate  which  John  and  Mary  Poole  sold  to 
Houblon  in  1704-8  consisted  of  a  large  part  of  the 
estate  acquired  by  John  Rochester  in  1575.  Houblon 
also  bought  other  property  in  Bobbingworth.*'  He 
may  have  bought  a  small  part  of  the  lands  sold  by 
Walsingham  to  Bourne  in  1 598." 

Houblon  never  made  his  home  in  Bobbingworth.*' 
He  died  in  1 7 1 1  .**  From  this  time  the  manor  descended 
in  the  direct  male  line  of  the  Houblon  family  until 
1834.*'  From  1729,  when  Jacob  Houblon  took  up 
residence  at  Great  Hallingbury,  until  1834  the  owners 
of  Bobbingv/orth  manor  did  not  live  on  their  Bobbing- 
worth estate.**  In  1833  this  estate  consisted  of  6  acres 
of  woodland  in  hand;  231  acres  of  arable  and  pasture 
in  the  occupation  of  John  and  Thomas  Speed  at  a  rent 
of  ,^205  a  year;  6  copyhold  messuages  and  26  acres  of 
copyhold  land,  rents  for  which  totalled  £1  6s.  \d.  a 
year;  and  freehold  lands,  rents  for  which  totalled 
^i  7/.  <^d.  a  year.*'  In  1834  John  Archer  Houblon 
sold  this  estate,  and  his  share  of  the  advowson  of 
Bobbingworth  (see  below)  to  Capel  Cure  of  Blake 
Hall  for  ^fifijj  of  which  ;^577  was  paid  for  the  timber 
on  the  estate.**  The  manor  of  Bobbingworth  has 
subsequently  remained  in  the  family  of  Capel  Cure. 
It  had  copyhold  tenants  as  late  as  1919.*' 

The  present  farm-house  is  timber-framed  and  weather- 
boarded  and  is  probably  of  early-i  8th-century  date.  It 
is  L-shaped  and  has  a  hipped  tiled  roof  with  moulded 
brickwork  to  the  central  chimney. 

In  the  1 2th  century  the  manor  oi  BLAKE  HALL 
was  held  of  the  honor  of  Boulogne  by  Pharamus 
of  Boulogne,  great-grandson  of  Count  Eustace  of 
Boulogne.'"  It  is  not  clear  whether  Pharamus  held 
the  manor  in  demesne.  He  died  in  1 183-4  ^'^'^  was 
succeeded  by  his  only  daughter  and  heir  Sibyl  de 
Fiennes."  Sibyl  was  holding  the  manor  of  the  honor 
of  Boulogne  in  1221-2.'*  By  the  early  14th  century, 
however,  the  manor  was,  apparently,  no  longer  con- 
sidered part  of  that  honor." 

Sibyl's  heir  was  her  son  William  de  Fiennes.'* 
William's  grandson.  Sir  William  de  Fiennes  (d.  1302), 
was  second  cousin  of  Eleanor  of  Castile,  to  whom  he 
pledged  part  of  his  estate  in  1 275  when,  at  his  request, 
she  engaged  to  pay  ^1,000  to  Humphrey  de  Bohun  on 
the  latter's  marriage  with  William's  sister  Maud."   It 

»<i  Ibid.;  E.R.O.,  D/DWv  T51.  At  the 
time  of  the  sale  Poole  still  owed  Houblon 
the  ;^6oo  he  had  borrowed  in  1701  and 
£i%S  interest  on  the  loan.  Houblon  had 
therefore  to  pay  Poole  only  ,^215  in  cash. 

"  A.  A.  Houblon,  The  Houhhn  Family, 
ii,  1-2. 

"  Cf.  Morant,  Eiiex,  i,  148.  And  see 
note  8  above. 

^3  A.  A.  Houblon,  Tie  Houhhn  Family, 
ii,  2.  "  Ibid. 

'5  Ibid.;  E.R.O.,  D/DCc  T2;  D/DCc 
E2,  6. 

'«  A.  A.  Houblon,  The  Houhlon  Family, 
i,  1 1  f.  From  1717  until  1729  Jacob  son 
and  heir  of  Charles  Houblon  lived  in  Bob- 
bingworth with  his  uncle  Jacob,  then 
rector  of  the  parish. 

*'  E.R.O.,  D/DCc  E2.  The  lands  occu- 
pied  by  John   and   Thomas    Speed   were 

divided  into  4  farms :  Bobbingworth  Hall, 
Rachells,Hobbans,  and  Galnthorps.  In  1 829 
they  had  agreed  to  pay  a  rent  of  ^270,  but 
this  had  been  reduced  to  ,^205  when  J,  A. 
Houblon  succeeded  to  the  estate  in  1831. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DCc  T2 ;  D/DCc  E6. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DCc  Mi. 

3°  Bk.  of  Fees,  1428 ;  Genealogist,  N.s.  xii, 
145—51.  For  Pharamus  see  also  Manor  of 
Lam  bourne. 

3'  Bk.  of  Fees,  234-5;  Genealogist,  n.s. 
xii,  145-51- 

"  Bk.  of  Fees,  240,  1435. 

'3  Cal.  Inq.  f>.m.  V,  p.  349. 

3*  Bk.  of  Fees,  235;  Genealogist,  N.s.  xii, 

35  Complete  Peerage,  vi,  466,  ix,  283  ;  C. 
Moor,  Kts.  of  Edtv.  I  (Harl.  Soc.  Ixxxi),  ii, 
21-23';  De  La  Chenaye-Desbois  et  Badier, 
Diclionnaire  de  la  Noblesse,  viii,  39-41. 




is  likely  that  William  granted  the  overlordship  of  Blake 
Hall  to  Eleanor  of  Castile,  for  her  grandson,  Gilbert, 
Earl  of  Gloucester,  was  holding  it  when  he  died  in 
1 3 14.3*  Gilbert  was  succeeded  by  his  sister  and  coheir 
Elizabeth  de  Burgh,  Lady  of  Clare,  of  whom  the  manor 
was  held  by  the  service  of  J  knight's  fee. 37  Afterwards 
the  tenancy  in  chief  followed  the  same  descent  as  that 
of  Magdalen  Laver  manor  (q.v.).'* 

In  1 3 14  the  tenant  in  demesne  was  Robert  de 
Hastings  who  sold  the  manor  to  Adam  Atforth.^o  It 
was  subsequently  held  by  Sir  John  de  Loundres.'*"  In 
142 1  Sir  Robert  Brent  died  in  possession  of  the  manor 
leaving  as  his  heir  his  sister  Joan  wife  of  John  Trethek.'^' 
In  1424  John  and  Joan  Trethek  conveyed  the  manor 
to  William  Trethek/^  William  immediately  granted  it 
to  Sir  Reynold  West,  Richard  Wentworth,  and  Richard 
Arderne  in  exchange  for  the  manor  of  Poldu  (Cornw.) 
which  they  had  acquired  from  Nicholas  Thorley  and 
his  wife  Alice,  Countess  of  Oxford/^  West,  Arderne, 
and  Wentworth  were  probably  acting  as  trustees  for 
Nicholas  Thorley  in  the  purchase  of  Blake  HaU  as  they 
certainly  were  in  the  purchase  of  Bobbingworth  manor 
(see  above)  in  the  same  year.  Sir  Nicholas  Thorley 
died  in  1442,  leaving  as  his  heir  Walter  Estoft,  son  of 
his  sister  Katherine.'^^  In  about  1 504  William  Thomson 
became  lord  of  the  manor .♦s  At  the  same  time  he  pur- 
chased 217  acres  of  land  from  Robert  Brent.^*  William 
and  his  wife  Agnes,  who  may  have  been  a  daughter  of 
Walter  Estoft,  were  still  in  possession  of  the  manor  in 
151 1,  but  by  September  1512  Sir  William  Capel  was 
lord.*7  At  that  time  John  Glascock  farmed  the  manor 
at  a  rent  oi  £%  Sl  year.*  *  Capel  died  in  1 5 1 6,  leavin  g  as 
his  heir  his  son  Giles  who,  with  his  sons  Henry  and 
Edward,  conveyed  it  in  1 539  to  Sir  Richard  Rich,  later 
1st  Baron  Rich.*'  In  1563  Rich  conveyed  the  manor 
to  John  Waylett.5"  In  1564  Waylett  granted  it  to 
John  Glascock  who  in  1562  had  been  described  as  'of 
Blake  Hall'.s'  In  1598  John  Glascock,  perhaps  the 
son  of  the  purchaser  of  1 564,  sold  the  manor  to  Robert 
Bourne  but  retained  56  acres  of  its  demesne  land  for  his 
own  son  George. ^^  In  the  same  year  Bourne  pur- 
chased from  Sir  Thomas  Walsingham  the  demesne 
lands  which  Walsingham's  father  had  acquired  in  1575 
as  his  share  of  Bobbingworth  manor  (see  above).s3  In 
1628  Bourne  purchased  some  land  from  John  son  of 
George  Glascock. 5*  In  1639  Robert  Bourne  died, 
having  settled  Blake  Hall  manor  on  his  wife  Katherine 
for  hfe  with  remainder  to  his  son  The 
younger  Robert  had  only  one  child,  a  daughter  Alice 
who  in  1656  married  John,  3rd  Baron  Digby,  and 
afterwards  3rd  Earl  of  Bristol.s*  She  died  without  issue 
in  1658.57  Robert  Bourne  made  a  settlement  whereby 

Digby  was  to  hold  the  manor  for  life  with  remainder  to 
John  Cooper,  nephew  of  Bourne  died  in 
1666."  In  about  1675  Cooper  tried  unsuccessfully  to 
sell  his  reversion.*"  At  that  time  he  rented  the  manors 
of  Blake  Hall  and  Bilsdens  (see  below)  from  Digby  for 
^462  a  year."  He  succeeded  to  the  estate  on  Digby's 
death  in  1698  and  died  in  1701.*^  His  heirs  were  his 
sisters  Dorothy,  wife  of  Richard  Thompson,  and  Anne, 
wife  of  Charles  Fowler.^J  In  1 709  they  sold  the  estate 
to  John  Clarke  for  ^8,ooo.*«  Clarke  died  in  1726 
having  devised  the  manor  to  his  eldest  son  Richard.*' 
In  1735  ^^^  manor  house  was  in  the  occupation  of 
Richard  Clarke  and  the  manor  farm  in  that  of  Robert 
Crabb.**  Richard  died  in  1770,  apparently  leaving 
considerable  debts.  He  had  devised  the  manor  to  his 
brother  Dennis  who  by  his  will  of  1770  devised  it  to 
his  sisters  Ann,  wife  of  Sir  Narbrough  D'Aeth,  and 
Catherine,  wife  of  Barnabas  Eveleigh  Leigh,  for  their 
lives  with  remainder  to  his  nephew  Narbrough 
D'Aeth.*7  Catherine  Leigh  died  before  i78o.*8  In 
1780  Sir  Narbrough  D'Aeth,  nephew  of  Clarke, 
mortgaged  his  reversion  of  the  manors  of  Blake  Hall 
and  Bilsdens  (see  below)  and  the  advowson  of  Bobbing- 
worth for  ;£i,ooo.*9  Between  1781  and  1788  Sir 
Narbrough  and  his  mother  Lady  Ann  D'Aeth  borrowed 
further  sums  on  the  security  of  their  Bobbingworth 
estate,  making  the  total  mortgage  {j],ioo  in  March 
1788.70  Before  this  they  had  mortgaged  their  other 
properties  for  sums  totalling  at  least  ;^I4,500."  It  may 
have  been  this  load  of  debt  which  made  Sir  Narbrough 
sell  his  Bobbingworth  estate  to  Capel  Cure  in  1789.72 
Since  that  time  Blake  Hall  has  remained  in  the  family 
of  Capel  Cure.  By  Morant's  time  it  no  longer  had 
manorial  tenants.73  In  1 840  Blake  Hall  farm  consisted 
of  nearly  220  acres  and  was  in  the  occupation  of  Capel 
Cure.7'«  At  about  that  time  Blake  Hall  was  the  centre 
of  an  estate  of  some  3,800  acres,  mainly  in  Bobbing- 
worth and  neighbouring  parishes.75  It  included  the 
manors  of  Blake  Hall,  Bobbingworth  Hall,  Bilsdens, 
and  Ongar  Park  (in  High  Ongar,  q.v.)  and  a  total  of 
some  20  farms. 7*  Capel  Cure  was  the  impropriator  of 
Norton  Mandeville  (q.v.)  and  Compton  Abdale 
(Glouc.)  as  well  as  patron  of  Bobbingworth.77 

In  about  1700  Blake  Hall  was  a  typical  timber- 
framed  Essex  building  with  two  gables  to  the  front.78 
This  house  appears  to  have  been  completely  demolished 
early  in  the  i8th  century.  The  central  rooms  at  the 
front  of  the  present  house  are  part  of  the  Georgian 
mansion  which  superseded  it.  In  1 804  the  house  was 
of  two  stories  with  seven  windows  across  the  front,  a 
colonnaded  porch,  and  a  central  pediment.79  By  1 804 
the  straight  avenue  of  trees,  which  in  the  late  1 8th 

'*  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  v,  p.  349 ;  Complete 
"Peerage^  v,  707,  712-14.  Joan  of  Acre, 
daughter  of  Edward  I  and  Eleanor  of 
Castile,  married  Gilbert,  Earl  of  Glouces- 
ter, and  had  by  him  a  son  Gilbert  who 
became  Earl  of  Gloucester  on  his  father's 
death  in  1295. 

"  DL30/123/1861;  Complete  Peerage, 
iii,  245. 

«  C136/106;  €138/56;  Ci39/i9S9i 
Cal. Close,  1419-22, 1775  Cal. Close,  1422- 
9,  248-9. 

"  DL30/123/1859;  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  v, 
p.  349. 

«»  01,30/123/1859  and  1861.  Possibly 
the  John  Loundres  who  was  knighted  in 
1397  :  Shaw,  Knights  of  Engl,  ia,  Ix. 

••'  C138/56. 

«  Feel  of  F.  Essex,  iv,  3. 

«  Cal.  Close,  1422-9,  120,  144. 

♦•  Complete  Peerage,  x,  236. 
••5  DL3o/i23/i859  and  1862. 
«'  DL30/123/1859. 

«'  CP25(2)/ii/5i  Mich.  3  Hen.  VIII. 
<8  B.M.  Add.  MS.  40,6323. 
"  £142/30/16;   CP25(2)/i2/67   Mich. 
31  Hen.  VIII. 
50  CP40/1207. 
5-  CP25(2)/i27/i624;  E.R.O.,  QjSR  4. 

52  DL30/123/1861. 

53  CP25(2)/l  38/1750. 
5t   DL30/123/1861. 

55  Sepulchral  Mems.  of  Bohhingworth,  ed. 
F.  A.  Crisp,  33. 

i<>  E.R.O.,  D/DMgT3i ;  Complete  Peer- 
age, ii,  322. 

5'  Complete  Peerage,  ii,  322. 

58  UL30/123/1861-2;  E.R.O.,  D/DAc 
24-25.  50  E.R.O.,  D/DMg  T3 1. 

<>»  E.R.O.,  D/DAc  24-25.  "  Ibid. 

"  DL30/1 23/1 862 ;£.y4.r.N.s.ici,  177. 

«  DL30/123/1862;  E.R.O.,  D/DCc 

64  E.R.O.,  D/DCcTi/1-3. 

6s  E.R.O.,  D/DCc  T1/3. 

"  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

M  Ibid.  '»  Ibid. 

'0  E.R.O.,  D/DCc  Ti/i  and  2. 

"  Ibid. 

'2  Ibid.;  E.R.O.,  D/DCc  T4. 

'5  Morant,  Essex,  i,  148. 

'4  E.R.O.,  D/CT  38.- 

75  E.R.O.,  D/DCc  E6. 

7'  Ibid.  77  Ibid.  See  below,  Church. 

7*  As  shown  in  a  small  drawing  on  an  un- 
dated map  at  Blake  Hall.  For  photostat  of 
map  see  E.R.O.,  T/M  2!o. 

7»  This  is -shown  on  an  estate  map  of 
1804.  For  photostat  of  mao  see  E.R.O., 
T/M  213. 



century  had  led  direct  from  the  doorway  to  the  road, 
had  been  abandoned  in  favour  of  curved  approaches  to 
north  and  south.*"  In  1822  the  house  was  remodelled 
by  George  Basevi,*'  but  it  is  not  clear  how  much  work 
was  done  at  this  time.  The  rooms  facing  the  garden 
with  their  two  semicircular  bays  may  be  of  this  date 
or  a  little  earlier.  A  service  wing  to  the  north  was  also 
built  by  1822.  About  the  middle  of  the  19th  century 
the  house  was  greatly  extended. ^^  A  third  story  was 
added  to  the  central  block  and  a  new  wing  was  built 
on  the  south  side.  Early  in  the  20th  century  a  fine  late- 
I7th-century  staircase,  which  came  originally  from  a 
house  on  the  south  side  of  Pall  Mall,  was  inserted  in 
the  hall.'3  Between  1940  and  1948  Blake  Hall  was 
requisitioned  by  the  R.A.F.  and  during  this  time  the 
library  and  drawing  room  with  the  bedrooms  above 
were  thrown  together  to  form  an  operations  room. 
This  wing  has  not  yet  been  restored.*^ 

The  manor  of  BILSDENS  derived  its  name  from 
the  family  of  Billesdon.  In  1496  Joan,  widow  of  Sir 
Robert  Billesdon  and  daughter  and  heir  of  John 
Williams,  died  in  possession  of  a  messuage,  280  acres 
of  land  and  20  acres  of  meadow  in  Bobbingworth  and 
other  parishes.  *5  This  estate,  which  was  then  called 
'Monkis  alias  Bobynford',  was  worth  100/.  and  was 
held  of  one  Brent.'*  Joan's  heir  was  her  son  Thomas 

After  Joan's  death  her  Bobbingworth  estate  may 
have  passed,  with  her  Marshalls  estate  in  North  Weald 
(q.v.),  to  Sir  William  Fitzwilliam.  In  1581  William 
Bourne  died  in  possession  of  the  Bobbingworth  estate 
which  he  apparently  purchased  from  Richard,  ist 
Baron  Rich,  in  1566.**  William  bequeathed  to  his 
wife  Margaret  'household  stuff,  corn  and  cattle  at 
Gippes  alias  Billesdons'. '»  In  his  will  he  also  mentioned 
his  house  there.'" 

Bourne's  son  Robert  purchased  the  manor  of  Blake 
Hall  (see  above)  in  1 598  and  the  Billesdon  estate,  which 
was  described  as  a  manor  in  1675  and  later,  afterwards 
descended  with  Blake  Hall."  It  was  occupied  by  a 
tenant  until  1828,  after  which  it  was  farmed  by  the 
owner  himself'^  In  1840  Bilsdens  farm  consisted  of 
237  acres  of  which  136  were  arable. '3 

The  back  part  of  Bilsdens  house  is  timber-framed 
and  probably  dates  from  the  1 5th  or  early  i6th  century. 
It  apparently  consisted  of  a  central  hall  with  two  cross- 
wings.  The  hall  has  been  much  altered  but  in  both 
cross-wings  the  lower  part  of  arch-braced  roof  trusses 
are  visible  on  the  first  floor.  In  the  roof  space  at  least 
one  king-post  with  four-way  struts  remains.  This  was 
evidently  the  manor  house  of  which  William  Bourne 
died  possessed  in  1581.  An  estate  map  of  Bilsdens 
dated  I76i''*  has  a  rough  drawing  of  the  house  from 
which  it  appears  to  have  been  L-shaped  and  gabled. 
The  present  front  rooms  were  added  late  in  the  i8th 

•"  Ibid.;  Chapman  and  Andre,  Map  of 
Essex,  J777,  sheet  xii. 

"  Drawings  at  Blake  Hall  in  the  posses- 
sion of  Major  N.  Capel  Cure. 

"  Drawings  and  photographs  as  above. 

"  Inf.  from  Mrs.  Capel  Cure.  This  was 
probably  Schombcrg  House,  built  in  the 
last  decade  of  the  17th  cent. 

•<  Information  from  Mrs.  Capel  Cure. 

'•  Ca!.  Inij.  f.m.  Hen.  Fll,  i,  pp.  541-2. 

"  Ibid.  87  Ibid. 

"  Sepulchral  Mems.  of  Bohhingiuorth,  ed. 
F.  A.  Crisp,  31 ;  Morant,  Essex,  i,  149. 

»9  Sepulchral  Mems.  of  Bohhingivorth,  3  I. 

»o  Ibid. 

«■  E.R.O.,  D/DAc   Z4-25;   D/DCc  T 

century  and  these  were  faced  with  brickwork  probably 
about  100  years  later. 

It  seems  that  Hamon  de  Marcy  held  the  advowson 

of  Bobbingworth  in  the  early  13  th  cen- 
CHURCH  tury.'s    After  his  death,  which  occurred 

before  1244,  his  widow  Denise  held  it  in 
dower.'*  In  1244  it  was  agreed  that  at  the  death  of 
Denise  it  should  pass  to  Alice  and  John  de  Merk  and 
to  the  heirs  of  Alice  who,  by  another  agreement,  be- 
came overlords  of  the  manor  of  Bobbingworth  (see 
above)."  In  about  1262  John  de  Merk  was  patron  of 
the  living.''  In  1 280  Ralph  de  Merk,  probably  the  son 
of  John,  granted  the  advowson,  with  J  acre  of  land,  to 
John  de  Lovetot  for  30  marks."  Lovetot  still  held  the 
advowson  at  his  death  in  1293,  but  by  1328  it  was  in 
the  possession  of  Henry  Spigurnel,  tenant  in  demesne 
of  the  manor  of  Bobbingworth."  In  1332  Thomas 
Spigurnel  granted  the  advowson  as  well  as  the  manor 
to  Robert  de  Hakeney.^  In  1365  and  1368  John  King 
presented  to  the  living.3  In  1389  Joan  Morell  was 
holding  a  life  interest  in  the  advowson  which  from  that 
time  descended  with  the  manor  of  Bobbingworth  until 
1575.'*  In  1575,  when  Sir  Thomas  Walsingham  and 
John  Rochester  divided  Bobbingworth  manor  between 
them,  they  agreed  that  the  advowson  should  remain  in 
common  and  that  they  should  present  to  the  living  in 
turn. 5  In  1582  Thomas  Barefoot  presented  pro  hac 
vice  by  concession  of  Sir  Thomas  Walsingham.*  In 
1 598  Sir  Thomas  Walsingham  granted  his  rights  in 
the  advowson  to  Robert  Bourne,  owner  of  Blake  Hall 
(see  above)  .7  Afterwards  the  owners  of  the  manors  of 
Blake  Hall  and  Bobbingworth  had  alternate  rights  of 
presentation.  They  sometimes  sold  their  single  turns. 
In  1669  John,  3rd  Baron  Digby,  then  life  tenant  of 
Blake  Hall,  granted  his  next  turn  to  John  Robinson  of 
Stapleford  Tawney.'  In  1673  Robinson  sold  it  to  Sir 
John  Archer,  a  Justice  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas, 
who  presented  in  1678.'  In  1692  James  LordelJ  pre- 
sented Jacob  Houblon.'o  When  Charles  Houblon, 
brother  of  Jacob,  purchased  the  manor  of  Bobbing- 
worth from  John  and  Mary  Poole  in  1708  he  also 
purchased  their  right  to  half  the  advowson."  At  that 
time  Mary  Poole  held  a  life  interest  in  it  with  remainder 
to  John  Poole. '^  The  advowson  remained  divided  be- 
tween the  owners  of  the  manors  of  Bobbingworth  and 
Blake  Hall  until  1834  when  Capel  Cure  of  Blake  Hall 
purchased  the  manor  of  Bobbingworth  and  the  alter- 
nate right  of  patronage  annexed  to  it.'3  In  1838  Capel 
Cure  presented  W.  M.  Oliver. ■■•  Since  that  time  the 
living  has  remained  in  the  gift  of  the  Capel  Cures.'' 

In  about  1254  the  rectory  was  valued  at  5  marks.'* 
In  1291  it  was  valued  at  £(>  13/.  4^2'."  In  1428  the 
church  was  still  taxed  on  this  valuation.''  In  1535  the 
rectory  was  valued  at  ,^13  6;.  8d'."  Its  'improved' 
value  was  [^do  in  1604,  ^^81  in  1650,  and  ;^ioo  in 


"  E.R.O.,D/DCcE6iD/CT38iD/DCc 

93  E.R.O.,  D/CT  38. 

9«  E.R.O.,  T/M  211  (photostat). 

«5  Feet  ofF.  Essex,  \,  148-9.       9'  Ibid. 

97   Ibid.  98   ^.^.r.  N.s.  xviii,   19. 

99  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  28. 

'  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  iii,  pp.  131,  133,  vii, 
p.  124.  »  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T96/6. 

3  Reg.  Sudbury  (Cant.  &  York  Soc),  i, 
244,  260. 

*  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iii,  211;  Newcourt, 
Repert.  ii,  66. 

5  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T98. 

'  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  66. 

7  CP2s(2)/i38/i75o. 

8  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T98.  9  Ibid. 
10  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  66. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T98;  D/DWv  T51. 

■2  Ibid. 

■3  E.R.O.,D/DCcTi/i-3;D/DCcT2i 
D/DCc  T4i  J.  Ecton,  Thesaurus,  270; 
J.  Bacon,  Lib.  Reg.  615. 

^*  Sepulchral  Mems.  of  Bobbingixiorth,  ed. 
F.  A.  Crisp,  38. 

'S  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1874  f.);  Chel. 
Dioc.  Tear  Bk.  1952. 

'*  W.  E.  Lunt,  Val.  of  Norwich,  336. 

■7   Tax.  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  21*. 

'8  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  205. 

»»  Falor  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  437. 




1661.^°  The  tithes  were  commuted  in  1840  for 
^455;2'  there  were  then  32  acres  of  glebe." 

The  rectory  was  built  by  the  Revd.  W.  M.  Oliver  in 
1839^3  near  the  site  of  an  earlier  parsonage.^  It  is  a 
three-story  square  house  of  gault  brick  with  a  two- 
story  wing  on  the  north.  A  difference  in  brickwork 
suggests  that  the  top  story  may  have  been  a  later 

The  parish  church  of  ST.  GERM  J  IN  consists  of 
nave,  chancel,  vestry,  and  north  tower.  At  different 
periods  parts  of  the  church  have  been  rebuilt  so  that 
very  little  medieval  work  now  remains.  In  particular 
subsidence  on  the  south  side  has  necessitated  constant 

The  date  of  the  original  nave  is  not  known  but  it 
may  be  indicated  by  a  13th-century  piscina  in  the 
south  wall,  now  reset,  which  has  a  pointed  head  and 
attached  shafts.  In  1909  Frederic  Chancellor  stated 
that  during  then  recent  work  to  the  south  wall  ancient 
oak  uprights  were  found  embedded  near  its  west  end.^' 
He  suggested  that  these  might  have  represented  part 
of  a  pre-Conquest  church,  but  in  the  absence  of  better 
evidence  this  must  remain  extremely  doubtful. 

The  chancel,  replaced  in  1 840,  was  probably  of  the 
14th  century.  In  1835^*  it  is  described  as  of  ancient 
appearance  and  the  east  window  as  'a  good  specimen 
of  the  decorated  style  of  architecture'.  The  nave  roof 
is  of  the  trussed  rafter  type  and  may  be  of  the  1 5th 
century.  Probably  also  in  the  15  th  century  a  wooden 
bell  tower  was  added  beyond  the  west  end  of  the  nave.^' 
This  appears  to  have  been  in  two  stages,  the  upper  one 
of  smaller  diameter,  and  to  have  had  a  small  shingled 
spire.2*  The  church  still  had  a  small  north  porch  in 
the  early  19th  century^"  and  this  may  have  been  of  late 
medieval  origin. 

The  nave  is  said  to  have  been  rebuilt  in  red  brick  in 
1680.30  In  lyyo  considerable  work  was  done  to  the 
interior  of  the  church  including  the  erection  of  a  west 
gallery  presented  by  Jacob  Houblon.^i  The  nave  walls 
were  again  largely  rebuilt  in  18 18  and  fitted  with  oak 
windows. 32  In  1 840  the  chancel  was  rebuilt  in  gault 
brick  at  the  rector's  expense. ^3  The  14th-century  style 
of  the  demolished  work  was  probably  copied,  parti- 
cularly with  regard  to  the  east  window.  In  1840  a 
north  tower  and  porch  were  built,  a  Mr.  Burton  being 
the  architect.34  They  are  of  gault  brick  and  the  style  is 
again  inspired  by  the  14th  century.  The  tower  has 
three  stages  with  pointed  openings  and  a  castellated 
parapet.  The  lowest  stage  combines  the  functions  of  a 
ringing  chamber  and  a  north  porch  to  the  church.  The 
red-brick  vestry  was  built  in  1864  at  the  expense  of  the 
Capel  Cure  family.3s  It  occupies  the  same  position  as 
the  wooden  bell  tower  demolished  in  1840.  In  1902 
seven  new  nave  windows  with  stone  tracery  were  pre- 
sented by  the  Revd.  W.  M.  Oliver  after  his  retire- 
ment.3*  These  replaced  the  wooden  windows  of  181 8. 
The  nave  roof  was  restored  in  1907.37  In  1931-2 
repairs  were  carried  out  to  the  roof  and  the  south  wall 
of  the  nave  and  the  18th-century  gallery  was  removed.38 

The  stone  font  is  of  the  15th  century  with  an  octa- 
gonal bowl  and  a  moulded  shaft.  In  1770  the  bowl  was 
removed  and  a  new  one  fitted  to  the  pedestal.39  In 
1936  the  original  bowl,  carved  with  the  initials  'J.P.', 
was  discovered  in  the  churchyard  at  Little  Parndon. 
It  was  presented  to  Bobbingworth  by  the  Netteswell 
and  Little  Parndon  Parochial  Church  Council  and  now 
occupies  its  original  position.^"  There  is  an  iron-bound 
chest  with  two  locks  of  the  17th  century.  The  pulpit 
has  early  17th-century  arabesque  ornament.  The 
panelling  and  reading-desk  in  the  nave  appear  to  have 
been  made  up  of  woodwork  of  various  dates,  the  oldest 
probably  of  the  early  17th  century.  The  seating  in  the 
nave  is  of  early  19th-century  date,  the  more  elaborate 
pitch  pine  pews  of  the  chancel  probably  date  from 

The  plate  includes  a  cup  of  1635  inscribed  with 

*T  C 

initials      ^     ,  also  a  paten  inscribed  'Bovinger  1684'. 

The  plate  now  in  use  is  of  1933. 

Six  bells  were  presented  by  the  Revd.  W.  M.  Oliver 
in  1 841.'"  In  1834  an  acre  of  land  in  the  parish  called 
Bell  Acre  formed  part  of  the  glebe;  by  tradition  the 
rector  was  supposed  to  provide  bell  ropes  and  hassocks 
for  the  church  from  the  rent  it  yielded.*^  The  then 
rector,  however,  refused  to  observe  the  tradition  since 
there  was  no  documentary  evidence  to  support  it.*' 
The  custom  appears  never  to  have  been  revived. 

In  the  chancel  are  two  reset  brass  inscriptions,  one 
to  William  Bourne  (1581)  with  an  achievement  of 
arms  and  one  to  Robert  Bourne  (1639)  with  two 
shields.  Before  its  rebuilding  in  1840  there  were 
several  inscriptions  in  the  chancel  to  members  of  the 
Bourne  family  and  others  which  have  now  disappeared.** 
These  included  an  unusual  incised  slab  bearing  the 
arms  of  the  City  of  London  and  of  the  Grocers' 
Company  together  with  a  standing  figure  of  William 
Chapman  (1627)  who  married  a  daughter  of  Robert 
Bourne.*'  In  the  nave  are  several  tablets  to  the  Capel 
Cure  family  including  the  first  Capel  Cure  of  Blake 
Hall  (1820)  and  his  two  wives  (1773  and  1804).  On 
the  nave  roof  are  painted  hatchments  of  the  Capel 
Cures  and  Pooles. 

Vestry  minute  books  for  Bobbingworth  survive  for 

the  periods  1 667-1 789 

PARISH  GOVERNMENT    and  1 808-1922.  There 

AND  POOR  RELIEF  is  also  a  separate  book 
of  overseers'  accounts 
for  the  period  1789-1827.** 

Until  1702  vestry  meetings  usually  seem  to  have 
been  held  only  at  Easter  in  each  year.*'  From  1702 
until  1758  meetings  were  held  at  Easter  and  Christmas. 
From  1758  there  were  several  meetings  each  year,  held 
at  irregular  intervals  of  between  2  and  19  weeks. 
Intervals  of  5-10  weeks  were  common.  In  the  early 
19th  century  between  four  and  eight  meetings  a  year 
were  recorded. 

Until  Jacob  Houblon  became  rector  in  1692  the 
vestry  minutes  were  brief  and  uninformative.    It  was 

^o  E.y^.T.  N.s.  xxi,  78,  83. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  38. 

"  Ibid.  23  E.R.  xiv,  i86. 

M  Chapman  and  Andre,  Map  of  Essex, 
lyyy,  sheet  xii. 

25  E.A.T.  N.s.  li,  175. 

2'  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  359. 

"  Ibid.  'The  Steeple  and  the  steeple  end 
of  the  building  is  of  wood.' 

2'  Drawing  on  a  Blake  Hall  estate  map 
of  1 804.   Photosta  tat  E.R.O.  (T/M  2 1 3). 

2«  Ibid. 

3"  Inf.  from  Canon  E.  H.  Gallop,  Rector 
of  Bobbingworth. 
3>  E.R.O.,  D/P  127/25. 

32  Vestry  book  1808-1922. 

33  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 
35  Ibid.  ''  Ibid. 

37  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1929). 

38  Inf.  from  Canon  E.  H.  Gallop. 

39  E.R.O.,  D/P  127/25. 

«  Inf.  from  Canon  E.  H.  Gallop. 


«■  Ch.  Bells  Essex,  18 1-2. 
■•2  Rep.  Com.  Char.  {Essex),  H.C.  216, 
p.  218  (1835),  xxi  (i).- 

«3    Ibid. 

**  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  359. 

■•5  E.y^.T.  N.s.  xii,  321-2. 

*6  The  following  information  is  derived 
almost  entirely  from  these  books  which  are 
at  the  Essex,  Record  Office,  on  loan  from 
the  Rector  of  Bobbingworth. 

♦7  E.R.O.,  D/P  127/8. 


the  practice  to  record  only  the  appointment  of  officers 
and  the  balances  remaining  in  officers'  hands  at  the  end 
of  each  year.*?  Moreover  the  minutes  were  never 
signed.'"  Houblon  exercised  an  immediate  influence 
on  the  parish  records.  He  scarcely  ever  missed  a  vestry 
meeting  and  he  wrote  the  minutes  himself.  At  Easter 
1693  he  began  a  separate  account  book  containing 
detailed  overseers'  accounts,  which  were  always  duly 
audited  and  were  signed  by  the  parishioners  who  passed 
them.  Thomas  Velley,  who  succeeded  Houblon  as 
rector  in  1740  also  attended  vestry  meetings  regularly 
and  during  his  incumbency  the  parish  records  were 
kept,  though  rather  less  methodically,  on  the  lines  that 
Houblon  had  laid  down.  J.  Lipyeatt  who  succeeded 
Velley  in  1751  appears,  however,  to  have  taken  practi- 
cally no  part  in  conducting  parish  business.  He  did  not 
sign  any  minutes  after  December  175 1.  In  the  next 
four  years  his  curate,  J.  Wells,  usually  signed  the 
minutes  but  afterwards  neither  incumbent  nor  curate 
appears  to  have  attended  vestry  meetings  until  1782. 
The  complete  absence  of  officers'  accounts  in  the  parish 
books  between  Easter  1755  and  1758  may  reflect  the 
initial  apathy  aroused  by  the  incumbent's  lack  of 
interest.  In  April  1782  the  curate,  then  J.  Lipyeatt 
the  younger,  did  sign  the  vestry  minutes  and  his  signa- 
ture appeared  twice  more  in  the  next  seven  years. 
During  the  period  1759-89  the  churchwarden  was 
almost  invariably  the  first  to  sign  the  minutes  and  this 
practice  continued  into  the  second  quarter  of  the  19th 
century.  The  rector  rarely  attended  a  meeting  in  the 
early  19th  century. 

The  number  of  parishioners  who  attended  vestry 
meetings  varied  between  I  and  8  but  was  usually  be- 
tween 2  and  4.  In  the  century  after  1666  members  of 
the  Poole  family,  lords  of  the  manor  of  Bobbingworth 
until  1708,  took  an  active  and  leading  part  in  parish 
government.  John  Poole,  lord  of  the  manor  from  1674 
until  about  1701,  and  his  son  and  heir  John,  frequently 
held  parish  office.  Each  of  them  held  the  office  of  over- 
seer for  several  years.  They  nearly  always  attended 
vestry  meetings  and  signed  immediately  after  the  rector. 
The  younger  John  continued  to  take  an  equally  pro- 
minent part  in  parish  affairs  after  he  had  sold  Bobbing- 
worth manor  in  1708.  From  1708  until  1720  he  never 
missed  an  Easter  vestry.  From  1721  until  1740  William 
Poole  was  equally  active  and  prominent.  The  Houblons, 
owners  of  the  manor  of  Bobbingworth  from  1708,  were 
not  resident  in  the  parish  and  took  no  personal  part  in 
its  government.  In  the  period  down  to  1789  the 
owners  of  Blake  Hall  scarcely  ever  attended  a  vestry 
meeting  but  Robert  Crabb,  who  occupied  the  manor 
farm  in  1735,  frequently  held  some  parish  office  be- 
tween 1726  and  1781. 

The  work  of  the  vestry  consisted  mainly  in  nominat- 
ing parish  officers,  granting  rates,  agreeing  on  the 
recipients  of  weekly  collections,  and  approving  officers' 
accounts.  One  of  the  rare  occasions  in  the  i8th  century 
when  other  business  was  recorded  was  in  April  1708 
when  it  was  resolved  that  in  future  the  church  clerk 
should  be  paid  20s.  a  year  out  of  the  churchwarden's  or 
overseer's  rate  'in  lieu  of  what  he  has  hitherto  received 
yearly  by  the  house  as  a  former  custom  it  being  a  great 
hindrance  to  him  in  the  loss  of  time  to  go  about  to 
receive  the  same'.'" 

There  were  two  churchwardens  each  year  from 
1666  until  1682. s'  During  this  period  these  officers 
usually  served  for  2-4  years  consecutively.s^    From 

«  E.R.O.,  D/P  127/8.  «  Ibid. 

1 68 1  until  about  1793  there  was  only  one  office  of 
churchwarden.     From    1690   until    1771    it  was   the 
practice  to  spend  many  consecutive  years  in  this  office. 
Thomas  Nicholls  served  as  churchwarden  from  1700 
until   1724,  William  Poole  from    1724  until   1740, 
Samuel  Corney  from   1741   until   1753,  and  Robert 
Crabb  from  1759,  if  not  before,  until  1771.    For  a 
time  after  1771  the  number  of  consecutive  years  spent 
in  the  office  tended  to  lessen  and  from  about  1793  it 
again  became  the  practice  to  have  two  churchwardens. 
There  was  usually  one  overseer.    Until  17 17  it  was 
usual  for  the  overseer  to  serve  for  2  or  3  years  con- 
secutively. George  Read  served  for  4  years  from  17 17 
until  1 72 1.    After  his  appointment  for  a  fourth  year 
in  April  1720  it  was  agreed  that  'having  served  4  years 
he  shall  be  excused  7  years  following'.    Read's  suc- 
cessor, William   Hamshire,  also  served  4  years  con- 
secutively, but  3  years  remained  the  usual  term  of  office 
until  1 744.  From  1 744  until  1 8 1  o  the  overseers  nearly 
always  served  for  one  year  only.   They  seem  to  have 
been  chosen  on  a  rota  system  and  occasionally  the  officer 
chosen  appointed  another  man  to  perform  the  duties 
of  the  office.  Thomas  Woodthorp  acted  for  Capel  Cure 
in  1796-7  and  again  in  1 801-2.  Jonathan  Lewis,  the 
vestry  clerk,  acted  as  overseer  for  Capel  Cure  in  1 808-9 
and  for  William  Clark  in  the  following  year.   During 
the  year  ending  at  Easter  1 8 1 1  Lewis  again  acted  as 
overseer,  but  on  what  basis  is  not  clear.   If  he  received 
any  payment  for  performing  the  duties  of  overseer 
during  these  years,  such  payment  was  not  made,  it 
would  seem,  out  of  the  poor  rate.   In  April  181 1,  how- 
ever, a  meeting  of  the  vestry  agreed  'for  Jonathan  Lewis 
to  be  the  acting  Overseer  for  the  year  ensuing  and  to 
have  a  salary  of  ^^lo  p.  annum  and  to  be  paid  for 
journeys'.   Lewis  continued  to  act  as  salaried  overseer 
every  year  from   181 1   until  1835  with  the  possible 
exception  of  the  year  1819—20.   Each  year  there  was 
a  formal  agreement  at  the  Easter  vestry  to  renew  his 
appointment.     In    1822    his   salary   as   overseer   was 
increased  to  ;^l  3  1 3/. 

Constables  were  nominated  in  Vestry  at  least  from 
1667.  Until  1 72 1  the  parish  always  had  two  of  these 
officers,  each  of  whom  served  several  years  con- 
secutively. From  1 72 1  there  was  only  one  constable 
for  the  parish  and  he  usually  served  for  many  years. 
Richard  White  was  constable  from  1721  until  at  least 
1740,  and  R.  Perry  from  1744  until  at  least  1760. 

Two  surveyors  of  highways  were  nominated  annually 
until  1700  after  which  there  was  usually  only  one 
nomination  until  1742.  The  surveyor  was  chosen  from 
a  rota  of  landholders,  as  appears  from  the  rector's  note 
on  26  December  1722,  'Mr.  William  Poole  Surveyor 
as  a  Deputy  for  the  Revd.  Tho.  Wragg  Clerk  for 
Gainthrops'.53  From  1742  there  were  several  nomina- 
tions each  year  for  the  office  of  surveyor  but  there  are 
indications  that  there  was  only  one  acting  surveyor. 

From  1666  until  after  1750  the  overseers,  church- 
wardens, constables,  and  surveyors  were  each  granted 
separate  rates  for  which  they  were  directly  responsible 
to  the  parish.  Until  1702  it  was  the  custom  for  each 
officer  to  present  an  annual  account  at  the  Easter  vestry. 
Occasionally  one  officer  was  ordered  to  pay  another 
officer's  deficit  out  of  his  surplus.  From  1702  the  sur- 
veyors submitted  their  accounts  at  Christmas  instead  of 
at  Easter  but  the  other  officers  continued  to  make  their 
annual  account  at  Easter.  From  1758,  if  not  before, 
the  overseer  submitted  interim  accounts  to  the  vestry 

5°  Ibid. 

s'  Ibid. 

S2  Ibid. 

S3  Ibid. 




at  intervals  of  5-10  weeks  in  addition  to  his  final 
annual  account  at  Easter.  There  is  no  evidence  that 
the  interim  accounts  continued  after  1775,  but  in  view 
of  the  increasing  costs  of  poor  relief  it  is  very  probable 
that  they  did  so.  By  1772,  perhaps  before  1760,  the 
churchwardens,  constables,  and  surveyors  were  no 
longer  granted  separate  rates.  Their  expenditure  was 
met  by  the  overseer  who  included  it  in  his  account. 
This  practice  continued  until  1 8 1 1 .    From   1 8 1 1   to 

1 8 1 2  there  was  again  a  separate  highway  rate  and  from 

1813  to  1 8 14  there  was  a  separate  church  rate. 

In  1720  the  rateable  value  of  the  parish  was  about 
^^917.  In  1790  a  2J.  dd.  rate  produced  £106  15^.;  this 
implies  a  rateable  value  of  about  ;£854.  During  the 
Napoleonic  wars  the  rateable  value  was  generally  be- 
tween j{^90o  and  £(^\%.  In  181 5  a  reassessment  was 
ordered  as  a  result  of  which  the  rateable  value  became 
^^1,635;  in  1823  it  fell  to  ;^i,559  and  in  1831  rose  to 

There  was  evidently  a  poorhouse  in  Bobbingworth 
in  1692— 3,  for  in  that  year  \os.  was  paid  by  the  overseer 
for  'straw  at  the  allmnshouse'.  By  1783  the  poorhouse 
was  situated  in  Pensons  Lane,  and  seems  to  have  been 
the  cottage  which  Robert  Bourne  (d.  1666)  left  in 
trust  to  provide  clothing  for  the  poor.s*  It  was  rented 
by  the  overseer  at  ^^i  10/.  a  year.  In  1779-80  the 
poorhouse  was  fitted  with  a  'poor's  oven.'  In  1784-5 
the  building  housed  at  least  one  poor  family  and  in  each 
of  the  years  1791-2,  1797-8,  1800-1,  1803-7,  and 
i8i9-2oit  housed  at  least  one  poor  person.  In  1807—8 
1$.  6d.  was  paid  by  the  overseer  for  '6  yards  cloth  for 
strawbed  for  poorhouse'.  Minor  repairs  were  often 
carried  out  and  in  1 807-8  more  substantial  repairs  were 
done  at  a  cost  of  ^^55.  In  1823  the  stove  was  repaired. 

In  most  cases,  however,  poor  relief  was  given,  in 
various  forms,  outside  the  poorhouse.  In  each  of  the 
years  1 8 1 3-1 5  there  were  20-2 1  adults  on  'permanent' 
outdoor  relief. 5 5  Provision  for  the  poor  was  made  in 
various  ways  including  the  binding  out  of  paupers' 
children  as  apprentices,  the  provision  of  spinning- 
wheels,  the  payment  of  rent  and  allowances  for  lodging 
or  nursing,  the  provision  of  wood  and  clothes,  and  the 
payment  of  weekly  doles. 

Parish  apprentices  were  allotted  on  a  rota  system  to 
farmers  in  the  parish.  In  the  period  between  168 1  and 
1 7 1 8  three  'great'  farms  and  thirteen  'lesser'  farms  were 
on  the  rota.  About  1 1  children  were  apprenticed 
during  the  period. 

In  1787-8  a  spinning-wheel  was  purchased  for  John 
Little  at  a  cost  of  is.  6J.  In  1 799-1 800  spinning- 
wheels  cost  the  overseer  £2  4/.  In  several  of  the  follow- 
ing years  'the  poor's  spinning'  occurs  as  an  item  of 
expenditure  in  the  overseer's  accounts. 

In  1692-3  there  seem  to  have  been  2  widows  receiv- 
ing weekly  doles,  the  cost  to  the  parish  being  5/.  6</. 
a  week.  In  1 7 19  there  were  4  weekly  doles  amounting 
to  js.  In  the  years  between  1758  and  1775  there  were 
usually  9  households,  including  several  widow  house- 
holds, receiving  weekly  doles,  totalling  between 
16/.  ()d.  and  £1  \s.  a  week.  In  1777-8  there  were  10 
households  which  throughout  the  year  received  doles 

which  totalled  ;{Jl  5/.  a  week.  In  each  of  the  years  from 
1780  to  1797  there  were  15-21  households  in  receipt 
of  regular  weekly  doles  which  cost  the  parish  between 
£1  5/.  and  £2  2s.  6d.  a  week.  From  1797  the  doles 
increased,  reaching  their  maximum  of  ^^8  5^^.  6d.  a 
week  in  1801.  They  then  declined  to  £2  ijs.  6d.  a 
week  in  1808.  From  then  until  1819  there  were 
usually  about  16-18  households  in  receipt  of  constant 
relief  at  a  total  cost  to  the  parish  of  about  £2  i  js.  bd. 
a  week.  From  1 8 19  until  1827  the  number  of  house- 
holds dependent  on  weekly  doles  varied  between  20 
and  27,  the  total  weekly  cost  ranging  from  ^^3  to  ^5. 
In  161 3-14  the  cost  of  poor  relief  was  £^  los. 
which  was  distributed  to  5  people.'*  In  the  last  years 
of  the  17th  century  the  total  cost  of  poor  relief  was 
always  below  ^^20  a  year  and  was  sometimes  as  little  as 
£j.  In  the  1 8th  century  much  higher  figures  were  soon 
reached,  rising  to  an  average  of  ^^32  a  year  in  the  three 
extreme  years  17 16—19.  There  was  then  a  rapid  fall 
to  a  minimum  of  £3  14/.  5</.  in  1723-4.  In  the  period 
1725-42  figures  have  survived  for  only  seven  years. 
These  are  within  a  range  ^£16-^31.  In  the  period 
1743-54  expenditure  only  once  fell  below  ;^45  and  on 
two  occasions  reached  nearly  ;^6o.  In  1754-5  it  was 
£TI-  Between  1759  and  1771  it  averaged  about  £%<i. 
In  1772  the  cost  reached  the  £100  level  and  from  then 
until  1782  it  remained  fairly  stable  between  ;^ioo  and 
;^i20  a  year.  It  then  rose  to  ;^i65  in  1782-3  and  to 
;^I97  in  1784-5.  In  the  next  ten  years  the  cost 
remained  within  the  range  ^^i 60-^^190.  In  1794—5  it 
was  ^^170.  In  1795-6  it  jumped  to  £2"]},.  After  a 
slight  drop  in  the  next  three  years  it  rose  to  ^^290  in 
1 799-1 800  and  then  in  the  following  year  to  ^£505,  its 
maximum.  In  180 1—2  the  cost  was  £450.  It  then 
dropped  to  ;^293  in  1802-3.  Between  1803  and  181 1 
it  varied  between  ^^246  and  £33 1  a  year.  It  then  rose 
to  £477  in  1812-13.  After  this  it  varied  between 
^280  and  ;^48o,  the  peak  year  being  1819—20. 

In  1836  Bobbingworth  became  part  of  Ongar  Poor 
Law  Union. 

In  1 807  and  1 8 1 8  it  was  stated  that  there  was  no 
school  in  the  parish.s7  In  1822,  with  the 
SCHOOL  support  of  Capel  Cure  of  Blake  HaU  (see 
above),  a  girls'  school  was  established 
which  by  1833  had  24  pupils.58  It  was  a  dame  school, 
with  a  Sunday  school  attached,^'  and  it  is  said  to  have 
been  situated  in  a  house  which  the  estate  carpenter  had 
erected  in  the  churchyard.**'  In  1846—7  there  were 
still  only  24  girls  attending,  the  sole  educational  pro- 
vision for  boys  being  the  Sunday  school.*'  W.  M. 
Oliver,  Rector  of  Bobbingworth,  considered  a  National 
School  to  be  'much  wanted'.*^  In  1855-6  Capel  Cure 
built  'a  good,  substantial  schoolroom'*^  and  a  teacher's 
residence  next  to  the  church,  but  until  about  1869  only 
girls  seem  to  have  attended  it.**  By  187 1,  however,  the 
pupils  included  1 8  boys,*5  an  addition  made  possibly  in 
anticipation  of  the  requirements  of  the  Education  Act. 
In  the  same  year  an  inspector  reported  to  the  Educa- 
tion Department  that  only  47  places  were  needed  to 
secure  universal  elementary  schooling  in  the  parish  and 
that  5  5  places  were  available  at  the  school.** 

**  See  below,  Charities. 

55  E.R.O.,  g/CR  i/io. 

5«  E.R.O.,  Q/SBa  3. 

5'  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  2/4 (Archdeaconry); 
Retns.  Educ.  Poor,  H.C.  224,  p.  248  ( 1 8 19), 
ix  (,). 

58  Educ.  Enquiry  Ahur.  H.C.  62,  p.  267 
(1835),  xli. 

59  Nat.  Soc.  Rep.  1832,  p.  36;  Nat.  Soc. 
Enquiry  into  Church  Schs.  1 846-7,  pp.  2-3. 

">  Ex.  inf.  Mrs.  G.  Day,  Headmistress, 

61  Earlier,  in  1822-3,  Capel  Cure  had 
sent  boys  from  his  estate  to  Moreton 
school  {E.R.O.,  D/DCc  E6).  Whether  he 
continued  to  do  so,  after  1823,  does  not 



'2  Nat.  Soc.  Enquiry  into  Church  Schs. 
1846-7,  pp.  2-3. 

'3  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  i/i/i. 

<>♦  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1870). 

's  Retns.  Eltm.  Educ.  H.C.  201,  pp.  i  to- 

'•''  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/26A. 


The  Capel  Cures  continued  to  support  the  school 
until  1904,  apparently  without  assistance  from  public 
funds,*'  retaining  it  as  their  property  but  allowing  it  to 
be  administered  as  a  Church  school.*'  An  inspector, 
visiting  it  in  1 896,  found  the  buildings  in  good  repair 
but  the  scholastic  standard  low.*'  The  school  did  not 
officially  pass  under  the  control  of  the  Essex  Education 
Committee  until  some  three  years  after  the  1902 
Education  Act.  In  1904,  when  there  were  42  pupils, 
the  senior  teacher  received  his  salary  of  £,\o  not  from 
the  Local  Education  Authority  but  presumably  from 
Capel  Cure  and  the  proceeds  of  the  weekly  fees  of  2d., 
paid  by  each  pupil.'"  In  that  year  the  Education  Com- 
mittee considered  the  provision  of  a  Council  school  in 
the  parish,  but  decided  to  give  the  existing  school  non- 
provided  status  if  the  managers  would  spend  ;^i5o  on 
an  additional  classroom.  The  Education  Committee 
accepted  some  financial  responsibility  for  the  school 
until  the  new  classroom  was  completed  in  igo6."  The 
average  attendance  rose  from  36  in  1905  to  53  in  19 10, 
but  fell  to  42  in  1927.  After  the  reorganization  of  the 
school  for  juniors  and  infants  in  1936  and  the  transfer 

of  seniors  to  Chipping  Ongar,  it  fell  further  to  27  in 
1938.  In  195 1  the  school  was  granted  controlled 
status.'^  In  May  1952  it  had  two  teachers  and  33 
pupils.'J  It  stands  a  httle  west  of  the  church.  It  is 
a  red-brick  gabled  building  with  stone  dressings 
dated  1856  and  inscribed  with  the  initials  of  Capel 

Robert  Bourne  of  Blake  Hall  (see  above),  by  will 
proved  1666,  left  a  cottage  and  land  to 
CHARITIES  provide  clothing  at  Christmas  for  four 
poor  old  people  of  the  parish.'*  The 
rent  was  £^  5^.  in  1708  and  ^^13  in  1866  when  the 
property  was  sold  for  ;^500  which  was  invested.  The 
house  seems  to  have  been  used  before  then  as  the  parish 
poorhouse.'s  In  1950  the  income  of  ^^13  9J.  41?.  was 
used  to  buy  clothing  vouchers  of  ^^4. 

John  Pool,  by  will  proved  1839,  left  ;^ioo  in  trust 
for  the  repair  of  three  graves  in  the  churchyard.  This 
was  not  legally  a  charitable  bequest  and  the  legacy  was 
apparently  never  paid,  although  in  1921  it  was  thought 
that  the  income  had  once  been  received.'* 

For  the  Bell  Acre  see  above — Church. 


Chigwell  lies  in  the  south-west  corner  of  Ongar 
hundred,  on  both  banks  of  the  Roding,  at  a  distance  of 
12  miles  from  London.'  The  ancient  parish  had  an 
area  of  5,009  acres.^  It  contained  three  distinct  sections. 
The  village  of  Chigwell,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Roding, 
was  the  main  settlement  and  included  the  parish 
church.  Chigwell  Row,  a  mile  south  of  the  village,  was 
a  roadside  hamlet  on  the  edge  of  Hainault  Forest.  The 
third  section  was  Buckhurst  Hill,  ij  mile  from  the 
village  on  the  west  bank  of  the  river.  Until  the  19th 
century  much  of  Buckhurst  Hill  was  within  Epping 
Forest  and  there  were  only  a  few  scattered  houses  in 
that  part  of  the  parish  before  the  modern  development 
took  place.  The  soil  of  the  parish  is  mainly  London 
Clay,  but  there  are  thin  patches  of  glacial  gravel  in  and 
around  Chigwell  village  and  smaller  patches  at  Buck- 
hurst Hill  and  Chigwell  Row. 

For  ecclesiastical  purposes  the  ancient  parish  was 
divided  by  the  formation  of  the  district  of  Buckhurst 
Hill  in  1838  and  that  of  Chigwell  Row  in  i860.  Both 
these  districts  became  separate  ecclesiastical  parishes  in 
1867.3  Buckhurst  Hill  was  made  a  separate  urban 
district  in  1895.''  Chigwell  and  Chigwell  Row  to- 
gether constituted  the  civil  parish  of  Chigwell  from 
1895  until  1933,  when  that  parish  was  merged  with  the 
Urban  Districts  of  Buckhurst  Hill  and  Loughton  to 
form  the  new  Urban  District  of  Chigwell. 5 

For  several  centuries  the  south-west  end  of  the  parish 
and  Chigwell  Row  have  been  predominantly  resi- 
dential, with  houses  occupied  mainly  by  people  with 
interests  in  London,  while  the  rest  of  the  parish  has 
always  been  devoted  to  agriculture.  Modern  develop- 
ment has  emphasized  this  contrast.  Buckhurst  Hill  and 
much  of  Chigwell  Row  have  been  built  up  but  Chigwell 
village  has  retained  its  rural  appearance. 

From  the  west  bank  of  the  Roding  the  ground  rises 
steeply  from  about  50  ft.  to  267  ft.  at  Buckhurst  Hill, 

and  then  falls  to  about  1 50  ft.  at  Ching  Brook,  which 
roughly  defines  the  western  boundary  of  the  ancient 
parish.  On  the  east  of  the  river  the  land  rises  to  2 1 3  ft. 
in  Chigwell  village  and  then  falls  away  to  Chigwell 
(formerly  Edensor's)  Brook,  which  flows  south-west 
from  the  centre  of  the  parish  to  join  the  Roding  near 
Luxborough.  South  of  the  brook  the  land  rises  to 
Grange  Hill  (235  ft.)  and  the  ridge  of  Chigwell  Row 
(280  ft.).  From  these  heights  there  are  long  views  over 
the  Thames  valley  to  the  hills  of  Kent.  Near  the  north- 
east boundary  is  Lambourne  Brook,  another  tributary 
of  the  Roding. 

Chigwell  was  formerly  in  the 
forest  of  Essex  and  two  small 
patches  of  woodland  still  exist 
within  the  area  of  the  ancient 
parish.  Lords  Bushes  at  Buck- 
hurst Hill  cover  90  acres  be- 
longing to  Epping  Forest.  At 
Chigwell  Row  there  are  some 
50  acres  which  form  part  of 
Hainault  Forest. 

The  main  road  from  London 
to  Ongar,  here  called  High 

Chigwell    Urban    Dis- 
trict.   Or  J  a  stag  at  rest 
passes  north-east  through    proper,   on   a   chief  gules 

three  axe-heads  bendtvise 

sinister  ivith  blades  doivn- 

ivards  argent. 

[Granted  1951-] 

Chigwell  village.  From  the  vil- 
lage Roding  Lane  runs  west  to 
Buckhurst  Hill;  near  the  lane  on 
the  east  bank  of  the  river  are  the 
R.A.F.  Station,  Chigwell,  and  the  Buckhurst  Hill 
County  High  School  for  boys.  The  R.A.F.  Station  is 
on  the  site  of  the  ancient  manor  house  of  Chigwell  Hall. 
Beyond  the  river  to  the  west  Roding  Lane  passes  a 
public  park  and  finally  joins  Palmerston  Road,  Buck- 
hurst Hill. 

Buckhurst  Hill  is  a  residential  area  developed  mainly 
during  the  past  century.  It  consists  of  an  inner  ring  on 

6'  Ibid.;  Retn.  of  Schs.,  iSg3  [C.  7529], 
p.  714  H.C.  (1894),  kv. 

'8  Retns.  Elem.  Educ.{lSyi),fp.  IIO-II. 

'0  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/26A. 

'»  Ibid.;  Essex  Educ.  Cttee.  Handhk. 
1904.,  p.  183. 

"  Min.   of  Educ.   File    13/26A;   Essex 

Standard,  29  Oct.  1904. 

'2  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/26A. 

'3  Ex.  inf.  Essex  Educ.  Cttee. 

'«  Rep.  Com.  Char.  {Essex),  H.C.  216, 
p.  2i8(i835),xxi(i). 

'5  E.R.O.,  D/P  127/8,  25;  see  above — 
Parish  Government  and  Poor  Relief. 

"  Char.  Com.  files. 
'  O.S  2^  in.  Map,  sheet  51/49. 

2  V.C.H.  Essex,  n,  350. 

3  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1899). 

4  Ibid.  (1933). 

5  Chigviell  U.D.  Official  Guide  (2nd  ed.), 
p.  22. 


BucKHURST  Hill:  Aerial  View  from  the  West 

Copyright  Aerofilms 

Chigwell  Village 

Barns  at  Rookwood  Hall,  Abbess  Roding 



both  sides  of  the  railway  station,  dating  from  about 
1 850-1900,  with  building  to  the  north  and  south 
mainly  of  1920-39.  From  West  Buckhurst  Hill  the 
Loughton  road  and  the  Epping  New  Road  run  north, 
the  London  road  (via  Woodford)  runs  south  and  the 
Chingford  road  runs  west. 

From  Chigwell  village  Vicarage  Lane  runs  south- 
east to  Chigwell  Row.  Haifa  mile  north  of  the  village 
on  the  High  Road  are  Rolls  Park  and  the  site  of  Barring- 
tons  (see  Manors).  Opposite  Rolls  the  main  road  is 
joined  by  the  road  leading  from  Loughton  via  Loughton 
Bridge.  North  of  Rolls  the  main  road  is  called  Abridge 
Road.  Half  a  mile  north-east  of  Rolls,  immediately 
south  of  the  Roding,  is  Woolston  Hall  (see  Manors). 
Pudding  Lane  and  Gravel  Lane  run  south  from 
Abridge  Road  near  Woolston  to  Chigwell  Row. 

Half  a  mile  south  of  Chigwell  village  High  Road 
joins  Hainault  Road  which  leads  to  Grange  Hill,  and 
then  via  Fencepiece  Road  to  Ilford.  A  mile  south-west 
of  Chigwell,  to  the  west  of  High  Road  is  Great  West 
Hatch  (see  Manors)  and  near  this  on  the  opposite  side 
of  the  road  is  the  Manor  House  (formerly  the  Bowling 
Green,  see  Manors).  Luxborough  Lane,  leading  from 
Great  West  Hatch  north-west  to  Buckhurst  Hill,  takes 
its  name  from  an  ancient  manor  in  this  area. 

High  Road  leaves  the  parish  just  before  reaching 
Woodford  Bridge.  Manor  Road,  leading  from  Wood- 
ford Bridge  to  Chigwell  Row  enters  the  parish  im- 
mediately to  the  south  of  the  Manor  House.  Between 
Manor  Road  and  High  Road  at  this  point  there  is  a 
small  built-up  area  dating  mainly  from  about  1900. 
There  is  recent  ribbon-development  farther  east  on 
Manor  Road  before  the  junction  with  Hainault  Road. 
At  Grange  Hill  there  is  a  housing  area  of  1920— 39,  and 
in  Fencepiece  Road  there  is  some  similar  development 
and  also  some  houses  built  since  1945.  To  the  east  of 
Grange  Hill  is  the  large  Hainault  housing  estate  built 
since  1945  by  the  London  County  Council.  Part  of  this 
is  m  Chigwell  Urban  District,  and  part  in  the  Boroughs 
of  Ilford  and  Dagenham.  Other  houses  west  of  Chig- 
well Row  are  mostly  modern.  From  Chigwell  Row 
Romford  Road  runs  south-east  to  Romford  and 
Dagenham.  Manor  Road  continues  east  of  Chigwell 
Row  to  Lambourne  End  as  Lambourne  Road. 

Chigwell  village,  Chigwell  Row,  Gravel  Lane,  and 
Pudding  Lane  contain  a  number  of  houses  dating  from 
the  17th  and  i8th  centuries,  many  of  which  are 
described  below. 

The  railway  from  London  to  Epping  passes  through 
Buckhurst  Hill,  where  there  is  a  station.  A  loop  line 
from  Woodford  to  Hainault,  Newbury  Park,  and 
Leytonstone  branches  east  from  the  Epping  line.  There 
are  stations  at  Roding  Valley  (South  Buckhurst  Hill), 
Chigwell  (J  mile  south  of  the  village),  and  Grange  Hill. 
Hainault  station,  which  serves  the  London  County 
Council  estate,  is  just  outside  Chigwell  parish.  Both 
these  lines  are  now  electrified  and  form  part  of  the 
Central  London  Line. 

Before  the   17th  century  the  repair  of  the  parish 

roads  was  largely  a  matter  of  charity,  and  many  be- 
quests were  made  for  this  purpose,  for  example,  those 
of  Cicely  Rypton  (1551)*  and  George  Scott  (1588).? 
In  1592  the  surveyors  of  Chigwell  presented  eight 
parishioners  at  Quarter  Sessions  for  refusing  to  do  their 
statute  duty  on  the  roads. 8  In  1682  the  Woolston 
manor  court  presented  the  surveyors  themselves  for 
failing  to  repair  a  footbridge  and  threatened  them  with 
a  penalty  of  £5  if  they  failed  in  the  future.' 

The  most  important  road  in  the  parish  in  early  times 
was  the  London-Abridge  road,  which  was  also  the 
main  road  (via  Theydon  Bois)  to  Epping.  This  follows 
closely  the  line  of  an  old  Roman  road,  passing  near  the 
site  of  a  Romano-British  settlement  near  Woolston. ■" 
The  charity  founded  in  1557  and  1562  by  Joan 
Sympson  for  the  repair  of  this  road  is  described  below 
(see  Charities).  Her  endowment  was  regularly  used 
for  this  purpose  in  the  i6th  and  17th  centuries,"  but 
in  spite  of  it  ten  rods  of  the  road  between  Chigwell 
village  and  Abridge  were  in  a  bad  condition  in  1647." 
From  1763  the  road  was  maintained  by  the  Middlesex 
and  Essex  Highway  Trust.'^  In  1866  the  parish 
resumed  responsibility  for  the  road.'*  In  1668  part  of 
the  road  between  Chigwell  and  Abridge  was  diverted 
near  Rolls  to  enable  the  owner  of  that  house.  Sir  Eliab 
Harvey,  to  extend  his  grounds." 

It  is  remarkable  that  until  1 890  there  was  no  proper 
road  between  Chigwell  and  Buckhurst  Hill.  Before 
that  there  was  only  a  track  running  from  Luxborough 
Lane,  through  the  Roding  and  along  Squirrels  Lane, 
which  lay  approximately  on  the  line  of  the  present 
Lower  Queen's  Road,  Buckhurst  Hill.  This  track  was 
often  obstructed.'^  A  'church  way'  from  Buckhurst 
Hill  to  the  parish  church  at  Chigwell  existed  in  1 586. 
As  it  included  three  stiles  it  was  presumably  a  foot- 
path." The  construction  of  a  new  road  across  the 
Roding  from  Buckhurst  Hill  to  Chigwell  was  discussed 
by  the  parish  vestry  in  1855  and  1 864.  Nothing,  how- 
ever, was  achieved  until  in  1 890  the  present  Roding 
Lane  was  opened.'*  Before  this  the  people  of  Buck- 
hurst Hill  could  only  reach  Chigwell,  without  fording 
the  river,  by  way  of  Woodford  or  by  Loughton 

Gravel  Lane,"  Pudding  (formerly  Patsalls)  Lane,^" 
Vicarage  Lane,^'  and  Hainault  Road  (formerly  Fortey 
or  Horn  Lane)^^  all  figure  in  records  from  early  times. 
They  were  all  gated  at  the  forest  end  to  keep  out  stray 
animals.23  The  gate  house  at  the  upper  end  of  Hainault 
Road  still  exists. 

The  road  from  Grange  Hill  to  Ilford  was  not  made 
until  1833,  and  that  from  Chigwell  Row  to  Romford 
about  30  years  earher;  both  were  paid  for  by  public 
subscription.^*  In  the  former  case,  however,  a  track 
must  previously  have  existed,  for  in  1662  Fortey 
Lane  was  described  as  the  road  from  Chigwell  to 

Manor  Road  undoubtedly  replaced  an  ancient 
track.2*  As  late  as  18 17,  however,  it  was  held  that  it 
was  not  a  public  highway  because  it  was  only  a  'fair 

'  Archd.  Essex  1 1 3  Thonder. 
'  P.C.C.  98  Leicester. 
»  E.R.O.,  Q/SR  119/29. 
'  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M102. 
■»  E.A.T.   N.s.   xvii,    188;   Notes  on  a 
Romano-British     Settlement     at     Ckigivell 
(Essex  Field  Club,  1903). 

"  E.R.  xix,  1—7,  70—77.    For  the  later 
history  of  the  endowment  see  Charities. 
■2  E.R.O.,Q/SR  332/51. 
"  Essex  Highways  Repairs  Act,  3  Geo. 

Ill,  C.58,  estabUshed  this  responsibility. 

14  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 66/8/1 1. 

'5  Cat.  S.P.  Dom.  1667-8,  72.  The 
Crown  granted  Harvey  licence  to  alter  the 
course  of  Loughton  Lane;  this  must  also 
have  involved  the  alteration  of  the  main 
road.  '<•  E.R.O.,  D/DDa  Mi-ii. 

■7  E.R.O.,  <2/SR  97/24. 

■s  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/11. 

■9  Gravelly  Lane,  1650:  E.R.O.,  D/DEs 

2»  P.Af.£'j«x(E.P.N.S.),  55;  also  Pater- 
sall  Lane,  1447:  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M94.. 

2*  Wycaryes  Lane,  1492:  will  of  John 
Hewyt,  Archd.  Essex  141  Winterborne. 

22  Robert  atte  Forteye  lived  at  Chigwell 
1293:  E326/885. 

2J  Chapman  and  Andre,  Maf  of  Essex, 
lyyy,  sheet  xvi. 

^•t  Kent  and  Essex  Mercury,  I  Sept.  1833. 

"  E.R.O.,  e/SR  392/12. 

2<>  E.A.T.  N.s.  xvii,  233-5. 



weather  road'.^'  Its  extension  from  Chigwell  Row  to 
Lambourne  End  {c.  1790)  has  been  described  under 

At  Buckhurst  Hill  the  Loughton-Woodford  road  is 
of  ancient  origin.  It  became  important  early  in  the  17th 
century  when  the  road  from  Loughton  to  Epping 
through  the  forest  was  completed,  thus  providing  a 
new  direct  route  from  London  to  Newmarket.^*  In 
the  18th  century  it  came  under  the  control  of  the 
Epping  and  Ongar  Highway  Trust,  which  about  1780 
remade  the  section  between  Buckhurst  Hill  and 
Loughton-^'  In  1834  the  trust  completed  its  new  road 
from  Woodford  to  Epping,  by-passing  Loughton.^o 
A  short  stretch  of  this  Epping  New  Road  runs  through 
Buckhurst  Hill. 

The  only  other  roads  in  Buckhurst  Hill  before  the 
19th  century  seem  to  have  been  a  lane  leading  from 
the  'Bald  Faced  Stag'  to  Langfords  (now  Westbury 
Lane)  and  another,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  main 
road,  leading  to  Whitehall  in  Chingford  (now  White- 
hall Lane).  In  1791  and  1796  the  parish  resisted 
magistrates'  orders  to  repair  the  latter  road. 3'  Of  the 
newer  roads  in  Buckhurst  Hill  Queens  Road  was  taken 
over  by  the  parish  in  1867,  Princes  Road  and  Victoria 
Crescent  in  1870,  Victoria  Road  in  1881,  and  Alfred 
Road,  Albert  Road,  Gladstone  Road,  and  Russell  Road 
in  1883.  Kings  Place  Road  was  taken  over  in  sections 
in  1870,  1879,  1881,  and  1883.32 

The  combined  Domesday  figures  for  Chigwell  Hall 
and  Woolston  give  a  total  of  2  3  villeins,  4  bordars,  and 
8  freemen  in  1066,  to  which  a  further  4  bordars  had 
been  added  by  1086.33  In  1391  there  were  72  houses 
in  the  parish.  There  was  a  small  concentration  round 
the  church  in  Chigwell  Street  but  most  of  the  houses 
were  scattered  throughout  the  parish.3't  They  prob- 
ably included  most  of  those  known  to  have  existed  in 
the  15th  century,  among  which  were  the  following:35 
Little  Londons,  Tumours,  Martins  (now  Marchings), 
Brownings,  Serjeants,  Birds,  and  Coles  (now  Taylors 
Farm)  in  Gravel  Lane;  Billingsbourne  in  Millers  Lane 
(off  Gravel  Lane);  Pettits  and  Barns  a/ias  Fulhams  in 
Pudding  Lane;  Appletons  (now  Old  Farm)  in  Green 
Lane  (a  track  off  Vicarage  Lane);  Tailours  and  the 
manor  house  of  Barringtons  (later  Rolls)  in  High  Road, 
and  Woolston  Hall  off  Abridge  Road.  At  Chigwell 
Row  were  Sheepcotes,  near  the  Lambourne  boundary, 
Whitehall  (formerly  Gullivers)  with  Goodhouse  and 
Haywards  near  by,  Skynners  which  later  became  the 
'Maypole'  and  stood  behind  the  site  of  the  more  recent 
inn  of  the  same  name.  Old  Bennetts,  Hatchmans,  Pear- 
smiths,  and  Page  Hall,  all  of  which  stood  near  the 
present  Hainault  Hall,  and  Hatch  House  near  the  later 
Clare  Hall,  with  perhaps  a  dozen  smaller  houses.  At 
Grange  Hill  there  was  Grange  Farm  and  in  Hainault 
Road,  Ekes  (formerly  Youngs).  In  Chigwell  village  a 
few  houses  are  known  to  have  existed  in  the  Middle 
Ages,  and  in  the  15th  century  there  were  probably 
more  than  a  dozen,  including  the  Grange,  Church 
House,  and  Ringleys  on  the  site  of  Grange  Court. 
Farther  south  in  High  Road  there  were  houses  at 
Broomhill  and  West  Hatch,  Brookhouse  Farm  and  the 
old  mansion  at  Luxborough.  At  Buckhurst  Hill  there 

were  a  few  houses  in  the  15  th  century,  among  them 
King's  Place  and  Monkhams. 

Some  of  these  houses  have  disappeared  and  the  others 
have  been  rebuilt  or  so  much  altered  as  to  leave  few 
traces  of  their  early  origin.  Among  the  oldest  surviving 
houses  in  the  parish  are  the  Retreat  at  Chigwell  Row, 
Woolston  Hall  (see  Manors),  Marchings,  and  Brown- 
ings, all  of  which  date  from  the  i6th  or  early  17th 
centuries.  Marchings  is  a  two-story  house,  timber- 
framed  and  roughcast.  It  was  probably  built  early  in 
the  1 6th  century  but  has  been  much  altered.  Brown- 
ings is  a  two-story  building,  also  timber-framed  and 
roughcast,  with  an  old  tile  roof.  It  has  a  front  of  three 
gables,  the  centre  one  being  much  wider  than  the 
others.  The  Retreat,  now  a  cafe,  was  probably  built 
in  the  i6th  century  but  only  a  small  part  of  the  present 
building  is  original.  There  are  old  timbers  inside. 
Details  of  some  Chigwell  houses  and  their  furnishings 
in  the  1 5th-i7th  centuries  are  contained  in  the  printed 
series  'Old  Chigwell  Wills'.36 

In  1 67 1  there  were  168  houses  and  two  forges  in 
the  parish.3'  In  addition  to  the  houses  already  men- 
tioned were  Bacons  (on  the  site  of  Montfort  House), 
Morgans  (later  Great  House  and  now  the  Grove), 
Wheelers  a/ias  Butlers  Bennetts  (now  the  Chace), 
Langhall  (now  the  Foxhounds),  Taylors  Hall  (on  the 
site  of  Willow  House),  Clare  Hall,  Bowls,  and  some 
cottages,  all  in  Manor  Road.  In  Pudding  Lane  Clark's 
tenement  (later  Burnt  House)  had  been  built  and  in 
Chigwell  village  there  were  houses  on  nearly  all  the 
present  sites.  The  original  manor  house  of  Chigwell 
Hall  had  fallen  into  disuse  after  the  building  of  a  new 
house  near  the  church  (see  Manors).  Existing  houses 
which  in  their  present  form  date  from  the  17th  century 
are  the  'King's  Head',  Chigwell  School,  Harsnetts, 
Woodlands  at  Chigwell  Row,  the  Foxhounds,  Brook- 
house  Farm,  Church  House,  Pettits  Hall  lodge. 
Tumours  and  possibly  Grange  Court. 

The  'King's  Head'  in  Chigwell  village  was  made 
famous  by  Dickens  in  Barnaby  Rudge,  where  it  figures 
as  the  'Maypole'.  It  was  an  important  inn.  From  1713 
and  possibly  earlier  it  was  regularly  used  for  meetings 
of  the  Court  of  Attachments  of  Waltham  Forest.3  8  In 
the  1 850's  it  was  a  favourite  resort  of  public  authorities 
banqueting  at  the  public  expense,  and  was  famous  for 
pigeon  pie.39  The  main  part  of  the  building  is  of  three 
stories  with  attics  and  cellars  and  exposed  timber- 
framing.  Each  upper  story  overhangs  and  there  are 
four  various-sized  gables.  There  is  a  large  roughcast 
chimney-stack  with  diagonal  shafts.  There  have  been 
many  alterations  and  additions  to  the  building.  The 
Chester  Room  on  the  first  floor  has  17th-century 

The  original  part  of  Chigwell  School  was  built  soon 
after  the  foundation  of  the  school  in  1629.^"  It  is  a 
one-story  building  of  red  brick  with  an  old  tile  roof. 
There  have  been  additions  in  the  1 8th  century  and 
later.  Harsnetts  is  a  two-story  building  opposite  the 
school,  now  divided  into  two  houses. 

Woodlands,  at  Chigwell  Row,  is  a  two-story  build- 
ing, roughcast,  with  a  tile  roof  and  a  rebuilt  chimney- 
stack  of  four  shafts.  The  'Fox  and  Hounds'  consists  of 

2'  Chelmsford  Chronicle  i  Aug.  and 
14  Nov.  1817  ;  indictment  at  Essex  Assizes 
against  the  parish  for  failure  to  repair  the 

28  See  history  of  Loughton. 

"  Ibid. 

30  Ibid. 

3'  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/10. 
"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/1 1. 
33  r.C.H.  Essex,  i,  432*,  553A. 

3*   £179/147/60. 

35  The  following  details  of  local  houses 
have  been  gathered  from  the  author's  col- 
lection of  notes  and  abstracts  of  court  rolls, 

public  and  private  records  and  other  sources. 
3'  E.A.T.  N.s.  I,  237,  312;  xi,  10,  150, 


37  E.R.O.,  6/RTh  5. 

38  W.  R.  Fisher,  Forest  of  Essex,  95. 
35  Dickensian,  xv,  211. 

«  y.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  544. 




two  stories  and  attics  and  is  of  red  brick.  Brookhouse 
Farm  is  a  timber-framed  and  roughcast  building  having 
an  old  tile  roof  and  a  central  chimney-stack  with  six 
diagonal  shafts.  Church  House,  though  mainly  of  the 
1 8th  century,  incorporates  obvious  remains  of  a  17th- 
century  building,  including  a  chimney-stack.  It  is  of 
two  stories,  timber-framed,  and  roughcast.  Pettits 
Hall  lodge  is  of  similar  construction,  with  a  cross  gable 
overhanging  to  the  right.^'  Tumours,  on  one  of  the 
oldest  sites  in  the  parish,  is  particularly  interesting.  In 
the  entrance  hall  there  is  a  fine  17th-century  fireplace. 
Late  in  the  i  gth  century  the  house  was  encased  in  red 
brick  in  Gothic  style.  Cloisters  were  built  on  the  north 
side  and  a  chapel  behind  the  house  to  the  west.  These 
alterations  were  probably  planned  by  Miss  Ada  Palmer. 
The  Palmers  lived  at  Tumours  from  about  i860  to 
about  1914.'*^  Ada  was  a  painter  and  sculptor  and 
many  of  her  works  are  preserved  in  the  house.  During 
the  Second  World  War  Tumours  was  used  for  military 
purposes  and  a  hutted  camp  was  built  in  the  fields  to 
the  north-west.  After  the  war  the  house  was  acquired 
by  Dr.  N.  Beattie  of  Ilford  and  maintained  by  hipi  as 
an  International  Youth  Centre.^3  Grange  Court, 
which  was  remodelled  in  1774  was  probably  built  in 
the  late  17th  or  early  i8th  century.  It  is  a  large  and 
handsome  three-story  house  with  lower  side  wings,  and 
is  built  mainly  of  stock  brick.  It  is  now  part  of  Chigwell 

During  the  i8th  and  early  19th  centuries  several 
new  houses  were  built  in  the  parish  and  many  old  ones 
greatly  altered  or  completely  rebuilt.  Among  those 
which  in  their  present  form  date  from  the  i8th  century 
are  Chigwell  Lodge,  Brook  House,  the  stables  at 
Barton  Friars  (originally  the  stables  to  Grange  Court), 
Vine  Cottage,  and  Tailours,  in  High  Road,  and  Sheep- 
cotes  and  Hainault  Hall  at  Chigwell  Row.  Flint 
Cottage,  The  Haylands,  Little  Haylands,  and  Belmont 
Park,  in  High  Road,  are  of  the  early  19th  century. 
Crosby  House  at  Chigwell  Row  is  an  early-i  9th-century 
remodelling  of  an  18th-century  house.  Great  West 
Hatch,  New  Barns  in  Luxborough  Lane,  and  Barring- 
ton  Lodge  and  Forest  House  at  Chigwell  Row  were 
entirely  new  houses  built  in  the  i8th  century.  Many 
smaller  houses  also  date  from  the  i8th  and  earlier  19th 
centuries.  The  old  house  at  Luxborough  was  replaced 
about  1 720  by  a  large  mansion,  but  this  was  demolished 
about  1800.  There  was  small-scale  but  continuous 
new  building  throughout  the  parish  and  by  185 1  there 
were  396  houses  of  all  sizes.*^ 

The  population  of  the  parish  was  1,351  in  1801. 
By  1 841  it  had  risen  to  2,059.  It  declined  slightly  to 
1,965  in  i85i.''5  Between  1850  and  1870  Chigwell 
Row  was  greatly  changed  by  the  inclosure  and  destruc- 
tion of  most  of  Hainault  Forest  (see  Agriculture).  At 
Buckhurst  Hill  part  of  Epping  Forest  was  inclosed  and 
some  of  it  built  over. 

The  rapid  building  at  Buckhurst  Hill  was  a  result 
of  the  extension  of  the  railway  from  Woodford  to 
Loughton.  By  1871  there  were  1,080  houses  in  Chig- 
well parish,  nearly  all  the  increase  being  at  Buckhurst 
Hill.'^*  The  only  other  building  of  any  importance  had 

been  in  Hainault  Road.*'  By  1891  the  number  of 
houses  had  increased  to  i,27i.'»8  The  population  of 
the  parish  rose  to  6,324  in  1891  and  7,294  in  igoi.*' 

It  is  interesting  to  compare  the  development  of 
Buckhurst  Hill  between  1851  and  1901  with  that  of 
Loughton  (q.v.).  Both  places  were  affected  at  the  same 
time  by  the  coming  of  the  railway  and  both  were 
involved  in  the  controversy  concerning  the  inclosure 
of  Epping  Forest.50  At  Buckhurst  Hill  development 
was  much  more  rapid  than  at  Loughton  and  was  much 
more  concentrated  round  the  railway  station.  In- 
closures  from  the  forest  were  much  smaller  at  Buckhurst 
Hill  than  at  Loughton,  mainly  because  Buckhurst  Hill 
had  a  smaller  forest  frontage,  but  most  of  the  inclosures 
at  Buckhurst  Hill  were  more  quickly  built  over  and 
thus  became  exempt  from  the  provisions  of  the  Epping 
Forest  Act  of  1878.  Loughton's  growth  took  place 
within  the  framework  of  an  ancient  village.  At  Buck- 
hurst Hill  a  new  town  sprang  up  on  farm  land  and 

Growth  was  much  slower  after  1 901.  The  opening 
of  the  Woodford-Ilford  loop  line  in  1903  caused  some 
building  in  Chigwell  viOage  and  at  Grange  Hill,  and 
there  was  also  some  development  near  Woodford 
Bridge.  In  193 1  the  total  population  was  8,948 
(Buckhurst  Hill  U.D.  5,486;  Chigwell  C.P.  3,462). 
Between  193 1  and  1939  there  was  much  new  build- 
ing, in  Hainault  Road,  Manor  Road,  Forest  Lane, 
High  Road,  and  in  various  parts  of  Buckhurst  Hill, 
especially  at  Monkhams.  Shortly  before  1939  Chigwell 
lost  one  of  its  oldest  houses,  the  Grange  in  High  Road, 
which  was  demolished  after  a  fire."  It  dated  from  the 
15th  century.52 

Since  1945  restrictions  have  prevented  large-scale 
private  building,  and  much  of  Chigwell  has  been 
designated  as  a  part  of  'the  Green  Belt'.  The  new 
Hainault  estate,  however,  has  added  1,900  houses  to 
the  urban  district  since  1945.  There  has  also  been 
some  building  of  local  council  houses.  ■  The  Grange 
Farm  Camp,  Chigwell,  opened  in  195 1,  provides 
large-scale  facilities  for  camping,  swimming,  and  many 
other  types  of  athletics  (see  also  Charities).  In  1953 
the  population  of  Chigwell  Ward  was  estimated  at 
14,000  and  that  of  Buckhurst  Hill  Ward  at  i2,ooo.5J 

There  was  a  regular  coach  service  from  Chigwell  to 
the  'Blue  Boar'  at  Aldgate  from  1790.54  In  the  1820's 
Mary  Draper  of  the  'King's  Head'  ran  a  daily  service 
to  Aldgate. 55  In  1840  a  coach  left  the  'Maypole'  at 
Chigwell  Row  every  morning,  calling  at  the  'King's 
Head'  on  its  journey  to  the  'Three  Nuns',  White- 
chapel,  and  returning  by  the  same  route  in  the  even- 
ing.5*  In  1845  the  Ongar  coach  to  London  also  passed 
the  'King's  Head'. 5'  William  Fowling  kept  a  coach  at 
his  house  next  to  the  'Maypole'  at  Chigwell  Row;  from 
1 844  it  ran  from  there  to  the  'King's  Head'  and  back 
to  connect  with  the  Ongar  coach.s*  After  his  death  iri 
1 84859  his  widow  kept  two  coaches  for  some  years,  one 
ran  to  London  daily  and  the  other  to  the  newly  opened 
railway  station  at  Ilford.*"  In  1858  these  coaches  were  _ 
taken  over  by  William  Claydon  who  in  1864  moved  to 
Vicarage  Lane.*'   For  many  years  before  the  building 

<■  This   is   the  old    Pettits   Hall.    The 
present  house  of  that  name  is  modern. 
"  Kellys  Dir.  Eneic  (1859  ^O- 
*'  Inf.  from  Mrs.  Beattie. 
♦*  H.O.  107/1770,  195/1. 
45  y. CM.  Essex,  \\.  350. 
■•'  Census  Retn.  1 87 1. 
«  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/16-18. 

<8  Census  Retn.  1891. 
*•>  V.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  350. 
s»  See     Loughton;     also     Agriculture, 
below.  51  £•.;?.  li,  13. 

52  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  48. 

53  Inf.  from  Chigwell  U.D.C. 
5-t  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/28/9. 

55  Dickensian,  xv,  21 1 ;  Pigol's  Dir.  Essex 

5'  Pigot's  Dir.  Essex  (1840). 
5'  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1845). 

58  Ibid. 

59  Chigwell  Par.  Reg. 

«»  ff'Aile's  Dir.  Essex  (1848). 
<"  Chigwell    Par.    Reg.;    E.R.O., 




of  the  Ilford  loop  a  coach  ran  every  morning  and  even- 
ing to  Woodford  station,  the  Ilford  coach  being  dis- 
continued.*^ Coaches  owned  by  Nelson  of  the  'Bull', 
Aldgate,  ran  to  Chigwell  Row  until  i868.*3  In  1848 
Henry  Chipperfield  ran  a  wagon  three  times  a  week 
from  Chigwell  to  London  and  John  Wilton  ran  one 
daily  from  Chigwell  Row.*^  In  1878  William  Claydon 
ran  a  wagon  to  London  four  times  a  week.*5 

Before  the  building  of  the  railways  Buckhurst  Hill 
had  many  coaches  passing  through  every  day,  to 
London,  Cambridge,  Norwich,  Bury  St.  Edmunds, 
Dunmow,  and  elsewhere. 

The  Eastern  Counties  Railway  extended  its  line 
from  Woodford  to  Loughton  in  1856,  with  a  station 
at  Buckhurst  Hill.  In  1903  the  Ilford  loop  was 
opened,  with  stations  at  Chigwell  and  Grange  Hill.** 
In  1937  a  new  station  was  opened  at  Roding  Valley,  on 
this  loop,  to  serve  the  southern  part  of  Buckhurst  Hill. 

In  1839  there  were  postal  receiving  houses  at  Chig- 
well and  Chigwell  Row.*'  By  1863  there  were  two 
post-offices  at  Chigwell,  and  sub-post-offices  at  Chigwell 
Row  and  Buckhurst  Hill.**  By  1874  there  was  a  tele- 
graph office  at  Chigwell.*'  In  1886  there  were  two 
post-offices  at  Buckhurst  Hill,  one  of  them  having  the 
telegraph,  and  the  Chigwell  Row  office  also  had  the 
telegraph.'"  The  telephone  was  in  use  at  Buckhurst 
Hill  by  about  1906."  By  1922  there  was  a  telephone 
exchange  in  Chigwell  village.'^ 

The  first  serious  attempt  to  improve  sanitation  was 
in  1854,  when  the  Epping 
P  UBLIC  SERFICES  Guardians  appointed  a  paro- 
chial committee  to  remove 
nuisances.'3  Such  committees  were  again  appointed  in 
1857  and  1859.'*  In  1868  the  vestry  decided  to  ap- 
point a  Sewer  Authority  under  the  Sewage  Utilization 
Acts,  1865  and  1867,  and  the  Sanitary  Acts,  1866  and 
i868.'5  Two  months  later  it  resolved  to  appoint  mem- 
bers of  this  authority,  but  another  resolution  to  form  a 
Special  Drainage  District  for  Buckhurst  Hill  was  with- 
drawn after  strong  opposition.'*  A  sewage-disposal 
plant  was  installed  at  Buckhurst  Hill,  but  the  growth  of 
this  part  of  the  parish  soon  overtaxed  the  plant.  In  1 876 
a  local  doctor  complained  to  the  vestry  of  the  filthy  state 
of  the  roads,  ponds,  and  cesspools  in  lower  Buckhurst 
Hill."  This  protest  was  largely  instrumental  in  obtain- 
ing an  improved  plant.'*  From  1870  the  local  com- 
mittee was  controlled  by  the  Epping  Rural  Sanitary 
Authority."  In  1895  the  Buckhurst  Hill  Urban  Dis- 
trict Council  became  responsible  for  sewage  disposal 
within  its  area,  and  the  Epping  Rural  District  in  the 
restof  the  ancient  parish.*"  In  1933  the  whole  area  was 
taken  over  by  Chigwell  Urban  District  Council. 

In  1874  water  was  being  supplied  to  Buckhurst  Hill 

by  the  East  London  Waterworks  Co.  In  that  year  the 
parish  vestry  tried  unsuccessfully  to  arrange  for  supplies 
to  be  extended  to  Chigwell  and  Chigwell  Row.*'  It 
made  another  attempt  in  1879.*^  The  date  at  which 
the  extension  took  place  is  not  known,  but  by  1907 
Chigwell  and  Chigwell  Row  were  being  supplied  by 
the  Metropolitan  Water  Board,  successor  to  the  East 
London  company. *3  The  company  had  opened  a 
reservoir  at  Buckhurst  Hill  about  1895,  to  replace  the 
previous  water  tower.**  A  mineral  spring  at  Chigwell 
Row  which  existed  in  the  i8th  century  had  fallen  out 
of  use  by  about  i8oo.*5 

The  Chigwell  and  Woodford  Bridge  Gas  Co.  was 
formed  in  1 863  and  gradually  extended  its  area.  By 
1867  it  was  supplying  gas  to  Buckhurst  Hill.  In  1873 
it  was  reincorporated  as  the  Chigwell,  Loughton  and 
Woodford  Gas  Co.  Its  works  were  in  Snakes  Lane, 
Woodford.**  In  191 2  it  was  taken  over  by  the  Gas 
Light  and  Coke  Co.*' 

Electricity  was  brought  to  Chigwell  soon  after  the 
First  World  War  by  the  County  of  London  Electric 
Supply  Co.** 

An  unsuccessful  attempt  in  1792  to  build  a  pest- 
house  in  Chigwell  is  described  below  (see  Parish 
Government  and  Poor  Relief).  A  Village  Hospital, 
supported  by  subscription,  was  opened  at  Buckhurst 
Hill  about  1875,  on  the  initiative  of  Dr.  C.  H.  Living- 
stone.*' The  Medical  Provident  Home,  Buckhurst 
Hill,  was  opened  about  1890.''"  These  hospitals  were 
closed  in  191 2  when  the  Forest  Hospital  was  opened  at 
Buckhurst  Hill."  This  was  extended  in  1920  and 
1930.9^  It  is  now  administered  by  the  Forest  Hospital 
Management  Committee. '3 

Great  West  Hatch  was  formerly  a  branch  home 
of  the  Royal  Eastern  Counties  Institution  for  Mental 
Defectives. '■•  It  was  taken  over  by  the  London  County 
Council  about  1938  and  is  now  under  the  South 
Ockendon  Hospital  Management  Committee's  The 
neighbouring  Little  West  Hatch  is  under  the  same 
management.'*  The  Epping  Hospital  Management 
Committee  has  recently  opened  a  Chest  Clinic  at  Buck- 
hurst Hill." 

The  Female  Refuge  Home,  Buckhurst  Hill,  opened 
about  1875  and  later  known  as  the  Preventive  Training 
Homes,  under  the  Rescue  Society  for  Girls,  continued 
until  1914.'* 

A  Female  Benefit  Society  meeting  at  Chigwell  Row 
was  registered  in  1808,  and  the  Anchor  and  Hope 
Benefit  Society  meeting  at  Buckhurst  Hill  in  1832." 

In  1884  the  vestry  resolved  to  maintain  a  fire  engine 
which  was  to  be  purchased  by  public  subscription.' 
This  was  later  taken  over  by  the  Buckhurst  HiU  Urban 
District  Council,  which  built  a  new  fire  station.^  This 

«>  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1874  f-)- 

"  Dkkensian,xv,  14.7. 

<•*  IVhite's  Dir.  Essex  (1848). 

's  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  {i%7i). 

"  E.R.  xii,  165-70. 

"  Figot's  Dir.  Essex  (1839). 

'8  IVhite's  Dir.  Essex  (1863). 

<">  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1874). 

'»  Ibid.  1886. 

"  The  National  Telephone  Co.  opened 
services  in  Loughton  (q.v.),  which  adjoins 
Buckhurst  Hill,  in  1906. 

'»  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1922). 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/11. 

'♦  Ibid. 

"  Ibid.  The  Acts  were  28  &  29  Vict. 
(1865)  C.75;  30&  31  Vict.  (1867)  c.  113; 
29  &  30  Vict.  (1866)  C.41  ;  31  &  32  Vict. 

(1868)  ciis. 
'«  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/11. 
"  Ibid. 

'8  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/24/20-22. 
"  Ibid.  1 66/24/ 1. 
80  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1899). 
»■  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/11. 

82  Ibid. 

83  E.R.  xvi,  57. 

8*  Buckhurst  Hill,  pub.  J.  W.  Phelp 
{c.  1897:  a  local  handbook). 

8s  Miller  Christy  and  M.  Thresh, 
Mineral  Waters  of  Essex,  p.  43. 

8*  Chigwell,  Loughton  and  Woodford 
Gas  Act,  36-37  Vict,  c.xxi  (1873); 
E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/31-33  (Rate-books). 

87  S.  Everard,  Hist.  Gas  Light  &  Coke  Co. 

88  Personal  knowledge. 

89  Buckhurst  Hill,  ed.  J.  W.  Phelp. 

90  Ibid.  The  booklet  contains  photos  of 
the  Village  Hospital  and  the  Provident 

9'  E.R.  xxi,  224. 
«2  E.R.  xxxix.  156. 

93  HospitalsDir.  Eng.  and  ff'ales  (1952), 
p.  70. 

94  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1933). 

95  Hospitals  Dir.  (1952),  p.  77. 

96  Ibid,  i  personal  knowledge. 
9'  Hospitals  Dir.  (1952),  p.  73. 

98  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1878,  1914). 

99  E.R.O.,  g/SO  20/225,  33/'97.  2'°- 

1  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/11. 

2  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1899);  Buckhurst 
Hill,  ed.  J.  W.  Phelp. 




was  closed  in  1933,  after  the  opening  of  the  stations  at 
Loughton  and  Grange  Farm,  Chigwell.3 

Allotments  were  instituted  by  the  parish  vestry  in 
1867  at  Grange  Hill  and  Ghigwell  Row.'' 

The  origin  of  the  Chigwell  Row  recreation  ground 
is  mentioned  below  (see  Agriculture).  It  has  been  taken 
over  by  the  Urban  District  Council,  which  has  also 
provided  grounds  near  Chigwell  station  and  at  Roding 
Valley.  The  Buckhurst  Hill  recreation  ground  has  also 
been  taken  over  by  the  council. s 

Until  the  19th  century  Chigwell  was  a  rural  parish 
devoted  mainly  to  agriculture. 
JGRIC  ULTURE  The  soil  is  clay.  At  Buckhurst  Hill 
and  Chigwell  Row  there  were  for- 
merly extensive  stretches  of  woodland  forming  part  of 
Epping  Forest  and  Hainan  It  Forest.  Apart  from  the 
forests  the  southern  part  of  the  parish  has  always  been 
used  for  pasture,  possibly  because  most  of  the  wealthier 
inhabitants  lived  there  and  preferred  such  surroundings. 
The  remainder  of  the  parish  has  always  contained  a 
higher  proportion  of  arable  land,  but  even  there  pasture 
has  predominated. 

Little  is  known  of  agricultural  practices  in  the  parish 
during  the  Middle  Ages.  Certain  iields  at  Buckhurst 
Hill  appear  to  have  been  still  divided  into  strips  in  the 
13th  century  but  were  consolidated  after  coming  into 
the  possession  of  Waltham  Abbey  about  1300.*  Such 
records  as  remain  of  this  period  show  that  pigs  were  the 
main  source  of  revenue,  as  was  usual  in  this  part  of 
Essex,  where  the  forests  provided  good  pannage.' 
Assarts  from  the  forests  were  numerous  in  the  1 3  th  and 
14th  centuries,  although  rarely  of  more  than  an  acre  in 
extent.*  At  Woolston  in  the  15th  century  pigs  were 
still  the  most  common  animals,  but  cattle,  sheep,  and 
geese  were  also  kept."  Most  of  the  arable  land  appears 
to  have  been  worked  by  the  lord  of  the  manor  using 
customary  labour  until  towards  the  end  of  the  15th 
century,  when  labour  services  had  been  generally  com- 
muted.'" Between  13 12  and  1534  some  100  acres 
arable  belonging  to  the  demesne  of  Woolston  had  been 
converted  into  pasture."  Grazing  land  was  certainly  . 
regarded  as  more  profitable  than  arable.  The  will  of 
John  Fuller  of  Serjeants,  dated  1 671,  charged  his 
widow  to  'make  no  waste  by  ploughing'  on  the  land 
which  he  left  her  in  trust  for  his  children.'^  An  unusual 
crop,  greenweed,  was  raised  in  a  field  at  Buckhurst  Hill 
in  1664. '3   It  was  probably  used  for  dye. 

During  the  i8th  century  more  land  probably  passed 
under  cultivation.  A  tithe  survey  of  1800  shows  that 
there  were  then  973  acres  of  arable.  Wheat  accounted 
for  280  acres,  oats  291  acres,  potatoes  32  acres,  barley 
25  acres,  beans,  peas,  and  vetches  26  acres,  and  seeds 
129  acres  with  190  acres  fallow.  There  were  2,310 
acres  of  grassland  and  30  acres  of  privately  owned 
woodland.  The  remaining  1,696  acres  of  the  parish 
were  made  up  mainly  of  the  forest  waste  at  Chigwell 
Row  and  Buckhurst  Hill.'*  According  to  Vancouver's 
tables  of  1794  the  yield  of  crops  was  slightly  above  the 

average  for  the  county.'s  James  Hatch  of  Claybury  in 
Barking,  lord  of  Chigwell  Hall,  who  owned  some  800 
acres  in  Chigwell  apart  from  waste,  was  one  of  the 
correspondents  who  supplied  Arthur  Young  with  in- 
formation for  his  General  View  of  Agriculture  in  Essex 
(1807).  He  reported  that  crops  of  potatoes,  well 
manured  on  a  rotational  system,  had  obviated  fallow 
land.  He  stated  also  that  fourteen  years  was  the  mini- 
mum lease  that  he  would  grant  because  tenants  could 
not  'make  the  necessary  exertions  in  draining  and 
manuring  under  a  shorter  term'.'*  Young  considered 
that  the  forest  waste  in  Chigwell  was  a  handicap  to 
good  husbandry,  any  advantage  gained  by  rights  of 
common  being  far  outweighed  by  the  damage  done  by 
deer  and  poachers."  He  suggested  that  750  acres 
waste  worth  %s.  6J.  an  acre  could  be  improved  to  25/. 
by  inclosure. 

Small  inclosures  had  been  continuing  in  the  1 6th  and 
17th  centuries,  sometimes  by  grant  in  manor  courts  and 
sometimes  by  silent  encroachment.'*  In  1851  Hainault 
Forest  was  disafforested  by  Act  of  Parliament."  The 
Hainault  Forest  Allotment  of  Commons  Act,  iSjS,*" 
provided  that  701  acres  (mainly  within  the  parish  of 
Chigwell)  should  be  allotted  as  common  of  that  parish. 
By  the  Chigwell  Inclosure  Award  1863  most  of  this 
common  was  inclosed.^'  The  largest  allotments  went 
to  James  Mills,  lord  of  the  manor  of  Chigwell  Hall, 
who  received  209  acres,  and  Mrs.  Lloyd  of  Barringtons, 
who  was  granted  72  acres  absolutely  and  an  additional 
50  acres  on  condition  that  she  maintained  it  for  use  as 
a  public  recreation  ground. ^^ 

Meanwhile,  at  Buckhurst  Hill,  inclosures  were  being 
made  from  Epping  Forest.  In  1858  James  Mills  pur- 
chased the  forestal  rights  of  the  Crown  in  his  manor  of 
Ghigwell  Hall.^3  The  Epping  Forest  Commission  re- 
ported in  1877  that  257  acres  had  been  illegally  inclosed 
within  this  manor  between  185 1  and  1871.2''  By  1877 
most  of  these  inclosures  had  been  built  on  or  had  be- 
come private  gardens  and  were  therefore  exempt  from 
the  provisions  of  the  subsequent  Epping  Forest  Acts. 
An  important  exception  was  Lords  Bushes,  which  con- 
tained 92  acres  and  became  part  of  the  forest  once  more 
under  those  Acts.  Unlike  those  at  Chigwell  Row,  there- 
fore, the  inclosures  at  Buckhurst  Hill  did  not  signi- 
ficantly increase  the  agricultural  acreage. 

A  fair  proportion  of  the  parish  is  still  devoted  to 
farming,  mostly  in  the  north  and  east,  and  is  now  evenly 
divided  between  arable  and  pasture  land. 

From  medieval  times  men  with  interests  in  London 
have  made  their  country  homes 
OTHER  OCCUPJ-  in  Chigwell,"  and  the  indi- 
TIONS  genous  population,  when  not 

engaged  in  agriculture,  has 
been  largely  occupied  in  catering  for  their  needs,  either 
in  goods  or  services.  In  the  second  half  of  the  17th  cen- 
tury four  cordwainers,  a  butcher,  a  weaver,  a  mason,  a- 
carpenter,  and  a  brickmaker  are  named  in  various 
records.^*  They  are  typical  of  the  tradesmen  generally 

3  Buckhurst  Hillj  ChigijueU  dnd  Lough- 
ton Oficial  Guide. 

*  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/11. 

5  Official  Guide.  <>  E.R.  Ivii,  96-99. 

'  E32/12,  13,  16. 

«  Ibid. ;  W.  R.  Fisher,  Forest  of  Essex, 

»  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M  94  ff.  (Court  Rolls 
of  Woolston). 

'»  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M94-95.  For  a 
manorial  grange  and  bakehouse  in  the 
Middle  Ages  see  Parish  Government. 

■'  E.R.  Ixii  (Jan.),  51. 

"■  Archd.  Essex,  131  Atterbury. 

■3  E.R.O.,e/SR  402/131. 

M  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/3/1. 

'5  Young,  Gen.  View  of  Agric.  in  Essex, 

i.  325.  354- 
"■  Ibid,  i,  395.  "  Ibid,  u,  95. 

18  E.R.O.,  D/DDa  M14,  D/DU  97/2. 
'«  14  &  15  Vict.  C.43. 

21    21   &  22  Vict.  C.37. 

"  E.R.O.,   g/RDc   66.     For   Hainault 
Forest  before  inclosure  see  Chapman  and 


Andre,  Map  of  Essex,  I'jyy,  sheet  xvi. 

22  The  recreation  ground  was  at  Chigwell 
Row,  adjoining  the  remaining  portion  of 
Hainault  Forest. 

23  W.  R.  Fisher,  Forest  of  Essex,  352. 

24  Rep.  of  Epping  Forest  Com.  H.C.  187, 
pp.  79-81  (1877),  xxvi. 

25  Court  Rolls  :E.R.O.,  D/DDa  Mi-i  3, 
D/DEs  M80-109,  D/DU  97/1-9;  Wills 
and  other  records. 

^^  Abstracts  of  records  in  possession  of 
the  author. 


until  late  in  the  19th  century.  In  1848,  in  addition  to 
the  usual  shopkeepers,  there  were  a  pianoforte  maker 
(at  Chigwell  Row),  a  violin-bridge  maker  (at  Chigwell), 
and  a  brewer."  A  map  of  1858  shows  'Hainan It 
Brewery'  in  the  position  of  the  present  Forest  Cottages, 
near  the  'Maypole'  at  Chigwell  Row,^*  but  it  seems  to 
have  closed  soon  after.^' 

In  1 85 1  there  were  1,294  persons  over  14  years  of 
age  in  the  parish,  of  whom  438  were  engaged  in  agri- 
culture, 320  were  domestic  servants  or  gardeners,  221 
were  professional  business  people  or  gentry,  1 5  5  local 
tradesmen,  60  were  engaged  in  the  building  trades,  3  5 
were  licensed  victuallers  or  their  servants,  19  were 
police,  forest  keepers,  or  other  officials,  1 1  carriers,  8 
were  still  at  school,  and  27  unemployed  paupers.  One 
house.  Rolls,  had  15  servants,  another  10,  and  5  houses 
had  6  or  7.30 

There  is  evidence  of  brickmaking  from  the  17th  cen- 
tury onwards.  In  1668  Sir  Eliab  Harvey  of  Rolls  was 
granted  a  royal  licence  to  inclose  land  near  his  house  to 
make  bricks.^'  A  brickworks  at  Luxborough  has 
operated  intermittently  for  nearly  a  century,  and  bricks 
have  been  made  at  the  lower  end  of  Buckhurst  Hill 
since  1870.'^  Much  of  the  output  of  these  works 
was  used  for  local  building.  Both  works  have  been 
owned  in  recent  times  by  Messrs.  W.  and  C.  French 
Ltd.  of  Buckhurst  Hill,  a  business  which  was  started  by 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  French  in  the  i86o's,  with  a  fleet  of 
carts  largely  occupied  in  supplying  gravel  to  parish 
authorities  for  roads.  From  this  beginning  it  has  risen 
to  be  one  of  the  largest  public  works  contractors  in  the 
world.  The  head  office  is  still  at  Buckhurst  Hill. 33 

From  1800  until  1843  a  watch-making  business  was 
carried  on  at  Marchings  in  Gravel  Lane  by  John  Roger 
Arnold.3'*  He  was  the  son  of  John  Arnold  (1736  .'-99), 
a  noted  watchmaker  who  made  a  number  of  improve- 
ments in  the  design  of  chronometers.35  J.  R.  Arnold 
was  associated  with  Dent  and  Arnold  of  the  Strand, 
London,  and  in  182 1  patented,  from  Chigwell,  an  im- 
proved expansion  balance  for  chronometers.3*  His 
foreman,  Thomas  Prest  (d.  1852),  started  business  on 
his  own  account  at  Chigwell  Row  in  1821.37  He 
patented  in  1820  the  attached  winding  movement  of 
watches,  as  opposed  to  the  detached  key.3  8  His  business 
was  continued  by  his  son  Thomas  Prest  (d.  i877).39 

In  recent  years  planning  authorities  have  not  con- 
sidered the  parish  suitable  for  industrial  development, 
except  for  a  small  area  in  lower  Buckhurst  Hill.*"  Local 
employment  has  therefore  been  mainly  confined  to 
agriculture,  the  distributive  trades,  and  catering  for 
visitors  to  Epping  and  Hainault  Forests.'" 

A  hiring  fair  was  being  held  at  Chigwell  on  30  Sep- 
tember each  year  in  the  period  1792  to  about  i860.  It 
had  ceased  before  1888.''^ 

The  best-known  inn  at  Chigwell,  the  'King's  Head', 
has  been  mentioned  above  (see  p.  20).   The  present 

'Maypole'  at  Chigwell  Row  was  built  in  front  of  an 
earlier  house.''3  There  has  been  an  inn  there  at  least 
since  1770,  and  the  old  house,  now  demolished,  can  be 
traced  back  to  1505.''''  In  1843  the  'Maypole'  served 
over  2,000  customers  from  Fairlop  Fair  after  the  magis- 
trates had  refused  permission  for  refreshments  to  be  sold 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  fair.'ts  At  Buckhurst  Hill 
the  'Roebuck'  now  stands  slightly  south  of  its  former 
site,  where  it  stood  at  least  since  1770.**  It  was  popu- 
lar in  the  late  1 9th  century  as  a  resort  of  Londoners 
visiting  Epping  Forest.  The  'Bald  Faced  Stag'  has  been 
traced  by  name  back  to  1752.'"  It  was  probably  the 
house  of  Richard  Dennis  who  in  1720  described  himself 
as  a  victualler.''*  The  'Bald  Hind'  at  Grange  Hill  was 
known  in  1770  as  the  'Bald  Faced  Hind'.'"  The  'JoUy 
Wheelers'  near  Woodford  Bridge  first  appears  by  name 
in  1778.50 

James  Basire  (1769-1822),  engraver,  lived  and  died 
at  Chigwell  Row.  His  eldest  son 
fFORTHIES''  James  (1796-1 869),  also  an  engraver, 
was  born  there.  Samuel  Bellin  ( 1 799— 
1893),  another  engraver,  spent  his  early  life  at  Burnt 
House  in  Pudding  Lane.  Henrietta  Lady  Chatterton 
(1806-76),  miscellaneous  writer,  lived  at  Rolls  from 
1852  to  1855.  Roger  Fenton  ( 1 5 6 5- 1 6 1 6),  theological 
writer  and  one  of  the  translators  of  the  Authorized  Ver- 
sion of  the  Bible,  was  Vicar  of  Chigwell  1606-16. 
Samuel  Harsnett(i56i— i63i)ismentioned  below  (see 
Church).  Admiral  Sir  Eliab  Harvey  (1758-1830), 
who  commanded  the  T/m/raire  at  Trafalgar,  was  lord 
of  the  manor  of  Barringtons  (see  above)  and  lived  at 
Rolls  House.  He  was  M.P.  for  Maldon  1780  and  for 
Essex  1803-12.  Richard  HoUingworth  (1639-1701), 
Royalist  pamphleteer,  was  Vicar  of  Chigwell  1690- 
1701.  Samuel  Howitt  (1765  .'-1822),  painter  and 
etcher,  lived  at  Chigwell  Row  in  his  youth.  Admiral 
Sir  Edward  Hughes  (1720  .'-94)  was  lord  of  the  manor 
of  Luxborough  and  lived  at  Luxborough  House. 
Joshua  Jenour  (1755-1853),  author,  hved  at  Chigwell 
Row  from  1792  to  1804.52  Thomas  Johnson  (fl.  17 1 8), 
classical  scholar,  was  headmaster  of  Harsnett's  Gram- 
mar School  171 5-18.  Admiral  Richard  Lestock 
(1679  .'-1746)  lived  at  Chigwell  Row  1709—46. 
William  Penn  (1644-17 18),  Quaker  and  founder  of 
Pennsylvania,  was  educated  at  Harsnett's  Grammar 
School.  George  Robert  Rowe  (1792-1861),  physi- 
cian and  medical  writer,  lived  and  practised  in  Chigwell 
village  from  about  1823  and  was  buried  in  the  church- 
yard. Helen  Maria  Williams  (1762-18 27),  authoress, 
was  living  at  Grange  Hill  in  1826. 

The  manor  oi CHIGWELL,  later  known  as  CHIG- 
MANORS  WEST  HATCH,  was  held  in  1066  by 
Earl  Harold.  After  the  Conquest  it  was 
given  to  Ralph  de  Limesi,  whose  chief  seat  was  at 
Wolverley  in   Solihull  (Warws.).53    The  tenancy  in 

"  White' 1  Dir.  Essex  (1848). 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  P5. 

"  No  brewer  is  mentioned  in  Kelly's  Dir. 
Essex  (1859). 

3°  H.O.  107/1770,  195/1.  Wives  and 
children  over  14.  have  been  included  under 
their  husbands'  or  fathers'  occupation  un- 
less stated  to  have  been  otherwise  em- 

3'  Cal.  S.P.  Dom.  1667-8,  72. 

32  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/34-51;  Kelly's 
Dirs.  Essex,  passim;  personal  knowledge. 

"  Ibid. 

"  E.R.O.,    D/DEs    M8ij    Par.    Reg.; 

personal  knowledge.  3s  B.N.B. 

36  Pigot's  Dir.  London,  (1817-32);  E.R. 
Ivi,  79.  37  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M81. 

38  E.R.  Ivi,  78  i  M.I.  in  Chigwell  church- 

3^  M.I.  in  Chigwell  churchyard. 

♦"  fV.  Essex  Reg.  Planning  Schm.  igjj, 
p.  105. 

'"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1879-1933);  per- 
sonal knowledge. 

■•2  Rep.  Com.  Mkt.  Rts.  [C.  5550],  p. 
161,  H.C.  (1888),  liii;  White's  Dir.  Essex 
(1848);  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1859). 

«  E.R.O.,  D/CT  78. 

ft  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M95;  Q/RLv  25. 
*5  Dickensian,  xv,  147. 

46  E.R.O.,  Q/RLv  25;  D/CT  78. 

47  Authentick  Tryals  of  "John  Stvan  and 
Eli-3sabeth  "Jeffryes.  They  were  hanged  for 
murder  near  this  house. 

48  Archd.  Essex,  89  Goates. 

49  E.R.O.,  Q/RLv  25.  so  Ibid. 

51  For  all  Worthies  see  D.N.B. 

52  See  also  Parish  Government,  below, 
and  E.R.O.  D/DEs  M80-81. 

53  V.C.H.  Essex,  i,  553*;  Dugdale,  Hist. 
Warius.  342—3,  gives  the  Limesi-Dodyng- 
sells  pedigree. 




chief  of  the  manor  descended  in  the  Limesi  family  and 
their  heirs  the  Dodyngsells.  John  de  Dodyngsells  held 
it  in  i35o.5't 

Alan  de  Limesi,  son  of  Ralph,  granted  the  tenancy  in 
demesne  of  the  manor  to  Richard  de  Lucy,  the  Justiciar 
of  Henry  II,  to  hold  for  i  knight's  fee. 55  The  grant  was 
confirmed  before  1163  by  Gerard  de  Limesi,  Alan's 
son. 5*  De  Lucy's  interest  in  the  manor  subsequently 
passed  through  his  daughter  Maud,  wife  of  Walter 
Fitz  Robert  of  Woodham  Walter  to  the  Fitzwalter 
family.5'  Walter,  Lord  Fitzwalter  (d.  1406)  held 
I  knight's  fee  in  Chigwell.58 

After  acquiring  the  tenancy  of  the  manor  Richard  de 
Lucy  enfeoffed  Ralph  Brito,  who  held  of  Richard  for 
I  knight's  fee. 59  Some  time  after  this  Richard  appears 
to  have  enfeoffed  William  de  Goldingham  so  that  he 
became  the  overlord  of  Brito,  holding  of  Richard  for 
I  knight's  fee.*"  In  1 169-70  WiUiam  de  Goldingham 
enfeoffed  Robert  son  of  Ralph  Brito  with  the  manor,  to 
hold  for  I  knight's  fee.*' 

During  the  reign  of  Richard  I  Robert  Brito  suffered 
imprisonment  and  forfeiture  for  his  adherence  to  Prince 
John.*^  In  the  20  years  that  followed  there  were  several 
disputes  concerning  the  ownership  of  Chigwell.  Before 
his  imprisonment  Robert  Brito  had  leased  the  manor  for 
ten  years  to  Andrew  Blund  of  London.  The  lease  still 
had  six  years  to  run  when  the  manor  was  seized  by  the 
king.*3  While  the  king  had  possession  a  suit  was  brought 
by  Geoffrey  Mauduit,  claiming  the  manor.**  Mauduit 
apparently  succeeded  in  getting  possession  of  it  for  a 
time  but  he  was  later  ejected  through  the  legal  action 
of  William  son  of  Robert  Brito  and  Wilham's  mother 
Philippa.*5  In  1214  Andrew  Blund  sued  William  Brito 
for  the  unexpired  portion  of  the  ten-year  lease,  and  the 
court  awarded  him  50  marks  in  compensation.**  In 
1226  Gilbert  Mauduit,  presumably  Geoffrey  Mau- 
duit's  heir,  quitclaimed  a  knight's  fee  in  Chigwell  to 
William  Brito.*'  About  1235  Alan  son  of  John  de 
Goldingham  quitclaimed  all  his  rights  in  Chigwell  to 
William  son  of  William  Brito.**  In  or  about  1254 
William  Brito's  daughter  was  patron  of  the  rectory  and  " 
probably  held  the  manor  also.*'  Soon  after  this,  how- 
ever, the  Goldinghams  appear  to  have  acquired  the 
tenancy  in  demesne.  In  1258  William  de  Goldingham 
made  a  conveyance  of  property  in  Chigwell'"  and  in 
1298  John  de  Goldingham  was  lord."  John  died  be- 
fore 1 3 16,  leaving  a  son  and  heir  John.'^ 

John  son  of  John  de  Goldingham  was  knighted  and 
was  still  hving  in  1 349. ''  He  died  about  1 362  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  son  Sir  Alexander  de  Goldingham.''* 

In  1 3  8 1  Sir  Alexander  had  licence  to  impark  his  garden 
and  50  acres  of  land  adjoining  his  manor  of  Chigwell.'s 
He  died  in  1408  leaving  his  estates  to  his  wife  Isabel  for 
life  with  remainder  to  his  son  Sir  Walter  Goldingham.'* 
Sir  Walter  was  dead  by  1435  when  his  widow  had  be- 
come the  wife  of  Matthew  Hay."  Sir  Walter's  daugh- 
ter Eleanor  married  John  Mannock  of  Stoke  by  Nayland 
(Suff.)  who  inherited  the  manor  in  right  of  his  wife 
after  the  expiration  of  a  life  interest  held  by  Matthew 
and  Elizabeth  Hay.'*  Mannock  died  in  i47i'9  and 
was  succeeded  by  his  son  John  who  died  in  1476,  leav- 
ing Chigwell  to  George  Mannock  his  elder  son.*" 

In  1 53 1  George  Mannock  leased  the  manor  to  John 
Kempe  for  1 5  years,*'  but  four  years  later  sold  it  to  the 
king.*2  In  1537  a  21-year  lease  was  granted  to  WiUiam 
Rolte,  serjeant-at-arms,*3  and  this  was  upheld  when 
Kempe  claimed  in  respect  of  the  earher  lease.**  Rolte 
died  in  1 541,  leaving  the  residue  of  his  lease  to  George 
Stoner*5  who  apparently  transferred  it  soon  after  to 
his  son  John.**  In  1550  Edward  VI  sold  the  manor  to 
Sir  Thomas  Wroth,  who  died  in  1573.*'  Sir  Robert 
Wroth,  son  of  Sir  Thomas,  married,  before  1578, 
Susan  daughter  of  John  Stoner.**  Chigwell  descended 
in  the  Wroth  family  in  the  same  way  as  the  manor  of 
Loughton  (q.v.)  until  the  death  in  1642  of  John 
Wroth.  *9  John's  estates  were  then  apparently  divided 
between  the  two  sons  of  his  brother  Henry:  John 
Wroth,  who  took  Loughton  (and  Luxborough,  see 
below),  and  Sir  Henry  Wroth,  who  took  Chigwell.'" 

Sir  Henry  Wroth  sold  Chigwell  in  1669  to  Sir  Wil- 
liam Hicks  of  Ruckholts  in  Leyton,  ist  Bt."  The 
manor  descended  with  the  baronetcy  to  Sir  Henry 
(commonly  called  Harry)  Hicks  who  took  possession 
after  the  death  of  his  mother  in  1723.'^  Sir  Henry, 
while  retaining  the  manorial  rights,  sold  the  demesne 
lands  of  the  manor  and  built  himself  a  house  near 
Woodford  Bridge,  formerly  called  the  Bowling  Green 
but  now  the  Manor  House."^  He  died  in  1755.''*  His 
elder  son,  who  became  the  4th  baronet,  was  blind  and 
Sir  Henry  left  his  estates  to  his  second  son  Michael 
Hicks,  who  died  unmarried  in  I764.'5  Michael  left 
the  estates  in  trust  for  the  benefit  of  his  blind  brother 
Sir  Robert  and  his  sisters  Ann  Burton  and  Martha 
Petty,  with  successive  remainders  to  Howe  Hicks  of 
Witcombe  (Glos.),  a  relative,  and  Howe's  second  son 

Sir  Robert  Hicks  died  unmarried  in  1768  but  the 
trust  continued  until  1799  when  Michael  Burton,  son 
of  Ann,  sold  his  interest  in  Chigwell  to  Michael,  son  of 
Howe  Hicks."  This  Michael  had  changed  his  name 

5*  C143/298/1 5  i  cf.  y.C.H.  Warms,  vi, 

5  5  Madox,  Formulare  An^licanum^  p.  42. 

56  Ibid.  Cf.  Stenton,  pint  Century  of 
Anglo-Norman  Feudalism^  161. 

5'  Complete  Peerage.,  v,  472.  For  de 
Lucy's  heirs  see  also  Chipping  Ongar. 

58  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  (Rec.  Com.),  iii,  p.  312. 

59  hiadox.,  Formulare  Anglicanumyp.  178. 
'»  Ibid.  368.  <"  Ibid.  44,  179. 
'^  Cur.  Reg.  R.  121 3-1 5,  205. 

«3  Ibid. 

'*  Ibid.  1199-1201,  196,  207. 

'5  Ibid.  Robert  Brito  was  dead  by  1200. 
King  John  appears  to  have  reversed  the 
forfeiture  in  favour  of  WiUiam  Brito. 

"  Ibid.  121  3-15,  205. 

«'  FeetofF.  E!!ex,\,ji. 

"  E3'5'/3'/204- 

'9  E.A.T.  N.s.  xviii,  18. 

'"  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  i,  235. 

"  Cat.  And.  D.  i,  B.  974.  According  to 

W.  A.  Copinger,  Manors  of  Suffolk,  iii,  272, 
Alice  daughter  of  the  last  named  William 
Brito  married  Sir  William  de  Goldingham. 

'2  Cal.  Anct.  D.  i,  B.  912,  961,  963. 

"  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iii,  95. 

'*  Reg.  Sudbury  (Cant.  &  York  Soc),  i, 
235;  and  see  Church,  below. 

'5  Cal.  Pat.  1381-5,  36;  E326/12448. 

^<•  P.C.C.  16  Marche. 

"  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iv,  21,  22. 

'*  E210/10551. 

'»  P.C.C.  I  Wattys.  '<>  C140/59. 

8'  E.A.T.  N.s.  ix,  273. 

"  E31S/31/126. 

83    E326/642O. 

85  P.C.C.  36  Alenger. 

8'  E.R.O.,  D/DRg  1/197:  MS.  relating 
to  the  'wardstaff' of  Ongar  hundred  c.  1 550. 
The  MS.  is  described  and  partly  printed  in 
E.A.T.  N.s.  ix,  212  f.  And  see  above, 
the  Hundred  of  Ongar. 


87  Cal.  S.P.  Dom.  1 547-80,  28 ;  Cal.  Pat. 
1549-51,  68;  ibid.  1550-3,  I7i  P.C.C. 
16  Pyckcring. 

88  £:.^.r.  N.s.  viii,  148. 

89  Ibid.  348. 

90  Ibid.  348.  Sir  Henry  Wroth  probably, 
did  not  inherit  until  after  the  death  of  his 
father,  Henry  Wroth,  the  elder,  which 
occurred  between  1653  and  1656:  P.C.C. 
437  Berkeley. 

'■C5/499/6;  CP25(2)/653  Trin.  21 
Chas.  II;  CP43/346  rot.  130. 

«2  Burke's  Peerage  (19 1 3):  St.  Aldwyn; 
E.R.O.,  D/DDa  M4.  . 

93  Lysons,  En-virons  of  London  (18 10),  i, 
641 ;  T.  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  386. 

'♦  Burke's  Peerage  (191 3),  St.  Aldwyn. 

95  W.  Hicks-Beach,  A  Cots-wold  Family, 
Hicks  and  Hicks-Beach,  259;  Burke's  Peer- 
age {igij),  St.  Aldwyn. 

96  Hicks-6each  Estate  Act,  40  Geo.  Ill, 
c.  78  (priv.  act).  «'  Ibid. 


in  1790  to  Hicks-Beach.'*  In  1800  a  private  Act  of 
Parliament  was  passed  to  enable  him  to  sell  Chigwell 
and  other  property,  which  were  still  subject  to  the 
limitations  imposed  by  the  settlement  under  the  will  of 
Michael  Hicks  in  1764."  The  purchaser  was  James 
Hatch  of  Bromley  (Mdx.),  a  wealthy  malt-distiller.  He 
paid  over  ^30,000  for  the  manor  of  Chigwell  (including 
West  Hatch)  and  the  estate  of  1,430  acres.' 

Hatch  died  in  1806,  leaving  three  daughters,  Caro- 
line wife  of  John  Rutherforth  Abdy,  Jemima  later  wife 
of  Christopher  James  Mills,  and  Louisa  later  wife  of 
William  Rufus  Rous.  The  eldest  daughter  and  her 
husband,  who  changed  his  name  to  Hatch-Abdy,  acted 
as  joint  lords  of  Chigwell  until  her  death  without 
issue  in  1838.  The  lordship  then  passed  to  Caroline's 
nephew  James  Mills,  who  died  in  1884,  also  without 
issue.^  Mills  was  succeeded  by  William  John  Rous, 
son  of  the  above  Louisa.  Since  Rous's  death  in  19 14 
the  manor  has  been  invested  in  trustees,  chief  among 
whom  was  the  Earl  of  Stradbroke.3  In  1839  James 
Mills's  estate  in  Chigwell  comprised  about  900  acres.'* 
This  included  Luxborough  and  Buckhurst  (for  both  of 
which  see  below). 

The  original  manor  house  of  Chigwell  Hall  was  be- 
side the  Roding  where  the  R.A.F.  Station  now  stands.' 
The  moat  which  had  surrounded  the  house  survived 
until  1937,  when  it  was  filled  in  by  the  contractors 
building  the  R.A.F.  Station.*  The  site  had  been  de- 
serted by  the  middle  of  the  17th  century  and  a  new 
manor  house  built  near  the  church  and  the  site  of  the 
modern  Bramstons.'  This  house  had  evidently  been 
rebuilt  by  about  1870.*  The  house  now  known  as 
Chigwell  Hall  is  a  little  to  the  south  of  the  previous 
house,  on  the  opposite  side  of  Roding  Lane.'  The 
Manor  House  near  Woodford  Bridge  has  been  greatly 
altered.  It  has  fine  wrought  iron  gates  dating  from  the 
1 8th  century.   It  is  now  a  convent. 

In  1359  William  de  Melcesborn  appointed  attornies 
to  give  seisin  of  his  manor  of  WEST  HATCH  to 
Nicholas  Ploket.""  In  1389  William  Tasburgh  clerk 
and  John  Bekke  granted  to  Sir  Alexander  de  Golding- 
ham  lands  and  tenements  in  the  vills  of  Chigwell  and 
Barking  called  'le  Westhach  and  Bookhurst',  once  be- 
longing to  Nicholas  Ploket  and  previously  to  William 
de  Melcesborn."  West  Hatch  subsequently  passed 
along  with  the  main  manor  of  Chigwell  Hall.'^  The 
two  manors  were  usually  described  in  the  17th  century 
and  later  as  the  manor  of  Chigwell-and- West-Hatch. 
The  present  house  of  Great  West  Hatch  dates  from 
about  1 800.  It  is  of  stock  brick  with  two  stories.  It  is 
now  used  as  a  hospital  (see  Public  Services). 

The  manor  of  APPLETONS,  now  known  as  Old 
Farm,  was  in  Green  Lane.  It  probably  took  its  name 
from  the  family  of  Thomas  Apilton,  who  with  his  wife 
Anne  was  party  to  a  fine  of  1402  relating  to  180  acres 
of  land  and  20  acres  of  meadow  in  Chigwell. '-J   Later 

in  the  15th  century  Philip  Malpas  held  Appletons:  it 
passed  on  his  death  to  his  daughter  Elizabeth  wife  of  Sir 
Thomas  Cooke.'''  She  died  about  1484  having  settled 
it  upon  her  son  John  Cooke  in  reversion. 's  John  died  in 
i486  holding  it  as  a  tenant  of  John  [George  ?]  Mannock, 
lord  of  Chigwell  Hall;  his  brother  Sir  Philip  Cooke  was 
his  heir.'*  Appletons  was  later  in  the  hands  of  William 
Cooke,  probably  the  brother  of  Sir  Philip."  In  1520 
William  sold  the  manor  to  Sir  John  Brygges  and  John 
Senewe  of  London." '  Senewe  died  in  1537  leaving 
Appletons  to  the  children  of  his  sister  Elizabeth,  who 
had  married  John  Hill."  About  1 540  Tristram  Cooke, 
son  of  Thomas,  son  of  the  above  William  Cooke,  sought 
possession  of  the  manor.^"  He  appears  to  have  had  some 
success,  for  in  1 564  the  children  of  John  Hill  took  pro- 
ceedings against  his  representatives  for  unlawful  entry.^' 
The  plaintiffs  seem  to  have  won  their  case :  the  Woolston 
court  roll  of  1 567  recorded  a  declaration  that  Thomas 
Colshill,  Thomas  P~uller,  and  others  who  were  shown 
to  be  the  descendants  of  John  Hill,  jointly  held  the 
freehold  of  various  lands,  part  of  their  ruined  tenement 
called  Appletons.^^  Colshill  sold  his  share  to  Thomas 
Fuller  who  died  about  1 575  leaving  the  house  of  Apple- 
tons,  in  which  he  lived,  to  his  nephew  Henry  Fuller  of 
North  Weald  Bassett,  probably  a  relative  of  the  Henry 
Fuller  who  owned  Stocktons  (see  below)  about  this 
time.23  Thomas  Fuller  had  presumably  bought  the 
other  shares  in  the  property,  in  addition  to  that  of 

Henry  Fuller  died  in  1602.^^  Appletons  passed  suc- 
cessively to  his  son  (d.  1623)  and  his  grandson,  both 
named  Henry.^s  Henry  Fuller  of  Appletons  appears  in 
a  presentment  of  1668.^'  Thomas  Buckford  held 
Appletons  from  1671  until  his  death  in  1688."  In 
1692  another  Thomas  Buckford  sold  it  to  Francis 
More.^8  More's  granddaughter  Winifred  Pitfield 
(d.  1753)  married  Solomon  Ashley,  who  died  in  1778 
holding  Appletons.^'  He  left  it  to  Humphrey  Stuart, 
presumably  in  trust  for  his  son  Solomon  Ashley  who 
was  named  as  the  owner  in  1783.30  In  1802  Stuart 
sold  it  to  John  Blades,  on  whose  death  in  1830  it  passed 
to  his  daughter  Elizabeth,  wife  of  John  Blackburn." 
A  Joshua  Blackburn  was  given  as  the  owner  in  1839: 
the  farm  then  comprised  63  acres.32  Appletons  was  still 
owned  by  the  Blackburns  in  1 873.^3  The  present  farm- 
house is  a  red-brick  building  that  appears  to  date  from 
the  late  19th  century. 

The  manor  of  BARRINGTONS  (or  LITTLE 
CHIGfVELL)  took  its  name  from  the  family  of  Bar- 
rington  which  held  the  tenancy  in  demesne  from  the 
1 2th  to  the  i6th  century.  It  is  probably  identical  with 
the  estate  of  2  hides  and  1 5  acres  which  Robert  Gernon 
was  said  to  hold  in  Chigwell  in  io86.3'»  The  overlord- 
ship  appears  to  have  descended  like  that  of  Battles  in 
Stapleford  Abbots  (q.v.)  until  the  death  in  1 267  of 
Richard  de  Montfichet.  In  1 274  J  knight's  fee  in  Chig- 

"  Burke's  Peerage  (19 1  3),  St.  Aldwyn. 
»»  Hicks-Bcach  Estate  Act,  40  Geo.  Ill, 
c.  78  (priv.  act). 

■  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T330. 
»  E.R.O.,  D/DDa  Mi 2,  13. 
3  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1933). 
«  E.R.O.,  D/CT  78. 
5  See  above,  p.  18. 

*  Personal   knowledge.     The   moat    is 
shown  on  the  0,S.2\  in.  Map^  sheet  5 1/4.9. 

'  See  above,  p.  20. 

*  O.S.  6  in.  Map  (ist  edn.),  sheet  Ixvi. 

9  Now  the  headquarters  of  the  Metro- 
politan Police  No.  5  District  Sports  Club. 
■0  E315/42/63. 

"  £326/5532- 

^*  Morant's  statement  {Hist,  Essex,  i, 
166)  that  Walter  Wrytell  held  West 
Hatch  in  1475  is  incorrect;  Wrytell  held 
the  reversion  only:  cf.  E326/8684. 

"  E,A,T,  N.s.  X,  318. 

"♦  Cat.  Inq.  f.m.  Hen,  VII,  i,  p.  38.  Sir 
Tho.  Cooke  was  Lord  Mayor  of  London, 

'5  Ibid. 

'6  Ibid. 

"  Visits,  of  Essex  (Harl.  Soc),  39. 

"  Ci/390/29. 

"  P.C.C.  13  Dvngeley;  C3/101/23. 

"  C 1/969/43-^. 


"  C3/101/23. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M97. 

"  Archd.  Essex  125  Gyll. 

^*  Ibid.  351  Stephen. 

"  Ibid.   Filed  Will,  1625,  35. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/AEA/44. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DU  97/2. 

28  Ibid. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DU  97/7. 

30  E.R.O.,  Q/RJ  i/ii. 

3"  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M81. 

32  E.R.O.,  D/CT  78.    Henry  Hancock 
was  tenant. 

33  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/37. 

34  V,C.H.  Essex,  i,  553*. 



well  and  elsewhere  was  assigned  to  Philippa,  wife  of 
Roger  de  Lancaster  and  granddaughter  of  Margaret  de 
Bolbec,  sister  of  Richard  de  Montfichet.^s  On  his  death 
in  1 360  John  de  Vere,  Earl  of  Oxford,  held  J  knight's 
fee  in  Chigwell.s*  It  had  probably  come  to  him  by  re- 
versionary grant  in  the  same  way  as  Stansted  Mount- 

The  manor  continued  to  be  held  of  the  earls  of 
Oxford.  In  1537  it  was  held  of  the  then  earl  as  of  the 
honor  of  Hedingham  Castle.3  8 

The  de  Veres  appear  to  have  had  an  earlier  interest 
in  the  manor  than  that  which  came  to  them  in  the  14th 
century.  Early  in  the  1 2th  century  an  Aubrey  de  Vere, 
one  of  the  ancestors  of  the  earls  of  Oxford,  enfeoffed 
Eustace  de  Barrington  with  land  in  Chigwell  which 
afterwards  descended  in  the  Barrington  family.''  It 
seems  probable  that  before  enfeoffing  Barrington 
Aubrey  de  Vere  had  been  tenant  in  demesne  holding 
of  Robert  Gernon. 

The  family  name  of  Barrington  was  derived  from 
Barrington  (Cambs.).  Eustace  de  Barrington  held  land 
there  in  1 1 30.''<'  He  also  held  land  in  Hatfield  Broad 
Oak  which  was  later  known  as  Barrington  Hall,  and  he 
was  a  forester  of  Hatfield  Forest,  serving  under  Robert 
Gernon.*'  His  son  Humphrey  de  Barrington  received 
confirmation  by  Aubrey  de  Vere  of  the  grant  previously 
made  to  Eustace.*^  Humphrey  was  succeeded  by  his 
son,  another  Humphrey,  who  was  a  minor  at  his  father's 
death,  which  took  place  early  in  the  reign  of  Henry  II.*' 
The  younger  Humphrey  lived  until  the  early  1 3th  cen- 
tury; he  was  under-sheriff  of  Essex  and  Hertfordshire 
in  1 197.+*  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Sir  Nicholas  de 
Barrington  who  held  the  manor  in  1 2^g.*^  Sir  Nicholas 
was  succeeded  by  his  grandson,  Nicholas,  who  was  lord 
in  1274  and  died  about  l330.-«*  The  manor  then 
passed  to  the  younger  Nicholas's  son  Nicholas  Barring- 
ton III,  who  settled  it  in  1 344  on  his  eldest  son  John.'" 
John  died  about  1368  and  his  son  and  successor  John 
about  1426.**  Several  deeds  relating  to  Chigwell  be- 
tween I3i9and  I384suggest  that  the  Barringtons  were 
at  least  occasionally  resident  in  Chigwell  during  that 
period.*'  Certain  copyhold  lands  within  the  manor  of 
Woolston  were  held  by  this  family  and  the  descent  of 
these  as  shown  in  the  court  rolls  was  probably  the  same 
as  that  of  the  manor  of  Barringtons. 5" 

Thomas  son  of  the  last  named  John  Barrington  died 
in  1472  leaving  his  manor  of  Chigwell  to  his  wife  Anne 
for  life  with  reversion  to  his  son  Edmund. 5'  Anne  is 
said  to  have  died  on  the  day  after  her  husband.s^  In 
1479  Margaret,  formerly  the  wife  of  a  Thomas  Barring- 
ton, was  declared  to  have  previously  held  the  manor 
jointly  with  her  husband.*'  On  her  death  in  that  year 

"  Cal.Chu,  1272-9,82. 

3'  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  r,  p.  522. 

3'  Cf.  Morant,  Essex,  ii,  577. 

J8  C 142/82/62. 

39  Morant,  Essex,  i,  166. 

«>  W.  Farrer,  Feud.  Hist.  Camhs.  233. 
In  the  I2th-i4th  cents,  tlie  usual  form  of 
the  name  was  Barenton. 

■•'  G.  A.  Lowndes,  'Hist,  of  Barrington 
family',  E.A.T.  n.s.  i,  251  f.  The  original 
charters  used  by  Lowndes  are  now  in  the 
British  Museum:  Add.  Ch.  28313-637. 
Some  of  them  are  calendared  in  Hist.  MSS. 
Com.  yth  Rep.  App.  pp.  537  f. 

**  Morant,  Essex,  i,  166. 

«3  Hist.  MSS.  Com.  yth  Rep.  App.  p. 

+•  E.A.T.  N.s.  i,  255;  V.R.O.  List  of 
Sheriffs,  48. 

*5  E.A.T.  N.s.  i,  257;  B.M.  Add.  Ch. 


■•'  E.A.T.  N.s.  i,  261-3.  Sir  Nicholas's 
son  Nicholas  had  predeceased  him. 

■•'  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iii,  72. 

4«  E.A.T.  N.s.  i,  267,  272. 

«»  E326/917,  919,  921,  961,  964,  969, 
1849;  £315/32/119;  E315/41/58,  217; 
E3 1 5/42/200. 

so  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M94-109. 

»■  P.C.C.  6  Wattys. 

"  E.A.T.  N.s.  i,  273.  "  C140/70. 

54  The  elder  Thomas  certainly  had  a  son 
Humphrey :  P.C.C.  6  Wattys. 

55  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M95;  P.C.C.  38 

s*  C142/30/18.  "  C142/82/62. 

5>    CP25(2)/l26/l62I. 

'9  The  Barringtons  continued  in  Hat- 
field Broad  Oak  until  the  19th  cent.: 
f./i.r.  N.s.  ii,  50-54. 

Barringtons  passed  to  her  husband's  brother  Humphrey 
Barrington.  Humphrey  and  his  brother  were  probably 
sons  of  the  Thomas  Barrington  who  had  died  in  1472.** 
Humphrey  Barrington  died  before  1487  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son  Nicholas,  who  died  in  1505.55 
Nicholas's  son  and  heir  Nicholas  died  in  1515.'*  John 
Barrington,  son  of  the  younger  Nicholas,  died  in  1537.5^ 
He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Thomas  Barrington,  who 
sold  the  manor  of  Barringtons  in  1563  to  Thomas 
Wiseman  of  Great  Waltham,'*  thus  breaking  a  con- 
nexion which  had  lasted  for  as  long  as  450  years.59 

Thomas  Wiseman  died  in  the  year  that  he  bought 
the  manor  and  was  succeeded  by  his  third  son  Stephen, 
who  died  childless  in  I567.*"  Stephen's  heir  was  John 
Wiseman,  son  of  his  brother  William.*'  In  1573  Wil- 
liam Tyffin  of  Wakes  Colne  did  homage  for  Barringtons, 
presumably  on  account  of  his  marriage  to  Mary,  widow 
of  Stephen  Wiseman,  who  had  a  hfe  interest.**  During 
his  hfetime  Stephen  had  demised  the  manor  with  certain 
lands  in  Chigwell  to  John  Morley  and  one  Goldringe 
who  were  to  pay  rent  to  him  and  after  his  death  to  his 
widow;  this  rent  was  in  arrear  and  was  the  cause  of 
legal  proceedings.*'  John  Wiseman  died  in  161 5, 
leaving  Barringtons  to  his  eldest  son  Thomas,  who  con- 
veyed it  in  1617  to  John  Hawkins.** 

In  1626  Hawkins  and  his  wife  Sarah  sold  the  manor 
to  William  Rolfe.*s  Rolfe  sold  it  in  1629  to  Henry 
Jackson,  who  in  1630  and  1634  claimed  forest  rights  in 
respect  of  the  manor.**  In  1639  Jackson  sold  Barring- 
tons to  Thomas  Wilmer,  whose  father  had  already  pur- 
chased Rolls,  the  mansion  house  of  the  manor.*'  The 
first  surviving  court  roll  of  the  manor  (1653)  gives  as 
lords  Edmund  Denny  and  Thomas  Wilmer.**  Wilmer 
was  a  major  in  the  royalist  army;  he  had  probably  sold 
half  the  manor  to  Denny  to  pay  the  fine  for  his  delin- 
quency.*' In  1 65  5  he  sold  the  remaining  half  to  Robert 
Abdy  of  Albyns  (in  Stapleford  Abbots,  q.v.)  and  John 
Chapman  of  London.'"  Abdy  and  Chapman  were 
apparently  trustees  for  Robert  Abbott  of  London,  who 
made  his  will  in  1657,  leaving  a  moiety  of  Barringtons 
to  his  wife  for  life  and  in  1658  added  a  codicil  leaving 
all  his  manors  to  his  executors  in  trust  to  provide  por- 
tions for  his  children."  The  executors  were  Abbott's 
wife  Bethia  and  John  Chapman  her  brother.  In  1668 
Abdy  and  Chapman  conveyed  this  half  of  the  manor  to 
Sir  Eliab  Harvey  and  John  Prestwood.'*  Eliab  died  in 
1 699,  leaving  all  his  manors  in  Essex  to  his  son  William." 

Edmund  Denny,  who  had  acquired  the  other  half  of 
Barringtons  from  Thomas  Wilmer,  died  in  1 6  56,  leaving 
it  to  his  wife  Anne  for  life  with  reversion  to  his  cousin 
William  Gardner.'*  In  1657  Anne  married  Francis 
Comyn  of  London,  vintner,  and  in  the  same  year 

<">  C142/147/148.  '■  Ibid. 

''2  Morant,  Essex,  i,  1 66;  Mary  was 
sister  of  Andrew  Jenour  of  Great  Dun- 
mow:  Ci42/i47/i48;  Morant,  Essex,  ii ,' 
222;  Fisits.  of  Essex  (Harl.  Soc),  222. 

63    C3/327/2. 

**  C142/359/115;  Morant,£iKr, i,i66. 
's  CP25(2)/4I5     Mich.     2     Chas.     I; 

"  CP43/i84;C99/i3om.88;C99/i32 

m.  16. 

67  C66/3067    m.     34i     CP25(2)/4i8 
Mich.  15  Chas.  I. 

'8  E.R.O.,  D/DU  97/1. 

'9  Cal.  Ctee.for  Compounding,  2535. 

'">  C54/4020  m.  21-22. 

"  P.C.C.  305  Wootton. 

"  CP25(2)/653  Hil.  19  &  20  Chas.  II. 

'3  P.C.C.  42  Pett. 

'♦  P.C.C.  317  Berkeley. 



Gardner  surrendered  to  Comyn  all  his  rights  in  the  half- 
manor. 's  The  court  roll  for  1659  names  as  lords  Abdy, 
Chapman,  Thomas  King,  John  Jekyll,  Edward  Cotton, 
and  John  Berrisford.'*  The  last  four  were  presumably 
trustees  to  the  settlement  made  on  the  marriage  of  Anne 
and  Francis  Comyn.  Anne  died  in  1694  and  Francis  in 
1697."  Their  half  of  the  manor  passed  to  their  son 
Francis  Comyn  who  sold  it  in  1700  to  William  Harvey, 
who  thus  became  owner  of  the  whole  manor.'* 

William  Harvey  died  in  1 731  and  was  succeeded  by 
his  son,  also  named  William,  who  died  in  1 742.'"  The 
younger  William  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  a  third 
William  Harvey,  who  died  in  1763.80  The  manor  then 
passed  to  WiUiam  Harvey  (IV),  son  of  the  last  owner, 
who  died  unmarried  in  1779,  leaving  Barringtons  to  his 
brother  Eliab,  later  Admiral  Sir  Eliab  Harvey.*'  The 
admiral  died  in  1830  without  surviving  male  issue.  He 
left  the  bulk  of  his  estate,  including  Barringtons,  to  his 
eldest  daughter  Louisa,  wife  of  William  Lloyd  of  Aston 
Hall  (Salop).  In  1839  the  estate  in  Chigwell  consisted 
of  about  420  acres. '^  Lloyd  and  his  wife  acted  as  joint 
lords  of  the  manor  until  his  death  in  1843,  after  which 
Louisa  was  sole  lady  until  her  death  in  1 866.^3  Her  son 
Richard  T.  Lloyd  succeeded  to  the  manor  and  died  in 
1898.  Barringtons  then  passed  to  Richard's  eldest  son 
Lt.-Gen.  Sir  Francis  Lloyd,  who  died  without  issue  in 
1926.  The  manor  then  passed  to  the  Revd.  Rossendale 
Lloyd,  brother  of  Sir  Francis.  ^^  Soon  after  this  the 
manorial  rights  were  sold  to  Philip  Savill,  from  whom 
they  passed  to  his  son  Mr.  Lawrence  L.  Savill  of 
Comenden  Manor  (Kent)  who  is  their  present  owner. *5 
The  freehold  of  the  Barringtons  estate,  however,  re- 
mained in  the  Revd.  Rossendale  Lloyd  who  died  in 
1940  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Mr.  Andrew  F. 

Rolls  House,  the  capital  mansion  of  the  Barringtons 
estate  in  modern  times,  is  now  (1953)  in  process  of 
demolition,  much  of  the  older  part  having  already  dis- 
appeared. It  was  a  two-story  building  with  attics, 
partly  timber-framed  and  partly  of  brick.  The  former 
kitchen  block  was  built  about  1600  and  late  in  the  17th 
century  the  north-east  and  north-west  wings  were  built 
or  rebuilt,  making  the  house  L-shaped.  Early  in  the 
1 8th  century  a  long  addition  was  made  on  the  south-east 
side  of  the  north-east  wing  and  there  were  later  additions 
on  the  south  and  south-west.*'' 

The  manor  oi  BUCKHURST  alias  MUNKEN- 
HILL  alias  MONKHAMS  probably  formed  part  of 
Barringtons  (see  above)  until  1 135,  when  William  de 
Montiichet  granted  to  the  abbey  of  Stratford  Lang- 
thorne  his  wood  of  Buckhurst.**  The  grant  was  later 
confirmed  by  Henry  II.*'  The  abbey's  estate  was 
increased  by  other  grants:  in  12 17  Matthew  de  St. 
Tronius  and  Rose  his  wife  quitclaimed  to  the  abbey  a 
third  part  of  55  acres  in  Chigwell  which  was  her  dower 
from  her  former  husband  Geoffrey  Levenoth,  and  in 

1230  William  Fitz  Edric  granted  to  the  Abbot  of 
Stratford  |  carucate  and  8J  acres  in  Chigwell. 9"  In 
1240  the  Abbot  of  Stratford  came  to  an  agreement 
with  the  Abbot  of  Waltham,  a  neighbouring  land- 
owner, concerning  the  agistment  of  cattle."  In  1253 
Henry  III  granted  the  Abbot  of  Stratford  free  warren 
in  his  demesne  in  Chigwell  and  Woodford.'^  The 
boundary  of  the  parish  at  Buckhurst  Hill  was  for  long 
ill  defined  and  the  manor  of  Buckhurst  seems  to  have 
extended  into  Woodford. 

Stratford  Abbey  retained  Buckhurst  until  the  Dis- 
solution."3  In  1 521  John  Saunders  had  a  41-year 
lease  from  William  Etherway,  then  abbot,  of  a  tene- 
ment called  'Buckhurst  alias  Monkyn'.'*  By  1 527  the 
lease  had  passed  to  Ralph  Johnson  of  Woodford. '5  In 
1547  the  king  granted  a  tenement  called  Buckhurst 
and  a  grove  called  Monk  Grove,  formerly  belonging  to 
Stratford  Abbey,  to  John  Lyon  alderman  of  London 
and  Alice  his  wife,  to  hold  by  jj  knight's  fee.'*  Sir 
John  Lyon  died  in  1564  seised  of  this  property."  He 
was  succeeded  by  Richard  Lyon,  son  of  his  brother 
Henry,  who  died  in  1579.'*  Richard's  son  Henry 
Lyon  died  in  1590."  In  161 1  Henry's  son  George 
Lyon  leased  the  manor  to  the  sitting  tenant  Joan 
Newman  for  21  years.'  In  16 16  John  Lyon  sold  the 
property  to  Thomas  Hill  of  London,^  and  Hill  sold  it 
in  1649  to  William  and  George  Nutt  who  were 

George  Nutt  was  dead  by  1656  when  his  son  George 
sold  his  interest  in  Monkhams  to  his  uncle  William 
Nutt.*  In  1669  William  Nutt  settled  it  on  his  son  on 
the  marriage  of  the  latter.'  The  younger  William  died 
in  172 1,  leaving  the  manor  to  his  son  William  who  sold 
it  in  1725  to  William  Cleland  of  Woodford.*  Cleland 
sold  Monkhams  in  1735  ^^  Sir  Joseph  Eyles,  Kt.,  who 
was  already  owner  of  the  neighbouring  estate  of  Lux- 
borough  (see  below)  .7  Eyles  died  in  1740  and  his 
widow  and  executors  sold  the  manor  in  1 746  to  Robert 
Knight,  I  St  Baron  Luxborough,  whose  father  had 
bought  Luxborough  from  them  three  years  earlier.* 
Lord  Luxborough  sold  both  properties  in  1750  to 
James  Crokatt.9  Crokatt  sold  them  in  1767  to  Baker 
J.  Littlehales,  who  conveyed  them  a  few  days  later  to 
Sir  Edward  Walpole,  K.B.'"  Walpole  sold  them  in 
1775  to  Samuel  Peach."  In  1781  Peach  went  bank- 
rupt and  Buckhurst  and  Luxborough  were  bought 
from  his  creditors  by  Sir  Edward  Hughes,  whose 
widow  Ruth  sold  them  in  1 799  to  James  Hatch,  lord 
of  Chigwell  Hall.'^  Thereafter  they  passed  along  with 
Chigwell  Hall.  In  1839  the  farm  of  Monkhams 
included  178  acres  and  was  let  by  James  Mills  to 
William  Death. '3  The  farm  survived  until  1936,  when 
it  was  broken  up  for  building.  The  house,  which  was 
then  demolished,  stood  at  the  south-west  corner  of 
Lords  Bushes. '■»  Its  site  is  now  Farm  Way  and  Farm 

"  C6/139/54,  142/39;  CP25(z)/552 
Mich.  1657.         '6  E.R.O.,  D/DU  97/1. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M104;  P.C.C.  90 

"  CP25(2)/830  Trin.  12  Wm.  III. 

"  Morant,  £««r,  i,  167.  '"  Ibid. 

"  P.C.C.  204  Warburton.  For  the 
admiral  see  above.  Worthies. 

«^  E.R.O.,  D/CT  78. 

«3  E.R.O.,  D/DU  97/9. 

8«  Burke' i  L.G.  (17th  edn.),  p.  1538. 

*'  Inf.  from  L.  L.  Savill,  Esq. 

"  SarVjL.G.  (i7thedn.),  p.  1538. 

''  hiu.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  48. 

"  F.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  130.  For  this  manor 

see  A.  R.  J.  Ramsey,  Monkhams  (Woodford 
Hist.  Soc).  8«  Ibid. 

«»  Feet  off.  Essex,  i,  49,  86. 

»■  Harl.  MS.  4809,  fo.  3,  4. 

«  Cal.  Chart.  R.  1226-57,  433. 

'^  In  1 29 1  the  abbey's  property  in  Chig- 
well was  valued  at  ^12  lys.  zd.l  Tax 
Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  25. 

»♦  Ci/i  165/23-25. 

«  E.R.xlv,  168. 

»<>  Cal.  Pat.  1547-8,  41 ;  Cal.  S.P.  Dom. 
1 547-80,  4. 

"  C142/14./39.         "S  C142/194/47. 

*'  Lysons,  En'virons  of  London  (1796), 


I  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T347  (deed  of  1649); 
C3/359/34.  ^  Ibid. 

3  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T347.  ■»  Ibid. 

5  E.R.O.,  D/DBT345. 

0  P.C.C.      200      Marlboro';      E.R.O., 
D/DDa  T42,  43 

'  Guildford  Museum  Deeds  51/3/50. 

'  Ibid.    Knight's  father  had  originally 
purchased  Luxborough  (see  below)  in  1 716. 

»  E.R.O.,  D/DDa  T42. 
■o  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

'2  E.R.O.,     D/DDa     T39,     40;     ibid. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  78. 

'*  Ramsey,  Monkhams,  10. 



The  manor  of  GRANGE,  which  gave  its  name  to 
Grange  Hill,  was  originally  part  of  Chigwell  Hall  (see 
above).  In  1258  William  de  Goldingham  and  Aline 
his  wife  confirmed  to  Robert,  Abbot  of  Tilty,  gifts  to 
the  abbey  of  3  messuages  and  2344  acres  of  land  in 
Chigwell. '5  The  original  donors  were  Herbert  the 
chaplain,  John  Fitz  Gilbert,  Margery  de  Chigwell, 
and  John  the  Miller  and  Agnes  his  wife,  all  of  whom 
were  evidently  tenants  of  Chigwell  Hall.  The  land  so 
granted  became  a  grange  of  Tilty  Abbey  and  remained 
in  the  possession  of  the  abbey  until  the  Dissolution.'* 
In  1536  William  Baker  of  Epping,  carpenter,  rendered 
his  first  account  to  the  king  as  lessee  of  Chigwell  Grange. 
He  held  the  manor  on  a  3 1 -year  lease  from  Michaelmas 
1532,  at  an  annual  rent  of  ^^3  10/."  In  1538  the 
manor  was  bought  from  the  Crown  by  Thomas 
Addington  of  London,  skinner,  for  j^6o.>8  Addington 
died  in  1543  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Thomas." 
The  younger  Thomas  conveyed  the  manor  to  James 
Altham  of  London,  clothworker,  at  a  date  not  exactly 
known,  and  in  1555  Altham  granted  it  to  Anthony 
Browne  of  South  Weald.^"  In  1555  the  manor  was 
said  to  consist  of  4  messuages,  60  acres  of  land,  200 
acres  of  meadow,  40  acres  of  pasture,  and  10  acres  of 
wood:  it  would  thus  appear  to  have  been  reduced  by 
about  100  acres  since  the  13th  century.  Later  in  1555 
Browne  sold  14J  acres  of  land  in  Chigwell,  of  which 
1 1 J  acres  were  part  of  the  manor  of  Grange,  to  John 
Stonarde  and  others.  This  small  holding  later  became 
the  endowment  of  a  road  charity  founded  by  Joan 

In  1558  Browne  endowed  his  newly  founded  gram- 
mar school  at  Brentwood  with  this  manor  and  other 
property,  confirming  the  grants  by  his  will  of  1565.^^ 
The  grammar  school  remained  owners  of  this  estate 
until  about  1900,  since  when  various  sales  have  taken 
place,  mostly  for  building.  In  1839  the  property  con- 
sisted of  some  140  acres.^3  Grange  farm-house  was 
about  300  yds.  east  of  the  junction  between  Hainault 
Road  and  Manor  Road.^'* 

The  manor  of  KING'S  PLACE  alias  LANG- 
FORDS  alias  POTELLS,  at  Buckhurst  Hill,  prob- 
ably originated  in  the  purchase  by  Edward  III  (through 
his  son  John  of  Gaunt)  in  1360  of  a  messuage  and  92 
acres  of  land  from  Matthew  de  Torkeseye.^5  In  1372 
Alexander  de  Goldingham,  lord  of  Chigwell  Hall, 
released  to  the  king  all  his  rights  in  this  property  'now 
commonly  called  the  Neweloggelands  in  Chigwell'.^' 
From  this  release  it  is  clear  that  Matthew  de  Torkeseye 
had  held  the  estate  as  a  tenant  of  the  manor  of  Chigwell 
Hall.  In  1378  Alan  de  Buxhull  was  granted  custody 
of  the  king's  new  lodge  in  Waltham  Forest,  free  of  rent 
on  condition  that  he  kept  the  houses  in  repair.^'  In 
1476  Edward  IV  enlarged  the  estate  by  the  purchase 

of  a  neighbouring  estate  from  Robert  Langford  and 
others.28  Soon  after  this  Edward  IV  granted  the  custody 
of  the  whole  property  for  hfe  to  Sir  John  Risley  and  in 
1485  Henry  VII  confirmed  the  grant.^'  Risley  ap- 
pears to  have  later  received  a  grant  of  the  estate  in  tail 
male,  but  he  died  without  a  male  heir  and  in  1513 
King's  Place  was  granted  in  tail  male  to  William 
Compton.30  Compton  was  later  knighted  and  died  in 
1528,  leaving  a  son  and  heir  Peter,  who  died  in  1539." 
Peter's  son  Henry  was  created  Baron  Compton  in  1572 
and  died  in  1589.3^  WiUiam,  2nd  Baron  Compton, 
negotiated  with  the  queen  in  1596  for  the  reversion  of 
the  manor  of  King's  Place  (in  default  of  the  issue  of  the 
1st  baron),  but  nothing  appears  to  have  come  of  this.^J 
Early  in  1597  the  queen  granted  the  reversion  to 
Thomas  Spencer  and  Robert  Atkinson. J-t  During  the 
1 6th  century  the  estate  was  leased  to  at  least  two  dif- 
ferent tenants.  In  his  will  dated  1 541  William  Rolte, 
tenant  of  Chigwell  Hall,  mentioned  his  lease  of  King's 
Place.35  In  1576  Richard  Hayle  left  his  lease  of  the 
property  to  his  wife  Agnes.'* 

Although  there  was  no  failure  of  the  heirs  male  of 
the  I  St  Baron  Compton  King's  Place  seems  to  have 
passed  out  of  the  hands  of  the  2nd  baron  soon  after 
1597.  In  161 2  Thomas  Covell  described  himself  in 
his  will  as  of  King's  Place. 3'  His  daughter  Elizabeth 
had  married  Roger  Forster  in  1610.38  She  died  in  or 
before  1622,  when  Forster  married  Mary,  eldest 
daughter  of  John  Penington.^'  In  1624  King's  Place 
was  settled  on  Forster  and  Mary.*"  Forster  died  in 
1633  and  Mary  married  Michael  Ernie,  who  died  in 
1645.'"  Mary  finally  married  Sir  Thomas  Perient  and 
lived  at  King's  Place  until  her  death.''^ 

The  estate  was,  however,  settled  in  1657  on  her 
daughter  Mary  Ernie  on  the  marriage  of  the  latter 
to  Henry  Goodricke  of  Grays  Inn.''^  Mary  and  Henry 
are  said  to  have  sold  it  a  year  later  to  William  Livesaye,+* 
whose  son  and  namesake  later  sold  it  to  Elizabeth 
Colwall,  widow,  with  successive  remainders  to  her 
sons  John  and  Arnold.  John  Colvvall  died  without 
issue  before  1680,  when  his  mother  settled  King's 
Place  upon  Arnold  Colwall-''^  By  1705  the  manor  had 
passed  to  Arnold's  son,  Daniel  Colwall  of  the  Friary, 
Guildford  (Surr.)."**  Arnold's  widow  Susanna  married 
Foot  Onslow  and  appears  to  have  had  some  interest  in 
King's  Place  in  1705  and  1708.''' 

In  1716  Thomas  Gibson  and  John  Jacob,  trustees 
under  Daniel  Colwall's  will,  sold  the  property  to 
Percival  Chandler,  who  lived  at  the  farm  until  about 
I730.'t8  He  is  said  to  have  sold  King's  Place  in  1 741 
to  Oliver  Marton,  who  died  in  1744.'"  Marton  was 
succeeded  by  his  son  Edward,  who  died  in  1758, 
leaving  the  property  to  his  brother  the  Revd.  Oliver 
Marton. 50   A  year  later  Oliver  sold  King's  Place  to 

"  Feet  of  F,  Essex,  i,  225. 

"  In  1 29 1  it  was  valued  at  ^4.  lis.  ^d.: 
Tax.  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  25*. 

"  E.R.  xix,  I. 

'8  C142/70/32.  '0  Ibid. 

"  Cal.  Pat.  1554-5,  234.,  255.  Later  in 
1555  Anthony  Browne  was  granted 
custody  of  the  person  and  lands  of  Ralph 
Addington,  son  of  the  younger  Thomas, 
who  was  a  congenital  idiot:  ibid.  73. 

"  Cal.  Pat.  1554.-5,  12;  E.R.  xix,  i. 
See  above,  p.  19;  Charities. 

^2  P.C.C.  20  Stonarde. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  78. 

2*  O.S.  6  in.  Map  (ist  edn.),  sheet  Ixvi. 

"  Feet  of  F.  Essex,   iii,   128;   E.A.T. 

N.S.  X,  313-14. 

^'£40/11027;  Cal.  Close,  1369-74, 
470.  "  Cal.  Pat.  1377-81,  199. 

28  E.A.T.  M.S.  X,  314.  The  Langfords 
estate  can  probably  be  identified  with 
Potells,  which  got  its  name  from  the 
family  of  Richard  Potel  (1285):  P.N. 
Essex,  54. 

2«  Cal.  Pat.  1485-94,  103. 

30  L.  &  P.  Hen.  Fill,  i,  p.  493. 

3'  C142/47/58;    Complete    Peerage,    iii, 


32  Complete  Peerage,  111,  390. 

"  Cal.  S.P.  Dom.  1595-7,  308;  F.C.H. 
fVarivs.  V,  65. 

3«  Morant,  Essex,  l,  170. 

35  P.C.C.  9  Alenger. 

36  P.C.C.  6  Carew. 


37  P.C.C.  2  Capell. 

38  Par.  Reg.  35  Ibid, 
■f  E.R.O.,  D/DBT271. 

*■  Mar.  Lie,  Bp.  of  Loniion  (Harl.  Soc. 
xxvi),  224. 

■•2  Par.  Reg.  Holy  Trin.  Minories, 

«  E.R.O.,  D/DACT85,  86. 

*♦  Lysons,  En-virons  of  London  (18 10),  i, 

♦  5  Guildford  Museum,  Onslow  Deeds 
865,  872-3.  ♦<*  Ibid. 

♦'  Ibid.,  CP25(2)/923  East  7  Anne. 

*8  Lysons,  Environs  of  London  (18  to),  i, 
645;E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/1. 

♦9  Lysons,'ibid. 

50  Burke's  L.G.  (15th  edn.),  p.  1544. 


Robert  Jones  of  Babraham  (Cambs.).s'  Jones  died  in 
1774,  leaving  an  only  daughter  Anne  who  married 
General  J.  W.  Adeane,  who  inherited  all  Jones's 
property."  The  general  died  in  1782  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son  Robert  Jones  Adeane. 53  On  Robert's 
death  in  1 8 10  King's  Place  passed  to  Henry  J.  Adeane, 
who  died  in  1847. '«  In  1839  the  property  consisted 
of  1 56  acres.55  In  1853  the  executors  of  H.  J.  Adeane 
sold  it  to  the  National  Freehold  Land  Society  who 
shortly  after  broke  it  up  for  building  development.'* 
The  name  of  this  ancient  manor  is  retained  in  King's 
Place  and  King's  Avenue,  Buckhurst  Hill. 

The  manor  of  L  UXBORO  UGH  probably  took  its 
name  from  the  family  of  Loughteborough  which  lived 
in  Chigwell  in  the  14th  century.  William  de  Loughte- 
borough was  named  in  a  Forest  Roll  in  1324  and  in 
1 3 16  Henry  Doule  and  Eve  his  wife  quitclaimed  to 
William  de  Loughteborough  a  messuage  and  132  acres 
in  Chigwell.57  Robert  de  Loughteborough  and 
Margaret  his  wife  were  assessed  to  the  subsidy  of 
1390.58  In  1559  Francis  Saunders  and  Margaret 
Valentyne,  widow,  sold  the  manor  of  'Loughbroughes' 
to  John  Stoner,  who  built  himself  a  house  there.s' 
Stoner  died  in  1 579,  leaving  the  manor  and  the  house 
to  his  wife  Anne  with  reversion  to  his  only  daughter 
Susan,  wife  of  Sir  Robert  Wroth,  lord  of  Chigwell  Hall 
(see  above).*"  In  1580  Anne  conveyed  her  interest  to 
Robert  and  Susan,*'  and  Luxborough  passed  along 
with  Chigwell  Hall  until  1642,  when  the  estates  of 
John  Wroth  were  divided.  Luxborough  then  passed 
to  John,  elder  son  of  Henry  Wroth  and  nephew  of  the 
above  John  Wroth,  by  virtue  of  a  settlement  made  in 
1640  on  the  marriage  of  John  the  nephew  with  Anne 
Gallard,  widow.*^  Anne's  will,  dated  1675,  was  cited 
in  legal  proceedings  in  i676.*3  She  left  Luxborough 
for  life  to  her  son  by  her  first  marriage,  John  Gallard, 
with  successive  remainders  to  her  son  John  Wroth  for 
life  and  her  grandson  John  Wroth  for  ever.**  Her 
husband  John  Wroth  had  died  in  i662.*5  John  Wroth 
her  son  died  in  1708.**  In  17 16  her  grandson  John 
Wroth  sold  Luxborough,  then  heavily  mortgaged,  to 
Robert  Knight,  cashier  of  the  South  Sea  Company.*' 
After  the  failure  of  the  company  in  1720  Knight's 
Estates,  with  those  of  the  governors  and  directors,  were 
vested  in  trustees  and  in  1724  the  manor  of  Lux- 
borough was  bought  from  these  by  Sir  Joseph  Eyles, 
Kt.**  Eyles  died  in  1740  and  in  1743  his  trustees  con- 
tracted to  sell  the  property  to  Knight,  who  had 
returned  from  abroad  on  receiving  a  royal  pardon  for 
his  activities  in  the  South  Sea  Company.*'  Knight 
died  in  1744,  before  the  completion  of  the  sale.  Before 
his  death  he  had  settled  his  estates  on  his  son,  Robert 

Knight  later  created  Baron  Luxborough,  and  the 
manor  passed  to  the  son  on  completion  of  the  sale.'" 
In  1746  Eyies's  trustees  also  sold  Buckhurst  to  Lord 
Luxborough,  and  the  two  manors  subsequently 
descended  together,  becoming  part  of  the  Chigwell 
Hall  estate  in  1799.'' 

The  16th-century  manor  house  at  Luxborough  built 
by  John  Stoner  was  rebuilt,  probably  in  1716—20,  by 
Robert  Knight.'^  Prints  of  1787  and  1788  show 
respectively  the  south  and  east  fronts  of  the  house.'' 
It  was  of  two  stories  and  appears  to  have  been  of  brick 
with  stone  or  plaster  dressings.  To  the  north  and  east 
were  lower  two-story  ranges  of  stables  and  outbuildings. 
The  south  or  garden  front  had  a  central  doorway  with 
a  small  classical  porch.  The  entrance  front  on  the  east 
side  was  more  impressive.  Between  two  projecting 
wings  was  a  recessed  portico  of  five  bays.  Corinthian 
columns  the  full  height  of  the  building  supported  an 
entablature  and  pediment.  Flanking  this  the  parapet 
was  balustraded.  The  house  was  demolished  about 
1 800  by  James  Hatch.'* 

The  small  manor  of  STOCKTONS  alias  SER- 
JEANTS lay  in  Gravel  Lane.  John  Stokton  was 
mentioned  in  the  Woolston  court  rolls  in  I462.'5  He 
was  later  knighted  and  became  Lord  Mayor  of  London 
in  1470.'*  He  died  about  1473,  leaving  his  Chigwell 
property  to  his  younger  son  William,  who  died  in 
1483."  In  1 543  Edward  Brockett  conveyed  Stocktons 
to  John  Potter.'*  Potter  died  about  1 546,  leaving  all 
his  lands  in  Chigwell  to  his  son  Thomas,  who  jointly 
with  his  wife  Margaret  conveyed  Stocktons  in  1567  to 
John  Watson  and  Elizabeth  his  wife.'"  In  1 1;90  Henry 
Fuller  of  North  Weald  Bassett  left  Serjeants  to  his  son 
Richard.*"  Henry  Fuller  of  Serjeants  was  mentioned 
several  times  in  the  Woolston  court  rolls  between  16 14 
and  1 62 1  *'  and  the  property  seems  to  have  remained  in 
the  Fuller  family  until  the  end  of  the  17th  century. 
About  1700  John  Fuller  sold  it  to  Edward  Green  who 
died  in  1707,  leaving  his  'farm  in  Gravel  Lane'  to  his 
son  John.*^  John  Green  died  soon  after,  leaving  it  to 
his  mother  Ann  Green.*'  In  1 709  she  left  her  freehold 
estate  called  Serjeants  to  her  son  Charles  Green.**  By 
1763  it  had  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Harveys, 
owners  of  the  manor  of  Barringtons:  in  that  year  it  was 
let  by  Emma  Harvey,  as  guardian  of  her  son  William 
Harvey.  *5  The  lease  described  the  property  as  fields, 
barns,  &c.,  containing  21  acres.  After  the  i6th  century 
the  farm  was  never  termed  a  manor.  In  1687  it  was 
even  questioned  whether  it  was  a  freehold.** 

In  1066  the  manor  of  WOOLSTON  was  held  by 
Earl  Harold.  It  was  then  taken  by  King  William  and 
in  1086  was  held  by  him  in  demesne.*'   During  the 

5»  Lysons,  ibid.  '^  Ibid. 

"  Burke's  L.G.  (15th  edn.),  p.  1 1. 

5*  Ibid. 

55  E.R.O.,  D/CT  78. 

5'  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/17-20. 

5'  E32/16;  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  165. 

5'  E179/147/60. 

5'  CP25(2)/i26/i6o7;  for  the  house  see 

'»  P.C.C.  50  Arundell. 

"  E.R.  xiv,  2. 

*=  £.y*.r.N.8.viii,  347-8. 

«>  C10/181. 

♦*  Ibid.  '5  Ibid. 

«'  E.A.T.-n.i.v'm,  181. 

«'  E.R.O.,  D/DDa  T37.  For  the 
Knights  see  Complete  Peerage.,  iii,  1 10. 

'*  Ibid.  For  Eyles  see  Burke's  Extinct 
and  Dormant  Baronetcies,  190.  He  was 
Sheriff  of  London  1726.    His  brother  Sir 

John  Eyles,  Bt.,  was  a  governor  of  the 
South  Sea  Co.  Sir  Joseph  bought  Buck- 
hurst (see  above)  in  1735. 

<">  E.R.O.,  D/DDa  T37. 

'»  E.R.O.,  D/DDa  T37. 

'^  See  Buckhurst. 

'^  Hist,  Essex  by  Gent,  iv,  II. 

'3  E.R.O.,  Prints,  Chigwell.  They  are 
from  Harrison's  Picturesque  Views  of  the 
Principal  Seats  (c.  1790)  which  states, 
probably  in  error,  that  Lord  Luxborough 
built  the  house.  And  see  plate  facing  p.  30. 

'*  Ogborne,  Hist.  Essex,  245-6.  The 
house  is  shown  on  the  O.S.  i  in.  Map  (ist 
edn.)  for  which  surveys  were  made  about 
1797.  Hatch  died  in  1806,  having  ac- 
quired the  house  in  1799. 

'5  E.R.O.,  T/P  17.  No  mention  has 
been  found  of  tenants  in  Chigwell  named 
Serjeant  from  whom  the  alternative  name 

may  have  come.  A  Roger  le  Serjaunt  is 
thought  to  have  given  his  name  to 
Sergeants'  Green  in  Waltham  Holy  Cross, 
which  is  not  far  from  Chigwell:  P.N. 
Essex  (E.P.N.S.),  32. 
'^  Strype,  Sto%u's  Survey  of  London,  i, 

"  P.C.C.  9  Wattys;  E.R.O.,  T/P  17. 
'8  CP25(2)/i3/73. 

'9  Archd.  Essex  55  Bastwyck;  CP25(2)/ 
80  P.C.C.  76  Nevell. 
8'  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M99-100. 

82  P.C.C.  57  Lane. 

83  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M104. 
8*  Archd.  Essex  51  Luck. 

85  Nat.  Libr.  of  Wales :  MSS.  of  Andrew 
8'  C8/394/25. 
87  F.C.H.  Essex,  i,  432A. 


Dews  Hall,  Lambourne 
Refronted  c.  1 740,  demolished  c.  1 840 

LuxBORouGH  House,  Chicwell 
Rebuilt  1716-20,  demolished  c.  1800 



1 2th  century  the  manor  was  granted  to  the  Sanford 
family  to  hold  in  serjeanty  by  virtue  of  the  office  of 
chamberlain  to  the  queen. 88  A  John  de  Sanford  held 
the  manor  in  1210— 12*9  and  Cecily  de  Sanford  in 
i2ig.9o  Gilbert  de  Sanford  held  Woolston  in  1236, 
in  which  year  he  officiated  at  the  coronation  of  Eleanor 
of  Provence."  He  was  still  hving  in  1248,'^  but  was 
dead  by  April  1249  when  the  wardship  of  his  daughter 
and  heir  Alice  de  Sanford  was  bought  by  Fulk  Basset, 
Bishop  of  London. 93  In  June  1249  the  bishop  sold 
the  wardship  to  Hugh  de  Vere,  Earl  of  Oxford,  who 
married  Alice  to  his  son  and  heir  Robert.'*  In  1259 
John  de  Rivers,  lord  of  Ongar  hundred,  granted  to 
Robert  de  Vere  and  Alice  his  wife  a  release  of  41/.  rent 
at  their  view  of  frankpledge  at  Woolston. 's  In  1265 
Robert's  estates  were  forfeited  for  his  part  in  the 
Barons'  War ;  the  tovraship  of  Woolston  was  then  said 
to  be  worth  £(>  6s.  8J.  a  year.'*  Robert  recovered  his 
estates  under  the  Dictum  of  Kenilworth,  but  before 
this,  in  October  1265,  all  Alice's  hereditary  lands  had 
been  restored  to  her.''' 

In  1284  Robert  and  Alice  granted  the  reversion  of 
Woolston  after  their  deaths  to  their  daughter  Joan  and 
her  husband  William  de  Warenne,  son  and  heir  of 
John  de  Warenne,  Earl  of  Surrey  (d.  1304).'^  Robert 
died  in  1296;  Woolston  was  then  being  held  of  him 
and  Alice  by  William  le  Plomer."  Alice  died  in  1 3 1 2. 
She  had  outlived  both  her  daughter  Joan  and  William 
de  Warenne  and  Woolston  passed  to  John,  Earl  of 
Surrey,  son  of  Joan  and  William.'  Before  1321  John 
conveyed  the  manor  to  his  sister  Alice  and  her  husband 
Edmund  Fitz  Alan  Earl  of  Arundel.^  Woolston  did 
not  escheat  after  the  execution  of  Arundel  in  1326  be- 
cause it  was  his  wife's  inheritances  Alice  died  between 
1330  and  1338,  and  the  manor  passed  to  her  son 
Richard  Fitz  Alan,  who  had  been  restored  to  the  earl- 
dom of  Arundel  in  1330.''  In  1345  Woolston  was 
being  held  for  life  by  Isabel  Dispenser,  the  divorced 
wife  of  Richard. 5  Richard  died  in  1376.*  The  manor 
passed  to  his  son  Richard,  Earl  of  Arundel,  who  was 
executed  in  1397.'  The  attainder  of  this  earl  was 
reversed  in  1400  and  his  titles  and  estates  were  restored 
to  his  son  Thomas,  who  in  1405  granted  Woolston  for 
hfe  to  his  servant  John  Wele.*  Thomas  died  in  141 5 
and  John  Wele  in  1420.'  Shortly  before  he  died  Wele 
was  involved  in  a  Chancery  action  against  the  king  in 
respect  of  Woolston.'"  In  142 1  the  manor  was 
divided  between  Thomas's  three  daughters,  Elizabeth, 
Duchess  of  Norfolk,  Joan,  Lady  Bergavenny,  and 
Margaret,  wife  of  Rowland  Lenthal." 

In  1425,  shortly  before  her  death,  the  Duchess  of 

••  J.  H.  Round,  Kingi  Sergeants  and 
Oficers  of  State  ^  I  32  f.  Woolston  was  one 
of  five  manors  appurtenant  to  this  ser- 
jeanty, the  others  being  Margaretting  and 
Fingrith  (in  Blackmore)  in  Essex,  and 
Great  Hormead  and  Nuthampstead  (in 
Barkway)  in  Herts. 

89  RedBk.  ofExch.  $07;  Bk.ofFee!,iii. 

»»  Bk.  of  Fees,  275. 

»'  Ibid.  589;  J.  H.  Round,  op.  cit.  133. 

"  Bk.  of  Fees,  1361,  1412. 

95  Complete  Peerage,  x,  214. 

0*  Ibid. 

95  Harl.  Chart.  55  D.  24. 

96  Cal.  Chart.  R.  ii,  57;  Cat.  Inq.  Misc. 
i,  p.  200. 

9'  Complete  Peerage,  x,  216. 

98  Cal.  Pat.  1281-92,  173. 

99  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  iii,  p.  230;  Cal.  Fine  R. 
1272-1307,  378. 

*  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  v,  p.  2 1 6. 

»  Feet  off.  Essex,  ii,  204. 
3  Complete  Peerage,  i,  242. 
♦  Ibid.  243. 

5  Cal.  Pat.  1343-5,488. 
'  Complete  Peerage,  i,  244. 
'  C136/101. 

8  CT38/45. 

9  Ibid. ;  Complete  Peerage,  i,  246. 
'»  Cal.  Close,  1419-22,  116. 
"  Cal.     Fine     R.      1413-22,     389-90. 

Elizabeth  was  widow  of  Thomas  de 
Mowbray,  Duke  of  Norfolk  (d.  1399). 
Joan  was  widow  of  William  Beauchamp, 
I  St  Lord  Bergavenny. 

"z  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iv,  6;  Cal.  Pat. 
1422-9,  341. 

■3  Cal.  Close  1429-35,  338-9 ;  Ci  39/62; 

'■•  Ibid.;  Ca/.  Fine  R.  1445-52,  222. 

■5  Cal.  Pat.  1446-52,  512. 

'6  J.  C.  Wedgcwood,  Hist.  Parliament: 


Norfolk  granted  her  third  part  of  Woolston  to  Norman 
Babington  and  Margaret  his  wife.'^  Norman  died 
holding  it  in  1434  and  Margaret  held  it  at  her  death 
in  145 1. '3  It  then  passed  to  Norman's  brother  Sir 
William  Babington.'*  In  the  same  year  Sir  William 
settled  the  manor  upon  his  sons  William,  Robert,  and 
Thomas  Babington  and  the  heirs  of  Robert.''  Sir 
WiUiam  died  in  1454,  his  son  William  in  1474  and 
Thomas  in  1471,'*  but  it  is  not  known  how  this  third 
of  the  manor  passed  between  1471  and  1485,  when  it 
had  come  to  William  Scott  (see  below). 

In  1428  Joan  Lady  Bergavenny  enfeoffed  Robert 
Darcy  and  others  with  her  third  part  of  Woolston. '^ 
In  1457  the  surviving  feoffees  settled  the  property  on 
Joan's  grandson,  Thomas  Ormond,  with  successive 
remainders  to  his  brothers  John  Ormond  and  James, 
Earl  of  Wiltshire."  In  1476  Thomas  Ormond  con- 
veyed it  to  William  Scott  and  Robert  Hardyng." 

After  the  death  of  Margaret  Lenthal  her  third  part 
of  the  manor  was  held  by  her  husband  until  he  died  in 
1450.  It  then  passed  to  John  de  Mowbray,  Duke  of 
Norfolk,  grandson  of  the  above  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of 
Norfolk,  and  to  George  Neville,  later  Lord  Bergavenny, 
great-grandson  of  Joan,  Lady  Bergavenny.*"  In  the 
division  of  Margaret  Lenthal's  inheritance  between 
Mowbray  and  Neville  the  third  part  of  Woolston  was 
assigned  to  Mowbray.*'  In  1468  John  de  Mowbray, 
Duke  of  Norfolk,  conveyed  the  property  to  Thomas 
Hoo  and  others.**  This  was  the  first  of  a  complicated 
series  of  conveyances  between  various  parties,  including 
George  Neville,  by  which  this  third  of  Woolston  was 
conveyed  to  WiUiam  Scott  and  Robert  Hardyng.*' 

By  1485  all  three  parts  of  the  manor  had  been  united 
in  the  hands  of  William  Scott,  who  had  been  acting  as 
lord  three  years  earlier  when  he  signed  an  agreement 
between  his  baihff  and  his  tenants,  detailing  the  ser- 
vices to  be  performed  by  the  latter.**  He  died  in  149 1, 
leaving  Woolston  to  his  fifth  son  George,  who  died 
without  issue  in  I534.*5  George  probably  lived  at 
Woolston  Hall.  At  his  death  the  manor  was  said  to 
include  10  acres  of  arable,  24  acres  of  meadow,  80 
acres  of  pasture,  8  acres  of  wood,  and  £<)  rent.** 

George  Scott's  heir  was  Walter  Scott,  lord  of  the 
manor  of  Stapleford  Tawney  (q.v.),  who  was  the 
grandson  of  John  Scott  (d.  1 527),  eldest  son  of  William 
Scott  (d.  i49i).*7  Walter  Scott  died  in  1550  and  his 
son  Roger  in  1 585.**  George,  son  of  Roger  Scott,  died 
in  1589.*'  Neither  Walter  nor  Roger  nor  George 
acted  as  lord  of  the  manor,  for  by  the  will  of  George 
son  of  William  Scott  a  99-year  lease  of  Woolston  had 
been  granted  to  William's  sixth  son  Hugh.'"    Hugh 

Biographies  i43g-isog,  31-32. 

"  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iv,  12;  Cal.  Pat. 
1422-9,  486;  E.R.O.,  D/DP  T51. 

■8  Cal.  Pat.  1452-61,  355;  E.R.O., 

■9  E.R.O.,  D/DP  A470.  Hardyng  was 
a  London  goldsmith  and  was  probably  act- 
ing as  Scott's  financial  agent. 

"  C139/143. 

2'  Cal.  Fine  R.  1445-52,  266. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DPT51. 

"  Ibid.;  E.R.O.,  D/DP  A468,  469. 
The  conveyances  cover  the  period  1468— 
73.  M  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M95. 

'5  P.C.C.  19  Dogett;  Cal.  Inq.  p.m. 
Hen.  P'll,  i,  p.  334.  For  the  early  history 
of  the  Scotts  see  E.R.  Ixii  (Jan.),  pp.  42-44. 

^<>  C142/82/4.  "  C142/82/4. 

28  C142/208/181. 

29  Crisp,  Par.  Reg.  of  Stapleford  Tatvney, 
38.  »  P.C.C.  28  Hogen. 


acted  as  lord  of  the  manor  until  his  death  in  1 540,  and 
so  also  did  his  son  George.^' 

When  George  son  of  Roger  Scott  died  in  1589  he 
left  Woolston  in  his  will  to  his  two  daughters  Elizabeth 
and  Mary.32  This  bequest  was,  however,  invalid 
owing  to  a  settlement  made  under  the  will  of  William 
Scott  (d.  1491).  By  that  settlement  the  manor  passed 
to  George  Scott,  son  of  Hugh,  who  was  already  the 
tenant  of  Woolston  under  the  99-year  lease.  This 
George  Scott  was  living  at  Woolston  Hall  when  he 
became  its  owner.^J  He  died  a  few  months  later,  in 
December  I589.3'«  He  had  made  his  will  before 
inheriting  the  freehold,  leaving  his  lease  of  Woolston 
to  his  grandson  George  son  of  William  Scott.  Accord- 
ing to  the  settlement  of  1 49 1  the  heir  to  the  freehold 
was  William  Scott,  eldest  son  of  the  George  Scott  who 
died  in  December  1589.  William  never  acted  as  lord 
of  the  manor.  He  died  in  1597."  George,  son  of 
William  Scott,  who  had  inherited  the  lease  of  the 
manor,  acted  as  lord  from  1590  onwards.^*  He  died 
in  1648.37  He  never  lived  at  Woolston  Hall,  which 
was  let  to  various  About  1640  he  had 
settled  Woolston  on  his  son  and  heir  George  Scott, 
who  inherited  the  manor  in  1648  and  died  in  1683.3' 
The  last  named  George  Scott  was  succeeded  by  his 
son  William,  who  died  in  i72  5.'">  William's  elder  son 
George  inherited  the  manor  but  died  unmarried  in 
1727.*'  He  was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Thomas 
who  died  in  ijjj.*^  Thomas's  son,  George  Scott,  was 
a  minor,  and  manor  courts  were  held  until  1741  in  the 
name  of  his  guardian.  Sir  Robert  Abdy,  Bt.'*'  George 
died  childless  in  1780,  leaving  Woolston  to  his  second 
cousin  Robert  Bodle  of  Clare  Market,  London,  a 
picture-frame  maker.'*^ 

Robert  Bodle  died  in  1785,  leaving  Woolston  in 
trust  for  the  benefit  of  his  son  Robert,  who  came  of  age 
in  I79i.'*5  The  younger  Robert  held  Woolston  until 
his  death  in  185 1.  In  1839  his  estate  consisted  of  350 
acres  in  Chigwell  parish.**  He  left  two  daughters,  of 
whom  the  elder,  Mary  Elizabeth,  inherited  the  manor 
but  died  unmarried  in  i872.'*''  The  younger  daughter, 
Louisa,  had  married  George  Watlington  as  his  second 
wife,  but  died  without  issue  before  her  sister.  After 
the  death  of  Mary  Elizabeth  Woolston  passed  to  John 
Watlington  Perry  Watlington,  son  of  Thomas  Perry 
by  his  wife  Maria  Jane,  daughter  of  George  Watlington 
by  his  first  wife.  J.  W.  Perry  Watlington  died  childless 
in  1882,  and  his  estates  passed  to  his  sister  Louisa  wife 
of  Robert  Peel  Ethelston.  She  died  in  1892,  leaving 
Woolston  to  her  second  son  Robert  W.  Ethelston.  He 
died  in  1914  and  the  manor  was  subsequently  vested 
in  trustees.''^  Shortly  before  1939  Woolston  Hall  was 
sold,  possibly  for  the  first  time  since  the  12th  century. 

It  is  now  a  sports  club  belonging  to  the  Co-operative 
Wholesale  Society.*'  The  building  is  L-shaped  in  plan, 
with  the  main  front  facing  south-east.  It  is  of  two 
stories  with  attics,  partly  timber-framed  and  plastered 
and  partly  of  brick.  It  was  built  about  1600,  possibly 
incorporating  remains  of  an  earlier  house.  The  south- 
west front  has  an  early  18th-century  eaves  cornice  and 
a  Doric  porch  with  paired  outer  columns.  The  house 
was  'modernized  and  improved'  early  in  the  19th 
century,  probably  by  Robert  Bodle. so  Over  the  mantel 
shelf  in  the  entrance  hall  is  an  oil  painting,  installed  by 
George  Scott  (d.  1780)  depicting  his  arms  impaling 
those  of  his  wife  Jane  (Gibson)  and  several 
Chigwell  church  (see  below)  has  existed  at  least 

since  the  1 2th  century.  The  advowson 
CHURCHES   was    originally    appurtenant    to    the 

manor  of  Chigwell  Hall  (see  above). s^ 
By  about  1254  a  vicarage  existed  as  well  as  a 
The  names  of  the  vicars  have  been  recorded  from  the 
early  14th  century.  They  were  presented  by  the  rectors 
and  at  first  held  only  permissive  office.  In  1374,  how- 
ever, a  vicarage  was  formally  ordained  by  the  Bishop  of 
London  on  the  application  of  Henry  Marmion  then 
rector  and  Richard  de  Benlace,  then  vicar.s*  Shortly 
before  this,  in  1362,  Sir  John  de  Goldingham,  lord  of 
Chigwell  Hall,  conveyed  the  advowson  of  the  rectory 
to  Corpus  Christi  College,  Cambridge,5s  but  there  is 
no  evidence  that  the  grant  became  effective.  In  the 
same  year  as  the  grant  Alexander  de  Goldingham,  son 
of  Sir  John,  presented  to  the  rectory,  and  he  did  so  on 
several  later  occasions  up  to  1386.56  In  1388  Sir 
Alexander  conveyed  the  advowson  to  John,  Lord 
Bourchier.s'  Bourchier  presented  in  1392  and  his  son 
Bartholomew,  3rd  Lord  Bourchier,  in  1400.58  In 
1404  Bartholomew  conveyed  the  advowson  to  John 
son  of  William  Doreward  of  Bocking.5'  This  grant 
was  confirmed  in  1425  by  Sir  Walter  de  Goldingham.*" 
In  1439  John  son  of  John  Doreward  gave  the  advowson 
to  the  priory  of  St.  Botolph,  Colchester,  and  in  1440 
the  rectory  was  appropriated  to  the  priory,  which  pre- 
sented to  the  vicarage  of  Chigwell  in  1442  and  1443.*' 
The  appropriation  was  short-lived.  In  1447  a  new 
rector  was  presented  by  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury 
and  in  145 1  a  new  vicar  was  presented  not  by  the 
priory  but,  as  previously,  by  the  rector.*^ 

In  1460  the  priory  presented  Ralph  Bird  to  the 
rectory.*3  In  1465  the  king  granted  the  rectory  to 
Kemp's  Chantry  in  St.  Paul's  cathedral,  newly  founded 
by  Thomas  Kemp,  Bishop  of  London.**  The  office  of 
priest  in  this  chantry  was  united  with  that  of  penitentiary 
in  the  cathedral.  In  1470  Ralph  Bird  became  Pre- 
bendary of  St.  Pancras  in  the  cathedral.*s  Soon  after 
this  the  prebend  was  formally  united  with  the  offices 

"  E.R.  Ixii  (Apr.),  p.  53. 
"  P.C.C.  24.  Leicester. 

33  E.R.  Ixii  (Apr.),  pp.  53-54. 

34  P.C.C.  98  Leicester. 

35  Chigwell  Par.  Reg. 

3'  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M98.  On  several 
occasions  during  George  Scott's  lifetime 
the  manor  was  vested  in  trustees. 

3'  P.C.C.  75  Essex. 

3'  E.R.  Ixii  (July),  p.  4.0. 

39  P.C.C.  75  Essex;  P.C.C.  22  Hare. 

*»  P.C.C.  i64Romncy. 

*■  Chigwell  Par.  Reg.;  P.C.C.  74 

•»2  Par.  Reg. 

<3  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M108. 

**  P.C.C.  417  Collins.  William  Bodle, 
father  of  Robert,  had  married  Elizabeth, 

daughter  of  George  Scott,  brother  of  the 
William  Scott  who  had  died  in  1725: 
Visits,  of  Essex  (Harl.  Soc),  706. 

■•5  P.C.C.  491  Ducarel. 

«6  E.R.O.,  D/CT  78. 

■»'  Par.  Reg. 

•»8  Burke's  L.G.  (15th  edn.),  712; 
Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1933). 

«  E.R.  Ixii  (Sept.),  p.  45. 

50  Ibid. 

51  Ibid.  For  recent  photos,  of  Woolston 
Hall  see  E.R.  Ixii  (Apr.)  49,  (July)  37. 
For  some  details  of  the  furnishings  of  the 
house  in  1588  see  E.A.T.  n.s.  xi,  338. 
The  house  then  included  a  'great  chamber', 
a  'garden  chamber',  a  'gallery  chamber', 
a  'green  chamber',  a  kitchen  and  a  brew- 

5^  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  140—2. 

53  E.A.T.  ti.s.  xviii,  18. 

s*  Reg.  Sudbury  (Cant.  &  York  Soc), 
i,  176—9;  Marmion  died  in  1375.  For  his 
will  see  E.A.T.  N.s.  xi,  1 1 . 

55  Challenor  Smith,  Additions  to  Neiv- 
court^  29. 

5'  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  142. 

5'  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iii,  209. 

s8  Newcourt,  ibid. 

59  Ca/.  Close,  1402-5,  297-8. 

'"'  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iv,  5. 

"  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  140-2. 

"  Ibid. 

'3  Ibid. 

'*  Ibid.  141. 

'5  Ibid,  i,  195. 




of  penitentiary  and  priest  of  Kemp's  chantry,  and 
subsequent  prebendaries  of  St.  Pancras  were  sinecure 
rectors  of  Chigwell  and  presented  to  the  vicarage  until 
1848,  when  the  rectory  was  vested  in  the  Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners  and  the  advowson  of  the  vicarage  in  the 
Bishop  of  London.**  The  patronage  has  subsequently 
been  exercised  by  the  bishops  of  the  diocese  in  which 
Chigwell  has  been,  and  the  present  patron  is  thus  the 
Bishop  of  Chelmsford.*' 

In  about  1254  the  value  of  the  rectory  was  stated  to 
be  15  marks  and  that  of  the  vicarage  10  marks.**  In 
1291  the  church  was  valued  at  25  marks.*'  When  the 
church  was  appropriated  in  1440  its  annual  value  was 
said  not  to  exceed  ^^^24  and  the  vicarage  was  then 
valued  at  18  marks.'"  In  1535  the  vicarage  was  valued 
at  ;£i8."  In  1839  the  rectorial  tithes  were  commuted 
for  ;£900,  and  the  vicarial  tithes  for  £500.  There  were 
then  54  acres  of  rectorial  glebe  and  10  acres  of  vicarial 

In  and  after  the  i6th  century  the  impropriators 
usually  farmed  out  the  rectorial  glebe  and  tithes.  Thus 
in  1540  the  rectory  was  leased  for  31  years  to  Hugh 
Fen  of  Stepney.'^  In  1 5  64  William  Colshill  and  Barbara 
his  wife,  who  had  succeeded  to  Fen's  interest  in  the 
lease,  conveyed  it  to  Nicholas  Fulham  of  Chigwell.'* 
In  1569  Fulham  sold  the  lease  to  Robert  Spakman.'s 
From  1635  to  1660  Thomas  Andrews,  a  relative  of 
Roger  Andrews,  vicar  in  1605-6,  was  lessee  of  the 
rectory.'*  William  Andrews  was  lessee  in  1697— 
1729."  In  1753  the  rectory  was  being  leased  by 
James  Crokatt  of  Luxborough."  On  his  death  it 
passed  ( 1 776)  to  his  daughter  Jane,  wife  of  Sir  Alexander 
Crauford,  ist  Bt."  In  1791  a  new  lease  was  granted 
to  Sir  Alexander  for  the  term  of  the  lives  of  his  children 
James,  John,  and  Cecilia.'"  The  reversion  of  the  lease 
was  offered  for  sale  in  1800  for  j^i  3,000.  It  was 
bought  by  George  Clark  of  West  Hatch*'  on  whose 
death  it  was  sold  to  William  le  Gros,  also  of  West 
Hatch.*^  Le  Gros  died  in  1820  and  John  Boote 
bought  the  lease.*'  Boote  held  it  until  1848  when  the 
rectory  came  into  the  hands  of  the  Ecclesiastical  Com- 
missioners. They  evidently  bought  out  the  unexpired 
portion  of  Boote's  lease  about  the  same  time.** 

The  Guild  of  the  Holy  Trinity  had  an  altar  in  the 
parish  church.  *5  At  the  time  of  its  dissolution  in  1 548 
the  guild  owned  a  house  and  some  9  acres  of  land,  and 
also  had  60  sheep  and  10  cows.  The  net  annual  value 
of  these  endowments  was  ;^i  10/.  6<2'.**  The  land  con- 
sisted of  Fishes,  Little  Berdes,  and  Brockesfeld  (Brook- 
house  Seld).  It  had  been  given  by  Thomas  Ilderton, 
stockfishmonger  of  London  (d.  1527-8),  for  the  pur- 
pose of  endowing  a  priest  to  sing  at  Trinity  altar. 
Ilderton  also  left  the  10  cows  to  the  guild.*'  The  sheep 
were  the  gift  of  William  Butler.  When  the  property 
of  the  guild  was  valued  by  the  royal  officials  in  1548 
the  net  income  was  assessed  at  41/.  6/,  the  value  of  the 

stock  at  £8  and  the  total  value  for  purchase  at  ^^5  3  1 3/. 
In  the  same  year  the  property  was  sold  to  John  Whyte- 
horne  and  John  Bayly  of  Chard  (Som.).**  It  is  not 
clear  when  the  guild  had  been  founded.  The  earliest 
reference  to  it  is  in  1 5 17,  in  the  will  of  one  John 

The  parish  church  of  ST.  MJRr  THE  VIRGIN 
consists  of  nave,  chancel,  south  aisle,  and  chapel.  The 
timber  bell-turret  at  the  west  end  of  the  aisle  is  sur- 
mounted by  a  small  copper  spire.  There  is  a  south 
porch  and  a  vestry  on  the  north  side  of  the  chancel. 
The  walls  are  of  flint  rubble  covered  with  cement  and 
have  dressings  of  limestone.  The  roofs  are  tiled.  In 
the  churchyard,  between  the  south  porch  and  the  main 
road,  is  a  double  row  of  ancient  yew  trees. 

In  its  original  form  the  church  dates  from  the  late 
1 2th  century,  when  it  would  have  covered  the  ground 
now  occupied  by  the  south  aisle,  which  was  then  the 
nave,  with  a  chancel  somewhat  smaller  than  the  present 
chapel.  Of  this  early  church  only  the  south  wall  now 
remains.  In  this  wall  is  a  fine  Norman  doorway  with 
semicircular  arch  ornamented  with  double  chevrons, 
panelled  tympanum,  segmental  soffit,  and  free-shafted 
jambs.  The  window  immediately  to  the  east  of  this 
door  also  probably  dates  from  the  12th  century  but  has 
an  inserted  mullion  and  is  modern  externally.  On  the 
inside  of  the  south  wall  on  the  east  of  the  door  is  a 
holy-water  stoup  from  which  the  basin  has  long  dis- 

In  the  15  th  century  a  north  aisle  was  added,  the 
original  north  wall  being  opened  to  insert  the  existing 
arcade  of  four  bays,  of  which  the  two  centre  arches  are 
moulded,  with  moulded  piers,  capitals,  and  bases.  The 
Scott  family  of  Woolston  Hall  (see  above)  claimed  the 
chapel  of  this  aisle  as  their  private  property.'"  As  they 
first  obtained  possession  of  the  manor  about  1475  it  is 
not  unlikely  that  they  were  responsible  for  this  addition 
to  the  church.  About  the  same  time  the  chancel  was 
probably  lengthened  and  the  western  bell-turret  added 
to  the  end  of  the  former  nave.  The  turret  is  made  of 
eight  stout  vertical  timber  posts  with  curved  braces  and 
the  whole  frame  stands  independently  of  the  fabric, 
being  walled  round  at  the  time  of  its  erection,  with  a 
window  of  three  pointed  lights  in  the  west  wall.  Soon 
after  this  the  aisle  was  extended  from  the  old  north 
door  (opposite  the  present  south  door)  to  bring  its  west 
wall  level  with  the  bell-turret.  This  extension  was 
carried  out  by  Thomas  Ilderton,  the  benefactor  of  the 
Trinity  Guild  (see  above),  who  gave  instructions  in  his 
will  (1527)  that  he  should  be  buried  in  the  aisle  and 
that  an  inscription  on  his  grave  should  record  the 
extension  for  which  he  had  been  responsible  and  also 
his  gifts  to  the  guild."  This  brass  inscription  existed 
as  late  as  18 10  but  has  since  disappeared.'^  At  about 
the  same  time  as  these  works  were  carried  out  the  nave 
was  probably  re-roofed.    Many  of  the  existing  roof 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/12.  Several 
prebendaries  between  1470  and  1848 
presented  themselves  to  the  vicarage. 

"  Crockford's  Cler.  Din.  passim ;  Chcl. 
Dioc.  Tear  Bk.  (1952). 

6«  E.A.T.  N.s.  xviii,  18. 

M   Tax.  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  2ii. 

70  Newcourt,  i?tf^tfr/.  ii,  140. 

'■  Fahr  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  437. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  78.  At  that  time  the 
Revd.  .\.  R.  Chauvel,  Prebendary  of  St. 
Pancras,  was  also  vicar. 

'3  Cat.  And.  D.  iii,  A.  5524;  Newcourt, 
Reperl.  ii,  141. 

'«  Ibid.  "  C3/62/52. 

T>  E.R.O.,  D/AEV/5,  7. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/AEV/16-21. 

'8  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T337. 

79  Lysons,  Environs  of  London  (18 10),  i, 
64.8.  8»  Ibid.;  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T337. 

*'  Lysons,  op.  cit.  i,  648.  For  a  survey 
of  the  glebe  of  the  rectory  and  of  all  tithe 
payers  c.  1800  see  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/3/3. 

"  Ibid. 

M  Ifhite'!  Dir.  Essex  (1848),  415; 
E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/2-11;  E.R.O., 
D/CT  78. 

84  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/12;  ibid.  166/ 


85  E.A.T.  N.s.  X,  236-8. 


8'  Ibid.  The  gross  income  was  43J.  ^d. 
Reserved  rents  of  ys,  lod.  and  an  annual 
payment  of  55.  to  the  poor  were  chargeable 
against  this. 

8'  Ibid.  238.  For  Ilderton's  will  see 
ibid.  316.  He  also  extended  the  north 
aisle  (see  below). 

88  E.A.T.N.s.x,ZiSiCal.Pat.  1547-8, 

89  Archd.  Essex  3  Sell. 

9»  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M82,  L3.  Many 
members  of  the  family  were  buried  in  this 
chapel.  «'  E.A.T.  ■!).$.  X,  316. 

92  Lysons,  Environs  of  London  (1810),  i, 


timbers  in  the  present  south  aisle  date  from  this 

Early  in  the  i6th  century  the  church  must  have 
been  in  good  repair,  but  a  century  later  the  chancel 
was  said  to  be  ruinous.'-J  About  1600  a  gallery  was 
built  at  the  west  end  of  the  old  nave,  on  the  order  of 
Samuel  Harsnett  (vicar  1 597-1605,  later  Archbishop 
of  York).'*  At  the  Archdeacon's  Visitation  in  1638  it 
was  ordered  that  the  chancel  floor  should  be  raised  by 
three  steps  and  properly  paved,  that  a  new  rail  should  be 
made  round  the  communion  table,  the  belfry  boarded 
with  deal  and  the  spire  shingled.'' 

In  1704  the  church  was  undergoing  repair.'*  In 
1722  a  second  gallery,  for  the  charity  girls  (see  below, 
Schools),  was  built  at  the  west  end  of  the  north  aisle. 
In  1745  a  subscription  was  raised  for  'ornamenting  the 
steeple',  when  presumably  the  weather-vane  was 
added."  The  roof  of  the  old  nave  was  repaired  in 
1800:  this  involved  repair  of  some  of  the  old  roof 
timbers  and  the  replacement  of  the  lead  covering  with 
tiles.'*  Meanwhile,  in  1793,  another  gallery  had  been 
added,  and  in  1805  a  fourth  was  built."  One  of  the 
new  galleries  was  probably  that  at  the  east  end  of  the 
north  aisle  which  was  the  private  pew  of  the  Hatch 
family,  lords  of  Chigwell  Hall  (see  above).' 

The  spire  was  re-shingled  in  1835.^  By  this  time  the 
accommodation  of  the  church  was  becoming  insuffi- 
cient for  the  needs  of  a  growing  population.  In  1853 
there  was  a  proposal  to  extend  the  church  by  the  addi- 
tion of  a  south  aisle.3  This  plan,  which  would  have 
destroyed  the  south  door  and  all  the  remaining  Norman 
fabric,  was  abandoned,  but  in  1854  there  was  con- 
siderable restoration.  This  included  alterations  to  the 
windows  in  the  south  wall.  It  was  carried  out  under 
the  direction  of  F.  T.  DoUman.*  The  church  was  not 
actually  enlarged  until  1886,  when  Sir  Arthur  Blom- 
field  prepared  plans  upon  which  the  present  nave  and 
chancel  are  based.'  The  old  nave  became  the  present 
south  aisle  and  the  old  north  aisle  was  demolished  to 
make  way  for  the  present  nave,  which  is  considerably 
larger.  In  1 896  the  nave  and  chancel  were  redecorated 
and  the  alabaster  reredos  and  pulpit,  both  designed  by 
G.  F.  Bodley,  were  installed.*  The  oak  screen  in  the 
south  aisle  is  a  War  memorial,  unveiled  in  1920.7 

In  1552  there  were  three  bells,  to  which  three  more 
were  added  in  1693.  The  three  original  bells  were 
replaced  in  1737,  1743,  and  1771.  All  five  bells  were 
recast  in  1910,  and  at  the  same  time  a  sixth  was  added.' 

The  church  plate  is  among  the  finest  in  Essex.  There 
are  two  silver  cups,  one  given  in  1607  by  John  Pening- 
ton  of  Chigwell  Hall,  the  other  inscribed  'a  widow's 
gift  A.  A.  1633'  (she  was  Alice  Andrews,  a  relative  of 
Roger  Andrews,  vicar  1605-6,  and  Thomas  Andrews, 
lessee  of  the  rectory  1635-60).  There  are  four  silver 
patens  of  1609,  1632,  1633  and  1832,  and  a  silver 
flagon  inscribed  with  the  arms  of  William  Scott  of 

"  E.R.O.,  D/AEA/14. 

9*  Ckignvell  Register  (1907),  14.. 
«5  E.R.O.,  D/AEV/7.  ««  Ibid.  17. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/11.    The  copper 
covering  was  not  paid  for  by  this  sub- 
scription.  This  came  much  later. 
98  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/10. 
M  Ibid.  166/5/6. 
■  E.j4.T.  U.S.  xii,  137  f.    Probably  the 
1805  gallery,  since  James  Hatch  acquired 
Chigwell  Hall  in  1 800. 
»  E.R.O.,  166/5/6. 
'  Ibid.  1 66/8/ 1 1. 
*  E.A.T.  N.s.  xii,  138. 
5  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/11. 

<■  E.R.  V,  65. 

*  Ch.  Bells  Essex,  209 ;  E.R.  xix,  204. 
«  CA.  Plate  Essex,  98.   The  1607  plate 
illustrated,  p.  122. 

">  For  Harsnett  see  E.R.  xxi,  2 1  and  li,  9. 
For  his  brass  see  f^.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  544. 
It  was  originally  set  over  his  grave  in  the 
old  chancel,  now  the  south  chapel. 

'^  Rampston  was  buried  in  Chingford 
church:£.^.r.  N.s.  X,  186. 

'^  For  Ilderton's  brass  see  above.  For 
the  unknown  man  see  E.A.T.  N.s.  x,  185. 

"  E.A.T.  N.s.  X,  237,  312;  xi,  10,  150, 

'♦  St.  Winifred's  was  the  gift  of  Mr.  J. 

Woolston  Hall  and  dated  17 13.  The  1632  paten  was 
also  given  by  Alice  Andrews.' 

In  the  chancel  is  the  well-known  brass  to  Samuel 
Harsnett  (d.  163 1),  Vicar  of  Chigwell  and  later  suc- 
cessively Bishop  of  Chichester,  Bishop  of  Norwich,  and 
Archbishop  of  York.'"  There  is  a  brass  in  the  nave  to 
Robert  Rampston  (1585),  a  benefactor  to  the  poor  of 
this  and  other  neighbouring  parishes."  In  the  south 
chapel  is  a  wall  monument  to  Thomas  Colshill  (1595), 
Surveyor  of  the  Customs  under  Edward  VI,  Mary,  and 
Elizabeth,  and  Mary  (Crayford)  his  wife.  On  the 
south  wall  of  the  nave  is  a  monument  to  George  Scott 
(1683)  and  Elizabeth  (Cheyne)  his  wife.  (1705). 
Along  the  roof  of  the  south  aisle  is  a  series  of  painted 
hatchments  of  arras  relating  to  families  that  have  been 
prominent  in  the  parish,  including  those  of  Scott  of 
Woolston,  and  Hatch-Abdy  of  Chigwell  Hall.  The 
brasses  of  Thomas  Ilderton  (1527—8)  and  an  un- 
known man  {c.  1 5 10),  which  were  formerly  in  the 
church,  have  now  disappeared.'^ 

Numerous  small  bequests  to  the  church  of  Chigwell 
in  the  15th  and  i6th  centuries  were  recorded  in  the 
series  of  articles  on  'Old  Chigwell  Wills'  by  W.  C. 

The  ancient  parish  of  Chigwell  was  divided  in  the 
19th  century  by  the  creation  of  new  parishes  at  Buck- 
hurst  Hill  and  Chigwell  Row  (see  below).  In  1935 
the  small  church  of  ST.  WINIFRED  was  built  at 
Grange  Hill  as  a  chapel  of  ease  to  St.  Mary's,  Chigwell. 
It  is  a  small  brick  building  faced  with  cement.  Adjoin- 
ing it  is  an  iron  mission  room,  erected  about  i886.''* 

The  parish  church  of -Sr.  JOHN  THE  BAPTIST, 
Buckhurst  Hill,  was  built  in  1837  as  a  chapel  of  ease. 
In  the  following  year  Buckhurst  Hill  was  constituted 
a  separate  ecclesiastical  district."  In  1848  the  minister 
there  had  an  income  oi  £60  a  year,  of  which  ;^40  came 
from  the  Ecclesiastical  Commissioners  and  the  re- 
mainder from  pew  rents.'*  Buckhurst  Hill  became  a 
separate  parish  in  1867.  The  living  was  endowed  with 
j{^200  tithes  by  the  Ecclesiastical  Commissioners  (as 
owners  of  the  rectorial  tithes  of  Chigwell)  and  was 
declared  a  rectory  under  the  District  Church  Tithes 
Act,  1865.'''  The  patron  of  the  new  rectory  was  the 
Vicar  of  Chigwell  until  about  l93i,whentheadvowson 
passed  to  the  Bishop  of  Chelmsford.'* 

The  church  consists  of  nave,  chancel,  aisles,  north 
porch,  and  tower  with  pinnacles  and  spire.  It  origin- 
ally consisted  of  nave,  chancel,  and  tower,"  and  has  been 
several  times  enlarged.^"  It  is  a  stone  building  in  the 
Early  English  style. 

The  mission  church  of  ST.  STEPHEN,  Albert 
Road,  Buckhurst  Hill  was  built  as  a  chapel  of  ease  to 
St.  John's  in  1876.^'  The  mission  church  of  ST. 
ELISABETH,  Chestnut  Avenue,  Buckhurst  Hill, 
which  is  also  in  this  parish,  was  opened  in  1938." 
They  are  both  small  brick  buildings. 

'  E.R.  XXX,  46. 

Sanders ;  for  the  iron  room  see  Kelly's  Dir. 
Essex  {1SS6,  1890). 

'5  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1859,  1933). 

■6  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/3/3. 

"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1895);  E.R.O., 
D/P  166/3/3.  The  Act  was  28  &  29 
Vict.  C.42. 

**  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex,  passim. 

■9  prate's  Dir.  Essex  (1848). 

">  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1933);  Buckhurst 
Hill,  pub.  J.  W.  Phelp  {c.  1 897 :  a  local 

^'  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1933). 

22  Inf.  from  Canon  I.  Whitehouse, 
Rector  of  Buckhurst  Hill. 




In  1848  a  room  in  the  old  workhouse  at  Chigwell 
Row  was  being  used  for  services.  It  had  accommoda- 
tion for  100  but  was  then  overcrowded.^-!  Chigwell 
Row  became  a  separate  ecclesiastical  district  in  1 860.^ 
The  parish  church  was  built  in  1867,  and  in  the 
same  year  Chigwell  Row  became  a  separate  parish.^5 
The  living,  like  that  of  Buckhurst  Hill,  was  declared 
a  rectory,  having  been  endowed  with  tithes  which  in 
1886  were  estimated  to  produce  j^343  a  year,  and  6 
acres  of  glebe.^*  The  advowson  was  at  first  vested  in 
the  bishop  of  the  diocese,  but  from  about  1 874  has  been 
exercised  alternately  by  the  bishop  and  the  Crown.^' 

Bartholomew  Hartley  Foulger  of  Chigwell  Row, 
by  will  proved  1930,  left  ^1,000  for  the  upkeep  of  the 
churchyard,  provided  that  certain  graves  and  his  family 
memorial  tablet  were  kept  in  repair.  In  1950  the  whole 
income  was  spent  on  the  churchyard.^* 

The  Revd.  Alfred  W.  Gross  of  Woodford  Wells,  by 
will  proved  193 1,  left  X^ioo  duty-free  to  maintain 
Chigwell  Row  church  and  churchyard.  In  1950  the 
whole  income  was  spent  on  the  churchyard.^' 

The  church  oi  ALL  SAINTS  is  a  stone  building  in 
Gothic  style.  It  originally  contained  nave,  chancel, 
aisles,  and  west  porch.   A  tower  was  added  in  1903.30 

The  church  of  ST.  PAUL,  Hainault,  was  built  in 
195 1,  and  in  1953  became  the  centre  of  a  new  Con- 
ventional District  which  includes  parts  of  the  parishes 
of  Chigwell  Row,  Chigwell,  and  the  Ascension,  Collier 
Row,  together  with  part  of  the  Conventional  District 
of  St.  Francis  of  Assisi,  Barkingside.s' 

A  private  chapel  at  Tumours  Hall,  Gravel  Lane, 
was  used  for  public  worship  for  some  years  about 

The  Convent  of  the  Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus  and  Mary 
(formerly  the  Manor  House)  at 
ROMAN  Woodford  Bridge  was  consecrated 

CATHOLICISM  in  1925.  It  is  served  from  Wood- 
ford.33  A  school  is  carried  on  in 
connexion  with  the  convent.3'*  The  church  of  the 
Assumption  was  opened  in  Manford  Way,  Hainault, 
in  November  1953.35 


On  31  May  1804  a  nonconformist  chapel  was 
opened  at  Chigwell  Row.3* 
The  minister  was  a  Mr. 
Booth.  Among  the  original 
trustees  were  Joseph 
Fletcher,  shipbuilder  of  Shadwell  Dock,  and  Isaac 
Gould  of  Loughton.  Henry  Fletcher  had  bought 
Clare  Hall  in  1801,  and  its  name  had  been  changed 
to  Chapel  House.3'  The  chapel  was  usually  described 
during  the  19th  century  as  Independent  and  supported 
the  Essex  Congregational  Union.  In  1829  the  minister 
reported  that  his  congregation  numbered  200-50,  of 
whom  100  'may  properly  be  called  dissenters,  accord- 
ing to  our  system'. 3 8  In  1831  the  chapel  opened  a 
school  (see  Schools).  During  the  early  1840's,  under 
its  minister  the  Revd.  T.  Hill,  it  made  itself  responsible 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/3/3.  "  See  below,  Schools. 

M  Kellfi  Dir.  Essex  (1870).  "  Calk.  Dir.  (1954),  129. 

"  Ibid. 

"  Ibid.  (1886). 

"  Ibid.  (18701). 

'»  Char.  Com.  Recs. 

"  Ibid. 

30  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1933). 

"  Inf.  from  the  Revd.  P.  H.  Wingham. 

3^  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (19 1 2);  inf.  from 
Mrs.  Beattie  of  Tumours  Hall.  The 
chapel  is  still  used  for  private  services. 

"  Brentwood  R.C.)  Diocesan  Tear  Bk. 

for  the  mission  at  Abridge  (in  Lambourne,  q.v.).'« 
During  the  next  ten  years  the  Chigwell  Row  church 
was  in  difficulties.t"  In  1857  the  British  School  was 
temporarily  closed  and  the  church  itself  barely  sur- 
vived. In  the  following  year,  however,  the  school  was 
reopened  and  the  church  was  said  to  be  reviving.*' 

The  church  experienced  further  difficulties  during 
the  next  few  years,  partly  as  the  result  of  Anglican 
opposition.*^  About  1866,  however,  it  began  to  sup- 
port a  mission  in  Chigwell  Road,  which  later  developed 
into  a  small  church  (see  below).*3  The  church  at 
Chigwell  Row  could  usually  afford  to  keep  a  minister 
at  this  period.  In  or  about  1882  it  once  again  under- 
took to  support  the  Abridge  church.**  In  1904  there 
were  37  members,  80  Sunday  school  pupils,  and  3 
teachers.*5  In  1925  the  numbers  were  52,  53,  and  10 
respectively.**  The  society  is  now  (1952)  a  United 
Free  Church  with  80  members,  50  Sunday  school 
pupils,  and  18  teachers.  It  has  had  a  lay  pastor  since 

The  church  is  a  rectangular  building  of  gault  brick 
with  stone  or  cement  dressings.  If  this  is  the  original 
building  of  1804  the  front  must  have  been  altered 
during  the  second  half  of  the  19th  century.  Beside  it 
is  an  iron  building  used  as  a  schoolroom.  This  was 
brought  from  Leytonstone  in  1880.** 

In  1866  the  Essex  Congregational  Union  was 
making  a  small  grant  to  help  mission  work  in  Chigwell.*' 
In  the  following  year  it  was  reported  that  a  room  in 
Chigwell  Road  had  been  opened  for  worship  and  that 
congregations  numbered  about  130.  Services  were 
held  by  the  Revd.  F.  Neller,  of  the  Chigwell  Row 
Congregational  Church.^"  In  1870  the  mission  was 
flourishing,  but  the  landlord  had  given  the  members 
notice  to  quit.s'  About  1875  the  Chigwell  Road 
society  appears  to  have  become  associated  with  one  at 
Woodford  Bridge:  in  that  year  they  had  a  joint  super- 
intendent, E.  W.  Skinner.52  From  this  time  support 
was  being  given  by  the  Woodford  Congregational 

In  1890  the  two  missions  were  united  under  the 
superintendence  of  G.  H.  Giddins,  minister  of  the 
Ray  Lodge  Congregational  Church,  Woodford,  which 
church  had  itself  been  founded  by  the  Woodford  Con- 
gregational Church. 5*  Land  was  bought  in  Smeaton 
Road,  Chigwell,  near  Woodford  Bridge,  and  an  iron 
chapel  was  given  by  T.  W.  Orr.  Financial  support  by 
W.  H.  Brown  enabled  a  resident  missionary  to  be 
retained  from  1903  to  1932.55  The  chapel  remained 
under  the  care  of  the  Woodford  Congregational  Church 
when  Ray  Lodge  became  independent  in  1930,  and  in 
1947  became  a  branch  of  the  Woodford  Green  United 
Free  Church,  in  which  the  Woodford  Congregational 
Church  was  merged. 5*  There  is  a  lay  pastor  at  the 
Smeaton  Road  church.  The  iron  building  was 
damaged  by  enemy  action  during  the  Second  World  ■ 

3*  Evangelical  Mag.  xii  (1804.),  p.  334. 

37  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M81. 

38  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  3/2/23. 

39  Essex  Congr.   Union  Rep.   1847,  pp. 

■to  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/3/3. 

•»■  Essex  Congr.  Union  Rep.  1858. 

<2  Ibid.  1859,  i860,  1861. 

<3  Ibid.  1866  f. 

"  Ibid.  1882. 

■•5  Congr.  Tear  Bk.  1904. 

♦«  Ibid.  1925. 

<'  Congr.  Tear  Bk.  1952. 

**  Essex  Congr.  Union  Rep,  1880. 

«  Essex  Congr.  Union  Rep.  1866. 

50  Ibid.  1867.  The  room  was  in  the 
house  of  a  Mr.  Root. 

s'  Ibid.  1870. 

5=  Ibid.  1875. 

53  A.  G.  Kidd,  'The  Pioneers,  a  Short 
Hist,  of  the  Woodford  Green  United  Free 
Church'  (Typescript,  1948). 

5<  Ibid. 

55  Ibid. 

5'  Ibid.      ■ 

5'  IHd. 



The  first  nonconformist  meetings  at  Buckhurst  Hill 
took  place  soon  after  the  extension  of  the  railway  from 
Woodford.  In  i860  Mr.  Gingell,  of  Hill  Farm,  Buck- 
hurst Hill,  a  Baptist  missioner  at  Epping,  built  two 
cottages  near  his  home.  In  one  of  them  his  daughters 
opened  a  Sunday  school.'*  About  1863  he  built  a 
mission  room  in  Alfred  Road,  where  he  and  Noah 
Heath  held  services,  assisted  by  students  from  Spur- 
geon's  College,  London.'"  In  1864  the  Woodford 
Congregational  Church  started  a  Sunday  school  at 
Buckhurst  Hill.*°  Congregational  services  were 
opened  soon  after  this  in  a  room  next  door  to  the  'Bald 
Faced  Stag'  and  also  at  the  house  of  a  Mr.  Straker, 
'Fairlands',  Epping  New  Road.*"  In  1866  all  the 
above  missions  united  to  form  the  Buckhurst  Hill  Con- 
gregational Church.  In  that  year  a  schoolroom  was 
opened  in  Palmerston  Road,  at  a  cost  oC  £l^.So  for  the 
land  and  £1,700  for  the  building.*^  About  £1,500 
was  already  promised  by  supporters  of  the  new 
church.'s  The  church  was  at  first  associated  with  that 
at  Woodford,  but  in  1868  William  Dorling  came 
to  Buckhurst  Hill  as  the  first  minister.*''  Three  years 
later  he  left  the  church  after  a  disagreement  with  some 
of  the  members  and  took  part  of  the  congregation  with 
him  to  form  the  King's  Place  Independent  Church 
(see  below).  In  1872  W.  H.  Charlesworth  became 
minister  at  Palmerston  Road  and  in  1 874  a  new  church 
was  built  there  at  a  cost  of  £6,ooo.*5  Charlesworth 
remained  until  1890.  In  1904  there  were  75  church 
members,  80  Sunday  school  pupils,  and  10  teachers.** 
A  new  organ  was  installed  in  1907  at  a  cost  of  £350 
and  in  191 3  the  schoolroom  was  enlarged.*'  In  19 14 
there  were  100  members,  65  pupils,  and  11  teachers.** 
The  church  celebrated  its  jubilee  in  1924  and  a  brief 
history  was  compiled  to  mark  the  event.*'  In  1925 
there  were  117  members,  160  pupils,  and  20  teachers.'''' 
A  mission  station  was  opened  at  Roding  Valley  in  1948 
and  in  1952  the  church  had  in  all  164  members,  140 
pupils,  1 8  teachers,  and  2  lay  preachers.  The  minister, 
the  Revd.  N.  F.  Perry  had  been  there  since  1947." 

The  church  is  an  imposing  stone  building  consisting 
of  nave,  chancel  (facing  north),  transepts,  and  south 
tower  with  pinnacles.  Behind  it  to  the  north  is  the 
earlier  schoolroom,  of  red  brick  with  a  slate  roof. 

In  1 87 1  the  Revd.  W.  Dorling  seceded  from 
Palmerston  Road  and  took  some  of  the  members  with 
him  to  form  the  King's  Place  Independent  Church. 
He  was  a  man  of  strong  character  and  advanced 
thought,  a  powerful  preacher  and  an  able  writer  for 
Tie  Christian  World.  His  resignation  from  Palmerston 
Road  was  the  result  of  a  controversy  that  had  arisen 
within  that  church  concerning  the  doctrine  of  the 
'larger  hope',  of  which  Dorling  was  a  strong  advocate. 
This  doctrine  was  distasteful  to  part  of  his  congregation, 

which  preferred  that  of  eternal  punishment.  Among 
his  supporters,  however,  was  a  large  and  influential 
section  of  the  church.'^  These  people  acquired  a  site 
at  the  other  (east)  end  of  Palmerston  Road  opposite 
King's  Place  and  there  built  an  iron  church  which  was 
opened  in  October  1871.  Dorling  was  appointed 
'Pastor  of  the  said  chapel  for  life  or  until  he  should 
voluntarily  resign  the  .  .  .  ofiice'.'-s  The  King's  Place 
church  was  known  locally  as  'Mr.  Dorling's  church'. 
It  is  remarkable  that  those  who  contributed  to  its 
erection  were  largely  those  who  had  subscribed  towards 
the  original  building  at  Palmerston  Road  in  1866.'-* 

Dorling  remained  pastor  at  King's  Place  for  3  5  years, 
retiring  in  1906.  He  died  in  I9I2.'5  His  congrega- 
tion had  in  1887  built  a  brick  church  on  the  site,  ap- 
parently retaining  the  original  iron  church  until  1900, 
when  they  sold  it  to  the  Baptists.  After  Dorling's  retircr 
ment  the  brick  church  was  also  sold  to  become  the 
Palmerston  Road  Baptist  Church  (see  below).  The 
proceeds  of  the  latter  sale  went  to  Cheshunt  College, 
where  Dorling  had  been  trained  for  the  ministry.'* 

The  Queen's  Road  Baptist  Church,  Buckhurst  Hill, 
was  formed  about  1861,  when  the  Revd.  H.  Cousens 
became  minister."  In  1866  a  church  was  built  at  a 
cost  of  £1,200,  with  accommodation  for  250.'*  In 
1869  there  were  37  members.''  Cousens  remained 
until  1885,  and  was  succeeded  by  the  Revd.  E.  G. 
Ince,  who  came  from  Australia.*"  Soon  after  1890  the 
church  was  closed.*'  It  later  became  known  as  Buck- 
hurst Hill  Hall  and  was  used  for  public  meetings  and 
entertainments.  It  was  enlarged  in  1912.*^  It  is  now 
used  as  a  branch  of  the  County  Library.  It  is  a  small 
red-brick  building. 

Soon  after  the  closing  of  the  Queen's  Road  Baptist 
Church  meetings  were  resumed  by  some  of  the  mem- 
bers under  the  leadership  of  Noah  Heath.  They  hired 
Rigg's  Retreat,  Princes  Road,  from  1894  to  1897  and 
in  1899  founded  a  church,  with  the  Revd.  J.  R.  Cox 
as  minister. *3  In  1902  an  iron  building  was  erected  in 
Princes  Road.  The  church  lost  some  members  soon 
after  this  to  the  Palmerston  Road  Baptist  Church  (see 
below).*''  In  1906  Cox  was  succeeded  by  his  son  F.  A. 
Cox  and  in  19 10  there  were  55  members,  70  children 
in  the  Sunday  school,  and  7  teachers.*'  By  1930  there 
were  only  25  members,  45  children,  and  3  teachers.** 
From  1924  to  about  1933  F.  .A..  Cox  was  again  minister, 
but  the  church  appears  to  have  closed  about  1934.*' 
It  stood  near  the  west  end  of  Princes  Road  on  the  north 

The  Baptist  church,  Palmerston  Road,  Buckhurst 
Hill,  was  founded  in  1900,  when  the  iron  building 
that  had  been  the  original  King's  Place  Congregational 
Church  was  bought  by  the  London  Baptist  Associa- 
tion.*'   Many  early  adherents  came  from  the  Princes 

5'  G.  Teverson,  Brief  Chronicle  of  so 
Tears  Service^  i8y4—ig24  (a  history  of 
Palmerston  Rd.  Congregational  Church, 
Buckhurst  Hill) ;  W.  T.  Whitley,  Baptists 
of  hondon^  189. 

5^  Ibid.  For  the  later  history  of  the 
Alfred  Road  Hall  see  below. 

'°  A.  G.  Kidd,  'The  Pioneers'. 

"  Essex  Congr.  Union  Rep,  1866;  G. 
Teverson,  Brief  Chronicle. 

^^  Teverson,  op.  cit. 

''  Essex  Congr.  Union  Rep.  1866. 

'*  Congr.  Tear  Bk.  1867,  1868,  1869. 
Mr.  A.  W.  Dorling  of  Woodford  Green, 
grandson  of  the  Revd.  W.  Dorling,  now 
owns  the  original  letter  inviting  his  grand- 
father to  Palmerston  Road  at  an  annual 

sa/ary  of  ,^300,  guaranteed  for  the  first 
three  years.  ^s  Teverson,  op.  cit. 

<>*>  Ibid.;  Congr.  Year  Bk.  1904. 

67  Teverson,  op.  cit. 

'8  Congr.  Year  Bk.  19 14. 

<">  G.  Teverson,  Brief  Chronicle  of  50 
Years  Service. 

'»  Congr.  Year  Bk.  1925.  i 

"  Ibid.  1952. 

'2  Inf.  from  Mr.  A.  W.  Dorling. 

"  Ibid.;  Congr.  Year  Bk.  1913  (obit,  of 
Revd.  W.  Dorling). 

'4  Inf.  from  Mr.  A.  W.  Dorling. 

75  Ibid.  A  note  on  his  career  was  printed 
in  Congr.  Year  Bk.  1 9 1  3  ;  The  Christian 
PVorld  2  Apr.  193 1  contained  a  note  on 
the  centenary  of  his  birth.  '*  Ibid. 

"  Bapt.  Handhk.  1 869 ;  W.  T.  Whitley, 
Baptists  of  London.,  189. 
'8  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1886). 
'9  Bapt.  Handhk.  1869. 
80  W\nt\ey,  Baptists  of  London,  189. 
8"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  {i%()^). 

82  Ibid.  1933. 

83  W.  T.  Whitley,  Baptists  of  London, 
2+4.  84  Ibid. 

85  Bapt.  Handhk.  1910. 

8*  Ibid.,  1930.  It  seems  possible  that  the 
church  was  closed  for  a  time  about  19 17— 
20 :  Whitley,  Baptists  of  London,  244 ; 
Bapt.  Handhk.  1916-20. 

8'  Bapt.  Handhk.  1933,  1934. 

88  O.S.  6  in.  Map  ( 1 92 1  edn.),  sheet  Ixix. 

">  Whitley,  Baptists  of  London,  249. 




Road  Baptist  Church.  A  Baptist  church  was  formally 
constituted  in  1909,  taking  over  the  brick  building  of 
the  King's  Place  Congregational  Church,  which  had 
closed  in  1906."'  By  1930  there  were  56  members, 
45  Sunday  school  pupils,  and  13  teachers."  In  195 1 
there  were  74  members,  87  pupils,  and  16  teachers. '^ 
For  most  of  its  history  the  church  has  supported  a 

The  church  is  of  red  brick,  in  similar  style  to  the 
Methodist  church  (see  below)  which  was  built 
two  years  earlier.  Beside  it  is  the  earlier  iron 

For  a  short  time  before  1827  there  was  a  Wesleyan 
Methodist  congregation  meeting  at  Chigwell.  This 
had  certainly  ceased  by  iSig.'^^  This  mission  had 
probably  been  carried  on  by  members  of  the  North 
East  London  Circuit,  which  a  few  years  later  built  a 
small  church  at  Abridge  in  Lambourne  (q.v.). 

No  other  reference  has  been  found  to  Methodism  in 
Chigwell  until  1878.  In  that  year  Edward  Pope, 
founder  of  the  Loughton  Methodist  Church  (q-v.), 
bought  land  for  ^200  in  Queen's  Road,  Buckhurst 
Hill,  upon  which  an  iron  church  was  erected. '♦  In 
1880  this  was  put  in  trust  and  included  in  the  Wanstead 
and  Woodford  Circuit.  In  1886  a  new  brick  church 
was  built  to  the  design  of  Charles  Bell  of  New  Broad 
Street,  London,  at  a  cost  of  ;^i  ,940.  In  1898  new  floor- 
ing was  installed  for  £t^o.  In  February  1908  the 
organ  of  the  Palmerston  Road  Congregational  Church 
was  bought  for  £<)$'<  the  old  organ  was  sold  to  the 
Loughton  Wesleyan  Church  for  ;{^45. 

In  1 9 10  it  was  decided  to  station  a  minister  at  Buck- 
hurst Hill.  A  house  was  leased  in  191 7  and  bought  two 
years  later. 

In  1928  the  jubilee  of  the  church  was  celebrated 
by  the  building  of  the  Jubilee  Room,  behind  the  school- 
room. This  cost  £s^o.  In  1934  the  Buckhurst  Hill 
minister  was  transferred  to  Loughton  and  a  lay  pastor, 
Mr.  G.  J.  Gaisford,  was  appointed  to  Buckhurst  Hill. 
This  arrangement  continued  until  1937,  when  Mr. 
Gaisford  left.  The  church  now  (1953)  shares  a  minister 
with  the  Hermon  Hill  church  at  Wanstead.  Its 
membership  is  90.  The  building  is  of  red  brick,  in 
Gothic  style. 

A  new  Methodist  church  was  opened  in  Burrow 
Road,  on  the  Hainault  estate  in  1952. '5 

The  present  Salvation  Army  hall  at  the  north  end 
of  Alfred  Road,  Buckhurst  Hill,  is  probably  the  build- 
ing erected  about  1863  by  Mr.  Gingell  (see  above, 
Palmerston  Road  Congregational  Church).  The 
Salvation  Army  has  used  it  for  at  least  20  years.'*  It 
is  a  small  building  of  stock  brick. 

The  Plymouth  Brethren  have  a  small  hall  in  Queen's 
Road,  Buckhurst  Hill;  it  is  of  stock  brick  and  was  built 
in  1884." 

Princes  Hall,  Princes  Road,  Buckhurst  Hill,  has 
been  used  for  religious  meetings  since  1886  or  earlier.'^ 
It  is  a  small  red-brick  building. 

The  surviving  court  rolls  of  the  manor  of  Woolston 

Hall  run  from  1423  to  1749" 

PARISH  and   are    continued    by    court 

GOFERNMENT    books   for   the   period    1750- 

jiND  POOR  1863.'    There  are  no  rolk  for 

RELIEF  1460-82    and    1509-46    and 

there  are  a  few  short  gaps  later 
in  the  series.  The  manor  court  took  an  active  part  in 
local  affairs  until  the  end  of  the  17th  century.  Ale- 
tasters  were  appointed  regularly  until  1640  and  con- 
stables until  1840.  In  the  early  19th  century,  when 
there  was  a  single  constable,  he  combined  this  office 
with  that  of  woodward,  and  the  court  continued  to 
appoint  a  woodward  by  that  title  alone  up  to  1862. 
There  appears  to  have  been  a  manorial  grange  and 
bakehouse  which  was  derelict  by  1463.*  The  court 
dealt  with  minor  nuisances  and  occasionally  with  cases 
of  assault.  In  1578  the  Poor  Relief  Act  of  1576^  was 
invoked  to  deal  with  an  'idle  woman'  harboured  in  the 
house  of  a  manorial  tenant.  In  1427  and  1606  it  was 
presented  that  the  lord  of  the  manor  ought  to  repair 
bridges,  but  in  1682  the  parish  surveyors  were  pre- 
sented for  failing  to  repair  a  footbridge. 

There  are  court  rolls  for  the  manor  of  Chigwell  Hall 
for  the  periods  1 595-1619  and  1687-1721  and  books 
for  1734-99  ^"'J  i882-i90i.'»  So  far  as  can  be  judged 
from  these  rolls  alone  this  court  during  the  17th 
century  and  later  dealt  only  with  business  relating  to 
the  copyhold  tenements  of  the  manor.  There  are  no 
records  of  the  appointment  of  local  officials  in  the 
court,  but  in  1790  the  parish  vestry  nominated  two 
constables,  one  for  Chigwell  Hall  lordship  and  one  for 
Barringtons  lordship  (see  below). 5  Neither  was  the 
same  man  as  was  appointed  constable  by  the  Woolston 
court  in  the  same  year. 

Existing  court  rolls  of  the  manor  of  Barringtons  cover 
the  period  1652-175 1.*  On  every  occasion  except  one 
during  this  period  the  court  met  only  as  a. court  baron. 
In  1695  it  also  viewed  frankpledge,  and  appointed  a 
constable.  The  appointment  by  the  vestry  in  1790, 
however,  suggests  that  a  constable  was  appointed  for 
this  manor  on  occasions  after  1695  which  were  not 
recorded  in  the  rolls. 

There  is  little  information  concerning  poor  relief 
before  the  i8th  century.  The  Guild  of  the  Holy 
Trinity  (see  above.  Church)  took  a  regular  part  in 
relieving  the  poor.  The  poor  men's  chest  in  the  parish 
church  is  mentioned  in  1 5  50,'  and  the  collectors  of  the 
poor  in  1564.' 

Vestry  minute  books  have  survived  for  1712-49, 
1 789-1 804,  and  1847-94.9  There  are  overseers' 
accounts  for  1821-36  and  an  almost  complete  series 
of  bills  for  i784-i836."> 

For  a  large  and  fairly  populous  parish  attendance  at 
the  vestry  was  normally  not  numerous;  there  were 
rarely  more  than  twelve  ratepayers  present.  Meetings 
were  usually  held  in  the  vestry  room,  but  in  1870  and 
1872  exceptionally  large  attendances  necessitated  an 

'»  Ibid. 

»'  Bapt.  Handbk.  1930. 

»^  Ibid.  1951. 

"  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  3/1/66. 

^*  The  following  acct.  is  based  on  an 
address  by  A.  W.  Leach  at  Wanstead, 
1919  (reported  in  Mins.  of  Local  Preachers 
Mtg.  Wanstead  and  Woodford  Circuit), 
Trust  Deeds  and  other  church  records. 

95  Inf.  from  Rcvd.  P.  H.  Wingham. 

96  Inf.  from  local  resident. 
«'  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  {i%%6). 

98  Ibid.  1886  f. 

99  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M9+-109. 

>  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  M80,  81,  D/DZn 
I,  2. 

2  E.R.O.,  T/P  17. 

J   18  Eliz.  1,0.3. 

■•  E.R.O.,  D/DDa  Mi-I2. 

5  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/10. 

<•  E.R.O.,  D/DU  97/1-6. 

'  Will  of  John  Hill:  Archd.  Essex  2.1 
Thonder;  Will  of  Nicholas  Sympson: 
Comm.  Ct.  London  144  Clyffe. 


8  Will  ofThomasHewett:  Archd.  Essex 
114.  Newington.  For  Charity  relief  see 
Charities,  below. 

9  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/1,  10,  II. 

**>  Ibid.  166/12/1-7,  10-12.  There  are 
many  other  miscellaneous  parish  records : 
see  Essex  Par.  Recs.  78.  Unless  otherwise 
stated  information  below  is  from  the 
vestry  minutes  and  overseers'  accounts 
and  bills. 


adjournment  to  the  'King's  Head'.  At  the  1872  meet- 
ing more  than  200  attended  to  discuss  an  advance  to 
the  Chigwell  School  Board.  In  the  later  1 9th  century 
the  ratepayers  of  Buckhurst  Hill,  who  outnumbered 
those  in  the  rest  of  the  parish,  disliked  travelling  to 
Chigvi'ell  for  vestry  meetings,  especially  because  there 
was  still  no  direct  road  between  those  two  parts  of  the 

There  seems  to  have  been  no  particular  system  of 
rotation  in  appointing  parish  officers.  Until  1770 
churchwardens  were  appointed  for  two  successive 
years  but  afterwards  they  often  served  for  longer  terms. 
From  1730,  or  earlier,  one  churchwarden  was  ap- 
pointed by  the  vicar  and  the  other  by  the  parish.  Over- 
seers of  the  poor  usually  served  only  for  one  year,  two 
being  appointed  each  Easter.  There  is  a  vague  sug- 
gestion that  during  the  1 8th  century  one  was  appointed 
for  the  lordship  of  Chigwell  Hall  and  the  other  for 
that  of  Woolston.  Three  surveyors  of  highways  were 
appointed  each  year,  one  each  for  the  lordships  of 
Chigwell  Hall,  Woolston,  and  Barringtons.  This 
office  was  often  taken  by  the  gentry,  and  in  the  middle 
of  the  18th  century  William  Harvey,  lord  of  Barring- 
tons,  served  his  own  lordship  for  many  years.  There  is 
no  evidence  that  the  vestry  nominated  constables  before 
1790.  A  resolution  of  1721  prohibited  the  appoint- 
ment of  a  deputy  by  any  parish  officer  without  the 
vestry's  approval.  A  paid  assistant  overseer  was  ap- 
pointed in  1827  and  served  continuously  until  1839, 
when  he  became  the  relieving  officer  for  Epping  Dis- 
trict under  the  Epping  Board  of  Guardians.  An 
assistant  overseer  was  again  appointed  in  1 840,  and  in 
1852  he  was  also  made  collector  of  the  poor  rate  and 
paid  a  commission  of  3  per  cent,  of  the  rates  collected." 

In  1727  there  were  2  men,  5  women,  and  5  children 
receiving  regular  poor  relief  A  year  later  a  house  in 
Chigwell  was  converted  into  a  workhouse  and  in  1733 
the  vestry  resolved  to  send  all  out-pensioners  there.  In 
1730  a  workhouse  master  had  undertaken  to  maintain 
the  poor  for  a  lOi/.  rate,  but  this  arrangement  seems  to 
have  lasted  only  a  few  years.  In  1745  all  pensioners 
were  ordered  to  wear  the  parish  badge.  The  work- 
house remained  adequate  for  the  needs  of  the  parish 
until  1790,  when  a  larger  house  in  Gravel  Lane  was 
taken  on  lease.  This  was  used  as  the  parish  workhouse 
until  1836  when  it  was  taken  over  by  the  Epping 
Union, '2  which  used  it  until  the  new  Union  house  was 
opened  in  1838. '^  In  1796  the  poor  were  farmed  out 
to  a  workhouse  master  at  15  guineas  a  year;  he  also 
received  2  guineas  for  acting  as  parish  beadle. 

Of  the  94  surviving  settlement  certificates  dated 
between  1699  and  1791  received  by  the  parish  officers 
60  were  issued  by  parishes  in  south-west  Essex,  12 
elsewhere  in  the  county  (mostly  in  the  north-west),  6 
in  Hertfordshire,  Cambridgeshire,  Norfolk,  and  Suffolk, 
12  in  London,  Middlesex,  Surrey  and  Kent.  One  was 
for  a  blacksmith  from  Taunton  and  one  for  a  barber 
and  wig-maker  from  Berwick-on-Tweed.  The  others 
were  from  Wellingborough  (Northants.)  and  Steeple 
Aston  (Oxon.)."* 

The  106  surviving  apprenticeship  indentures  drawn 
up  between  1671  and  1809  show  that  most  pauper 
children    were    apprenticed    to    masters    within    the 

parish. '5  For  many  years  the  ratepayers  took  these 
children  as  apprentices  on  a  rota  system.  In  1727  a 
woman  paid  a  fine  of  ;^io  to  avoid  takmg  a  child 
allotted  to  her.  In  1730  it  was  resolved  not  to  pay 
relief  to  travellers  through  the  parish  even  though  they 
carried  passes;  it  was  considered  that  as  the  main  road 
through  Chigwell  led  only  to  Ongar  such  passengers 
had  no  need  of  assistance. 

In  1792  one  of  the  overseers  was  Joshua  Jenour,  a 
well-known  author  and  pamphleteer  and  a  man  of 
advanced  views.'*  In  that  year  he  planned  to  build  a 
pest-house  out  of  the  poor  rates.  As  he  had  not  con- 
sulted either  his  fellow  officers  or  the  vestry,  the  church- 
wardens ordered  him  to  desist.  He  moved  a  resolution 
at  a  subsequent  vestry  meeting  that  the  house  should  be 
built,  but  this  was  defeated.  Among  his  supporters  were 
three  local  doctors,  while  the  opposition  came  mainly 
from  the  farmers  and  larger  ratepayers.  In  1794  the 
vestry  supported  a  plan  proposed  by  John  Conyers  for 
the  relief  of  the  poor  of  the  hundreds  of  Ongar,  Harlow, 
and  Waltham,  but  later  withdrew  support.  In  1795 
the  high  price  of  flour  was  met  by  subsidizing  from  the 
rates  the  bread  bought  by  the  poor  from  local  bakers, 
and  by  the  agreement  of  the  wealthier  inhabitants  to 
use  flour  from  which  7  lb.  bran  a  bushel  had  been 
extracted.  In  1 800  it  was  decided  to  provide  the  poor 
with  substitutes  for  flour,  mainly  rice  and  potatoes,  and 
the  ratepayers  were  urged  to  use  similar  substitutes 

The  overseers'  expenditure  in  the  year  ending  at 
Easter  1724  was  ^^151,  and  in  1745  £180.  In  1783 
the  total  poor  rate  was  ^485."  Expenditure  rose  to 
j{^7i6  in  1791  and  in  1801  the  poor  rate  was  yri,o86.'8 
Between  1 801  and  1 821  the  rate  fluctuated  consider- 
ably; it  was  highest  in  1820  (£2,519)  and  lowest  in 
1 811  ((£630),  but  was  usually  between  /^i,ooo  and 
£2,000."  Overseers' expenditure  was  £1,339  in  1823 
and  £1,614  in  1836. 

There  are  few  references  to  the  work  of  the  sur- 
veyors of  highways.  Some  of  their  activities  are 
described  above  (see  p.  19).  Nor  is  there  much 
information  about  the  constables.  In  17 14  the  vestry 
ordered  that  the  stocks,  watch  house,  and  whipping- 
post should  be  repaired.  John  Rowe,  constable  in 
1828-32, arrested  while  in  office  207  offenders,  includ- 
ing burglars,  highway  robbers,  and  cattle  thieves. 
Probably  most  of  the  offences  took  place  not  in  Chig- 
well itself  but  in  the  forest  at  Buckhurst  Hill  or 
Chigwell  Row,  both  notorious  haunts  of  criminals.'" 
In  1 840  Chigwell  became  part  of  the  Metropolitan 
Police  District.^"  In  1 8  5 1  there  were  a  sergeant  and 
four  constables  in  the  parish.^'  In  191 1  there  were  3 
sergeants,  2  acting  sergeants,  and  18  constables, 
attached  to  J  Division,  Metropolitan  Police.^^  Chigwell 
Hall  is  now  the  sports  club  for  No.  5  District,  Metro- 
politan Police. 

The  history  of  Chigwell  School,  founded  in  1629 
by  Samuel  Harsnett,  Archbishop  of  York, 
SCHOOLS  was  described  in  an  earlier  volume  of  this 
History?^  It  is  now  an  independent 
public  school.  A  new  dining-hall  and  workshop  build- 
ing was  opened  in  191  o;^'*  a  memorial  chapel  was 
added  in  i924;25  an  assembly  hall  was  built  to  mark 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/6,  166/8/11 

"  E.R.O.,  G/EM  I. 

"  E.R.O.,  G/EM  2. 

■«  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/13/1B. 

'5  Ibid.  166/14/1. 

■'  1755-1853:866  AA'.B. 

■'  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  i/i.  The  poor  rate 
had  to  meet  some  charges  other  than 
relief  of  the  poor,  such  as  rates  for  county 
bridges.  '«  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  1/9. 

'»  Ibid.  1/12. 

■9"  Kent  and Eisex Mercury,  2  Aug.  1832. 

2»  Land.  Gaz.,  13  Oct.  1840,  p.  2250. 

21  H.O.  107/1770,  195/1. 

22  Essex  Almanac,  1911. 
"  V.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  544  f. 
"  E.R.  xix,  161. 

^5  Ibid,  xxiiv,  103. 




the  tercentenary  of  the  school  (1929)  and  in  1948 
Grange  Court  was  acquired  as  a  junior  school.  In 
1953  there  were  350  boys,  under  the  headmaster,  17 
assistant  masters,  and  i  mistress.^*  Buckhurst  Hill 
County  High  School  for  boys  was  opened  in  1938.  In 
1953  there  were  549  boys  under  the  headmaster  and 
19  assistant  masters." 

In  171 1  there  was  a  Charity  School  at  Chigwell 
attended  by  10  poor  girls  who  also  received  caps,  bands, 
and  aprons  from  a  private  benefactor.^*  In  17 13  the 
school  was  receiving  ;^i6  a  year  from  subscriptions  and 
a  girl  had  recently  been  put  out  as  an  apprentice.^" 
There  were  still  only  10  pupils  in  about  1768,  when 
the  school  was  supported  mainly  by  the  collection  at  an 
annual  sermon. 30  By  the  early  19th  century,  however, 
'the  Charity  School'  (presumably  the  same)  was 
attended  by  72  girls. 3'  It  was  then  endowed  with  ;^I32 
Stock  and  was  called  the  Blue  School  because  a  dozen 
or  more  children  received  a  blue  uniform. ^^ 

In  1 8 1 8  the  Blue  School  was  united  with  a  School 
of  Industry  for  girls,  founded  in  1 8 1 5 .  The  latter  had 
been  supported  by  subscriptions,  charity  sermons,  and 
by  the  proceeds  of  the  pupils'  work,  which  amounted 
to  j^7  in  1815-16  and  ^{^16  in  1817-18.  It  was  held 
in  a  house  which  in  1 8 1 5— 1 6  was  rented  for  £c)  a  year, 
and  its  mistress  was  paid  ^^14  14^'.  in  181 5-16  and 
;^27  6s.  in  1 8 17-18.  From  its  foundation  it  had  been 
in  union  with  the  National  Society,  and  this  association 
was  maintained  after  the  amalgamation  with  the  Blue 
School,  the  first  title  of  the  new  school  being  the 
National  School  of  Industry  for  Girls.  In  the  new 
school  the  'blue  girls'  continued  to  wear  their  uniform 
as  long  as  they  behaved  well.  Misconduct  was  pun- 
ished by  the  transfer  of  the  uniform  to  others  considered 
more  deserving.  The  endowment  of  the  Blue  School 
was  transferred  to  the  new  school  and  a  further  legacy 
of  ^100  seems  to  have  been  received  in  1818  from  a 
Mr.  Lewis.33 

Until  about  1838  the  number  of  pupils  seems  to 
have  remained  constant  at  about  45."  After  18 18  the 
salary  of  the  mistress  rose  to  ^^30  together  with  lO- 
per  cent,  of  the  children's  earnings  and  a  coal  allowance. 
Subscriptions  rose  steadily  and  income  continued  to 
be  received  from  the  children's  work.35  The  school 
was  supervised  by  a  Ladies  Committee.  In  1836  this 
decided  to  build  a  new  school,  with  accommodation 
for  100  girls,  in  order  to  provide  for  the  increasing 
population.  The  vicar  gave  a  site  on  the  Vicarage 
Field.36  The  committee  realized  £202  from  the  sale 
of  endowments,  collected  j^i  73,  and  received  ^5  5  from 
the  government,  £21^  from  the  National  Society  and 
;^io  from  the  Diocesan  Board.^^  The  new  schoolroom 
was  built  opposite  the  grammar  school.^*  It  was 
opened  as  a  National  School  in  1838.39 

The  Ladies  Committee  continued  to  manage  the 
school.  It  was  energetic  and  successful  in  obtaining 
subscriptions  and  other  local  support.  But  the  standard 
of  teaching  was  low.    In  1841  an  inspector  found  a 

poor  achievement  in  the  three  main  subjects*"  and  in 
1852  another  inspector  reported  that  the  curriculum 
was  limited  and  that  the  teaching  methods  were  those 
of  the  early  monitorial  system.*'  The  school  also  had 
a  bad  reputation  locally  at  this  time.  In  1848  the 
retiring  Vicar  of  Chigwell  described  it  as  very  ineffi- 
cient .  .  .  'principally  because  of  some  antiquated  rules 
enforcing  the  wearing  at  church  of .  .  .  ugly  caps  and 
short-cropped  hair — this  offends  the  little  tradespeople, 
who  prefer  sending  their  daughters  2^  miles  to  a  British 
and  Foreign  [i.e.  Dissenting]  school  at  Chigwell 
Row' .12 

In  1875  the  school  appears  to  have  received  its  first 
annual  grant  from  the  government.  The  average 
attendance  was  then  only  47 .^^  The  population  of  the 
parish  was  increasing  rapidly,  however,  and  attendance 
rose  to  75  in  1886  and  114  in  I902.«  The  annual 
grant  rose  from  £2%  in  1875  to  ^^54  in  1886  and  ^^i  19 
in  i902.'ts  In  1904  there  were  155  children  under  3 
teachers  and  a  monitor,  and  the  average  attendance 
was  131.'**  In  order  to  provide  for  the  increased  num- 
ber of  pupils  the  school  was  enlarged  in  1891  to  ac- 
commodate 200.*'  Under  the  1902  Education  Act  it 
passed  under  the  administration  of  the  Essex  Educa- 
tion Committee,  Epping  District,  as  a  non-provided 
school.  The  average  attendance  fell  to  10 1  in  191 5  and 
85  in  1929,  but  rose  to  138  in  1938.  In  1935,  at  the 
request  of  the  managers,  the  name  of  the  school  was 
changed  to  St.  Mary's  Girls  and  Infants  Church  of 
England  School.  In  1947  the  school  was  granted  con- 
trolled status.  In  1948  it  was  reorganized  for  junior 
girls  and  infants  and  in  1950  it  was  closed  in  accordance 
with  the  County  Development  Plan.**  The  building 
is  opposite  the  grammar  school.  It  is  single-storied,  of 
red  brick  with  a  tiled  roof. 

In  1 807  there  was  a  Church  of  England  Sunday 
school  in  Chigwell,  apparently  for  boys  and  girls.*'  In 
1820,  after  the  establishment  of  the  National  day 
school  for  girls,  the  Sunday  school  seems  to  have  been 
reserved  for  boys.  It  was  then  in  union  with  the 
National  Society  and  had  some  50  pupils. so  It  did  not 
lead  to  the  formation  of  the  usual  type  of  National  day 
school  for  boys  because  the  English  School,  which  was 
part  of  Archbishop  Harsnett's  foundation,  already  pro- 
vided the  necessary  facilities.s'  The  English  School 
was  sometimes  called  the  National  School.s^  In  or 
shortly  before  1881  the  English  School  was  dis- 
continued. In  that  year  the  parish  vestry  passed  a 
resolution  deploring  this  fact  and  protesting  against  the 
refusal  of  the  governors  of  Harsnett's  Schools  to  allow 
the  Chigwell  School  Board  (founded  1 87 1 :  see  below) 
the  free  use  of  the  English  School  building  and  the 
annual  grant  of  ^^20  that  had  been  paid  to  the  English 
School.  The  resolution  pointed  out  that  this  refusal 
contravened  one  of  the  clauses  of  the  scheme  drawn  up 
by  the  Charity  Commission  for  the  management  of 
Harsnett's  Schools. '^  The  protest  was  forwarded  to 
the  Commission  and  appears  to  have  been  successful 

"  Tuhlic  Scis.  Year  Bk.  {1953). 

^'  Inf.  from  Essex  Educ.  Cttee. 

28  S.P.CK.  Acct.  of  Char.  Schs.  (171 1), 
22.  "  Ibid.  (17 1 3),  26. 

3°  Morant,  Essex,  i,  170. 

3'  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  z/4. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/28/3. 

"  Ibid.;  Nat.  Soc.  Reps.  1820,  1828. 

3*  Ibid,  j  Educ.  Enquiry  Abstr.  H.C.  62, 
p.  270(1835),  xli. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/28/3. 

3'  Ex.  inf.  Nat.  Soc. 

37  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/28/3. 

38  Ex.  inf.  Nat.  Soc;  E.R.O.,  D/CT  78. 

39  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/28/4.. 
«  Ibid.  166/28/3,4. 

♦'  Mins.  Educ.  Ctlee.  of  Council,  1852, 
vol.  ii  [1624.],  p.  286,  H.C.  (1852-3), 
Ixxx(i).  «  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/3/3. 

♦3  Rej,.  of  Educ.  Cttee.  of  Council,  1875 
[C.  1513-1],  P-  53'.  H.C.  (1876),  xxiii. 

«  Ibid.  1886  [C.  5123-1],  p.  518,  H.C. 
(1887),  xxviii;  Schs.  under  Bd.  of  Educ. 
igo2  [Cd.  1490],  p.  68,  H.C.  (1903),  li. 

«s  Ibid. 

♦'  Essex  Educ.  Cttee.  Handii.  1904,  p. 
145.  ■"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1899). 

♦8  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/61;  inf.  from 
Essex  Educ.  Cttee. 

*'  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  2/4. 

5»  Nat.  Soc.  Rep.  1820. 

5"  F:C.H.  Essex,  ii,  544-6;  E.R.O., 
D/P  .66/3/3. 

52  e.g.  in  1862-3:  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex 
(1862),  IVhite's  Dir.  Essex  (1863). 

53  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/n. 



at  least  as  to  the  building,  for  in  1886  the  English 
School  was  stated  to  be  under  the  supervision  of  the 
school  board. 5*  It  was  handed  back  to  the  grammar 
school  in  1898.55 

In  1886,  however,  the  school  board  completed  the 
building  of  a  new  boys'  school  in  Chigwell  village,  on 
a  site  to  the  east  of  the  High  Road,  at  a  total  cost  of 
^2,893.56  There  was  accommodation  for  153  boys. 
The  average  attendance  rose  from  55  in  1886  to  105 
in  1902  and  the  annual  grant  from  ^^32  to  j^i2l.5' 
By  the  Education  Act  of  1902  the  school  passed  under 
the  administration  of  the  Essex  Education  Committee, 
Epping  District.  In  1904  there  were  128  boys  under 
4  teachers.58  Numbers  fell  to  85  boys  in  1930.59 
When  St.  Mary's  School  was  closed  in  1 9  5  o  the  County 
School  was  reorganized  for  mixed  juniors  and  infants 
and  in  May  1952  there  were  199  children  on  the  roll 
and  6  teachers.*" 

In  183 1  the  nonconformists  in  Chigwell  Row  set 
up  a  day  school  at  which  in  1833  there  were  some  50 
pupils  who  paid  a  fee  of  zd.  a  week.*'  In  1 8 39  its  sup- 
porters built  a  permanent  schoolroom  near  Miller's 
Lane.  The  government  made  a  building  grant  of  ^^80 
and  the  school  was  completed  in  1 844.  The  trust  deed 
stated  that  the  purpose  of  the  school  was  to  educate  the 
poor  according  to  the  principles  of  the  British  Schools 
Society.*^  During  its  early  years  the  school  gained  some 
pupils  at  the  expense  of  the  National  School  for  Girls 
at  Chigwell,  which  was  unpopular  among  the  small 
tradesmen  of  that  village.*^  In  spite  of  this  it  en- 
countered difficulties  and  in  1857  seems  to  have  been 
closed.  In  May  1858  it  was  reopened  with  the  help  of 
the  Essex  Congregational  Union:  there  were  then  over 
70  pupils.*'*   But  difficulties  continued.*5 

In  1 87 1  a  school  board  of  5  members  was  set  up  for 
the  parish  of  Chigwell.**  In  1873  the  supporters  of 
the  British  School  transferred  their  building  to  the 
board,  retaining  their  right  to  use  it  for  religious  pur- 
poses.*7  There  were  then  some  52  children  in  atten- 
dance.** In  1885  the  school  was  rebuilt,  after  a  fire,  to 
accommodate  some  165  children.*' 

Average  attendance  rose  from  86  in  1886  to  104  in 
1902  and  the  annual  grant  from  ;^7i  to  ^^loi.'"  By 
the  Education  Act  of  1902  the  school  passed  under  the 
administration  of  the  Essex  Education  Committee, 
Epping  District,  as  a  provided  school.  It  was  re- 
organized for  girls  and  infants,  the  accommodation 
being  estimated  in  191 1  at  90  places  for  girls  and  60 
for  infants.  The  average  attendance  was  88  in  1910, 
72  in  1929,  and  56  in  1938.  In  1948  it  was  re- 
organized for  junior  girls  and  infants,  the  seniors  being 
transferred  to  Grange  Hill  Temporary  Secondary 
School."  In  May  1952  there  were  93  pupils  and  3 
teachers.'^  The  increase  was  due  to  the  building  of 
the  Hainault  estate.    The  school  is  on  the  north  of 

Lambourne  Road  near  the  Lambourne  boundary.  It  is 
single-storied,  of  red  brick  with  a  tiled  roof  and  has  a 
teacher's  house  attached. 

By  1845  there  was  a  National  School  at  Chigwell 
R0W.73  It  was  apparently  held  in  a  cottage.  In  1852 
local  Churchmen  raised  ^^190  or  more  towards  the 
cost  of  a  permanent  schoolroom.  The  government  gave 
£10,  the  National  Society  ^£25,  and  the  owner  of  the 
site  gave  the  land.  The  building  was  finished  in  1853.'+ 
It  was  used  as  an  infant  school  in  connexion  with  the 
National  School  at  Chigwell.'s  It  still  existed  in  1874 
but  it  was  discontinued  shortly  after,  presumably  be- 
cause of  the  establishment  of  the  new  board  school.'* 
The  building  was  subsequently  used  for  parochial  pur- 
poses, and  was  known  as  All  Saints  Schoolroom.''  It 
is  of  red-brick  and  stands  on  the  north  side  of  Lam- 
bourne Road  near  All  Saints  Church. 

St.  John's  National  School,  Buckhurst  Hill,  was 
built  in  1838  by  local  Churchmen.  The  lord  of  the 
manor  gave  a  site  next  to  the  church  and  the  National 
Society  contributed  ^35.  The  building  cost  ^{^209, 
most  of  which  was  defrayed  by  local  subscribers.'*  By 
1840  there  were  about  50  pupils,  nominated  by  sub- 
scribers. Parents  paid  zd.  a  week  for  the  first  and  \d. 
each  for  other  children."  In  1846  there  were  43 
children  under  a  mistress  who  was  paid  £\<^  a  year  and 
3  monitresses.*"  In  1866  the  Charity  Commissioners 
authorized  a  new  scheme  of  management  which  gave 
control  of  religious  teaching  to  the  minister  (later  the 
Rector  of  Buckhurst  Hill)  and  the  management  to  the 
Vicar  of  Chigwell,  the  minister,  and  6  representatives 
of  the  subscribers.*'  In  1869  Edward  North  Buxton 
gave  additional  premises  in  Albert  Road.  These  were 
used  for  an  infants'  school.*^ 

The  district  of  the  Chigwell  school  board,  founded 
in  1871,  included  Buckhurst  Hill,  and  a  board  school 
(see  below)  was  promptly  built  there.  The  National 
School  maintained  its  voluntary  character  and  continued 
to  use  the  building  next  to  the  church.  The  managers, 
however,  let  the  Albert  Road  infants'  school  to  the 
board  at  a  nominal  rent,  retaining  the  right  to  use  the 
building  on  Sunday  and  two  week-nights.*-'  The 
average  attendance  at  the  National  School  rose  from  7 1 
in  1872  to  158  in  x886,  and  the  annual  grant  from  ^48 
to  ^^140.*^  By  1882  or  earlier  the  school  had  ceased  to 
take  boys,  but  in  spite  of  this  the  rapid  increase  neces- 
sitated its  enlargement  and  this  was  carried  out  in 
l887.*5  The  average  attendance  continued  to  rise:  in 
1899  there  were  237  girls  and  88  infants.**  In  1904 
there  was  official  accommodation  for  394,  but  there 
were  403  children  on  the  roll,  under  1 1  teachers  and 
3  monitresses.*'  By  the  Education  Act  of  1902  the 
school  passed  under  the  administration  of  the  Essex 
Education  Committee,  Epping  District,  as  a  non- 
provided  school.   The  average  attendance  fell  to  298 

5«  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1886).  The  vestry 
minutes  for  1 88 1—6  also  contain  references 
to  'the  Board  School,  Chigwell'  which 
must  mean  the  English  School. 

J5  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/28/10. 

"  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/60. 

5'  Rep.  of  Educ.  Ctlee.  of  Council,  1886, 
p.  518;  Schs.  under  Bd.  of  Educ.  igo2, 
p.  68. 

5'  Essex  Educ.  Cttee.  Handhk.  1904, 
p.  US. 

s»  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/60. 

<•"  Ibid.;  inf.  from  Essex  Educ.  Cttee. 

"  Educ.  Enijuiry  Ahstr.  H.C.  62,  p.  270 
(1835),  xli. 

*»  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/62. 

^3  See  above. 

'♦  Essex  Congr.  Union  Reps,  1858,  p.  11. 

'5  Ibid,  i860,  p.  7. 

^^  County  Companion,  1 880. 

"  Min.  of  Educ  File  13/62;  Chelmsford 
Chronicle,  26  Jan.  1872. 

^8  Rep.  of  Educ.  Cttee.  of  Council,  1874 
[C.  1265-1],  p.  322,  H.C.  (1875),  xxiv. 

69  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/62;  Rep.  of 
Educ.  Cttee.  of  Council,  1886,  p.  518. 

">  Ibid.;  Schs.  under  Bd.  of  Educ.  igo2, 
p.  68.  '■  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/62. 

'*  Inf.  from  Essex  Educ.  Cttee, 

'3  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (184S). 

'^  Inf.  from  Nat.  Soc. 

'5  Kelly'sDir.  Essex{i%sS,  1862,  1870). 

^<•  Ibid.  1874,  1878. 

"  Ibid.  1902. 

'8  Inf.  from  Nat.  Soc.  "  Ibid. 

8"  Nat.  Soc.  Enquiry  into  Ch.  Schs. 
1846-7,  pp.  4-5. 

8'  Min.  of  Educ.  File  1^14-6. 

SMbid.  13/45. 

'3  Min.  of  Educ.  Files  13/45,  46. 

*■•  Rep.  of  Educ.  Cttee.  of  Council,  1872 
[C.  812],  p.  407,  H.C.  (1873),  xxiv;  ibid. 
1886,  p.  518. 

8s  Inscription  on  school  building;  Kelly's 
Dir.  Essex  (iSSi). 

86  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1899). 

8'  Essex  Educ.  Cttee.  Handhk.  1904,  p. 




in  1914  and  225  in  1930.  In  1938  it  was  reorganized 
for  junior  girls  and  infants. ^3  In  May  1952  there 
were  326  children  and  1 1  teachers.*'  The  school  was 
given  controlled  status  in  1951.90 

The  school  board  for  Chigwell  parish  was  at  first 
strongly  opposed  locally  and  in  1872  a  petition  for  its 
removal  was  sent  to  the  government."  This  failed, 
but  with  other  protests  it  may  have  caused  the  board 
to  drop  its  plan  to  build  a  school  to  replace  the  National 
School  at  Buckhurst  Hill.  In  1872  the  Board  built  a 
school  in  Princes  Road  and  accepted  the  use  of  the 
infant  department  of  the  National  School  (see  above), 
paying  only  a  nominal  rent  but  accepting  responsibility 
for  repairs.'^  The  board  school  at  first  accepted  both 
boys  and  girls,  but  from  about  1886  it  took  only  boys, 
the  girls  attending  the  National  School. '3  Attendance 
at  the  board  school  rose  from  an  average  of  1 39  in  1873 
to  246  in  1886  and  the  annual  grant  from  ^^95  to 
^236.'''  In  1884  the  infants'  school  was  enlarged  to 
about  164  places  and  in  1894  the  boys'  school  to  about 
362  places. 95  By  the  Education  Act  of  1902  the  schools 
passed  under  the  administration  of  the  Essex  Educa- 
tion Committee,  Epping  District.  In  1904  there  were 
290  boys  on  the  roll,  under  9  teachers,  of  whom  2  were 
certificated,  and  153  infants  under  5  teachers,  i  of 
whom  was  certificated.'*  Attendance  dechned  to  229 
boys  and  91  infants  in  1938,  when  the  schools  were 
reorganized  for  junior  boys  and  infants,  and  in  1940 
the  boys'  and  infants'  departments  were  amalgamated 
in  a  single  establishment. '^  In  May  1952  there  were 
326  children,  under  13  teachers.'*  The  building  in 
Princes  Road  is  single-storied,  of  yellow  brick  with  a 
slate  roof  Attached  is  a  teacher's  house  of  similar  con- 

Owing  to  the  building  of  the  large  London  County 
Council  housing  estate  at  Hainault  the  Essex  County 
Council  has  since  1945  been  carrying  out  a  programme 
of  school  development  in  this  area  which  was  still 
incomplete  in  1952—3.  The  following  schools  were 
established  during  this  period." 

The  Grange  County  Secondary  Modern  School 
(mixed),  Manford  Way,  was  opened  in  September 
1950.  In  May  1952  it  had  421  pupils  and  24  teachers. 

Manford  Way  County  Primary  School  was  opened 
in  November  1948.  In  May  1952  the  junior  school 
had  468  pupils  and  1 2  teachers  and  the  infants'  school 
had  320  pupils  and  9  teachers. 

The  Coppice  County  Primary  School,  Manford 
Way,  opened  an  infants'  department  in  September 
1952  and  in  the  following  November  had  213  pupils. 
The  junior  department  was  to  be  opened  in  1953. 

Grange  Hill  County  Primary  School,  Woodman 
Path,  is  a  temporary  school,  opened  in  February  1948 
with  accommodation  for  240  juniors  and  160  infants. 

In  September  1950  there  was  accommodation  for  760 
children.  In  May  1952  there  were  888  pupils  at  the 

A  branch  of  St.  Anthony's  Roman  Catholic  School 
was  established  at  Woodman  Path  in  September  1952, 
and  in  November  1952  had  344  pupils.  This  and  all 
the  above  primary  schools  are  for  mixed  juniors  and 

There  have  also  been  a  number  of  private  schools  in 
the  parish  of  Chigwell.  In  1588  John  Cambes  of 
Chigwell  was  presented  before  the  Archdeacon  of 
Essex  for  'that  he  teacheth  a  scoole'.'  In  1795  a  Mrs. 
King  advertised  the  opening  of  a  school  in  Chigwell 
for  young  ladies.^  In  18 10  there  was  a  boarding 
academy  for  young  gentlemen  at  Chigwell  under  the 
supervision  of  John  Ray,  the  fee  being  30  guineas  a 
year.3  Ray  died  in  18 16,  when  the  school  apparently 

About  1824  F.  C.  L.  Khngender  opened  a  school  at 
Buckhurst  Hill  House,'  held  on  lease.  By  1831  he 
had  raised  mortgages  totalling  j^  on  the  property* 
and  in  1833  he  offered  the  premises  for  sale  at  ^1,690, 
asking  nothing  for  any  goodwill  attached  to  the  school.^ 
He  was  adjudged  bankrupt  in  1834.*  Francis  Worral 
Stevens,  who  had  been  a  master  at  Bruce  Grove, 
Tottenham  (Mdx.),  under  Rowland  Hill,  took  over 
the  school  and  continued  it  until  1848.'  The  house 
was  then  empty  for  a  year  but  the  school  was  reopened 
in  1 8  5 1  by  Thomas  Bickerdike  who  in  that  year  had 
an  assistant  master  and  1 5  boarders  between  9  and  14 
years  of  age.""  Bickerdike  left  Buckhurst  Hill  in 
1853  and  the  house  was  not  afterwards  used  as  a 

Between  1850  and  1859  there  was  a  school  near 
Broomhill  run  by  Mary  Moss.'^  In  1851  she  had  15 
boarders  of  both  sexes  between  3  and  10  years  of  age." 
Miss  Howell  and  Miss  Lake  had  a  girls'  day  school  in 
the  High  Road  from  1848.'*  In  1854  they  moved  into 
part  of  the  premises  of  Harsnett's  Grammar  School 
and  remained  there  until  1865. ■' 

Hannah  Hurren  had  a  day  and  boarding  school  at 
Chigwell  Row  from  1848  to  1850.'*  From  1856  to 
1869  the  Revd.  William  Earle,  M.A.,  had  a  boys' 
school  at  Grange  Court  in  Chigwell  village."  In  1878 
the  Misses  Ann  and  Catherine  Howell  had  a  private 
school  at  Broomhill,  the  Revd.  W.  L.  Wilson  a  col- 
legiate school  at  Oakhurst  in  Horn  Lane  and  there 
were  five  private  schools  at  Buckhurst  Hill.'*  Oakhurst 
later  became  a  school  and  home  for  destitute  Armenian 
boys  under  the  Revd.  G.  Thoumaian."  From  the  late 
19th  century  the  Sisters  of  the  Sacred  Hearts  of  Jesus 
and  Mary  have  kept  a  school  at  the  Manor  House  in 
High  Road,  near  Woodford  Bridge.^"  In  1950  there 
were  also  two  private  schools  at  Buckhurst  Hill.^' 

**  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/46. 

"  Inf.  from  Essex  Educ.  Cttee. 

»»  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/46. 

»'  Ibid.  13/45.  See  also  E.R.O.,  D/P 
166/8/11  :  9  May  1872,  for  a  resolution 
of  the  vestry  protesting  against  the  pro- 
posed expenditure  of  the  school  board. 

»»  Min.  of  Educ.  File  1 3/45 ;  Chelmsford 
Chronicle^  26  Jan.,  12  July,  15  Nov.  1872. 

«3  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  {iSSi,  1886,  1890). 

»«  Rep.  of  Educ.  Cttee.  of  Council,  1873 
[C.  loig-i],  p.  407,  H.C.  (1874),  xviii; 
ibid.  1886,  p.  518. 

"  Min.  of  Educ.  File  i  3/45  ;  Schs.  under 
Bd.  of  Educ.  igo2y  p.  68. 

'"  Essex  Educ.  Cttee.  Handhk.  1904,  p. 

"  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/45. 

»8  Inf.  from  Essex  Educ.  Cttee. 

90  The  following  account  is  based  on 
information  from  the  Ministry  of  Educa- 
tion, Essex  Education  Cttee.  and  Miss 
E.  A.  Phillips,  Headmistress  of  Staples 
Road  Infant  School,  Loughton. 
■  E.R.O.,  D/AEV/14. 

2  Chigwell  Church  Mag.  Feb.  1939. 

3  Essex  Union.,  9  Jan.  18  to. 
♦  Chigwell  Par.  Reg. 

5  E.R.O.,  D/DDaMi3. 
<■  Ibid. 

'  Kent  and  Essex   Mercury,   29    Oct. 

8  Essex  Union,  18  Feb.  1834. 

9  E.R.O.,  D/DDa  M13. 

■o  H.O.  107/1770,  igsl'- 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/17. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/14-23. 

"  H.O.  107/1770, 195/1. 

'«  ff'hite's  Dir.  Essex  (1848),  417. 

■5  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/12-29. 

■*  IVhite's  Dir.  Essex  (1848),  417; 
E.R.O.,  D/P  166/11/12-14. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  i66/«/ii,  166/11/20- 
33.  This  house  has  recently  been  bought 
by  the  governors  of  Chigwell  School. 

'8  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1878). 

'»  Ibid.  (1899). 

"  Ibid.  (1899). 

^"  Chigwell  U.D.  Official  Guide  (2nd 
edn.),  p.  34. ' 

ES.  IV 



Nothing  certain  is  known  concerning  the  foundation 
of  Coulson's  Almshouses,  which  adjoin 
CHARITIES  Chigwell  School  to  the  north-east. 
The  words  'Coulson's  Almshouses 
1557'  inscribed  upon  the  building  were  evidently 
added  at  the  rebuilding  of  1858.  In  1849  the  gram- 
mar school  records  were  said  to  include  a  document 
of  1 61 9  implying  that  the  almshouses  built  by  Thomas 
Coulson  then  stood  on  the  east  of  the  school.^^  A 
family  called  Coulson  had  lived  in  the  parish  since  1 592 
at  least.^5  One  of  the  houses  in  1 849  also  bore  the  date 
1664,  but  this  may  have  commemorated  an  extension 
to  the  buildings.^*  In  the  late  1 8th  century  the  owners 
of  land  called  Cardhams  paid  a  rent  charge  of  ^^4  for 
the  maintenance  of  four  poor  widows  and  also  repaired 
the  almshouses  and  nominated  the  inmates.  In  1803 
the  owner  was  not  allowed  to  nominate  them  because 
he  did  not  live  in  the  parish  and  he  refused  to  repair 
the  houses  unless  his  obligation  could  be  proved. ^5  This 
could  apparently  not  be  done  and  a  subscription  was 
raised  for  the  purpose  in  1820.26  j^  jg^j  tjie  rent- 
charge  was  reassigned  to  Brookhouse  Farm:^'  it  was 
thereafter  paid  until  its  redemption  in  1938  for  ;^i6o 
which  was  invested.^* 

In  1834  the  almshouses  consisted  of  three  two- 
roomed  tenements  under  one  roof.  The  parishioners 
then  nominated  the  inmates.^'  After  various  earlier 
attempts,  the  almshouses  were  reljuilt  in  1 8  5  8  by  public 
subscription  in  their  present  enlarged  form.  In  1864 
the  vestry  added  to  the  endowment  ^100  received  by 
them  in  consideration  of  the  closure  of  a  footpath. 
This  was  used  to  pay  each  almswoman  6s.  %d.  a 
quarter.3o  ^  further  gift  of  j^20  was  added  in  1869. 
In  195 1—2  the  charity's  income  was  £j  js.  Over  ^10 
was  spent  on  the  almshouses  and  their  occupants,  the 
excess  being  met  out  of  the  other  funds  of  the  United 
Charities  (see  below).^' 

By  his  will  of  1585  Robert  Rampston  of  Chingford 
left  rent  charges  to  be  applied  for  the  benefit  of  the 
poor  in  various  Essex  parishes. ^^  That  for  Chigwell  is 
£z  a  year,  charged  on  Stone  Hall  in  Little  Canfield. 
In  1835  it  was  spent  on  bread  which  was  distributed 
about  Lady  Day  to  poor  persons  in  proportion  to  the 
size  of  their  families.  In  195 1—2  it  was  used  for  the 
general  purpose  of  the  United  Charities. 

Mary  Fountain,  by  will  proved  1 804,  left  ^^90  after 
expiry  of  a  life  interest,  in  trust  for  two  blind  women 
of  the  parish. 33  The  will  was  unsuccessfully  disputed 
in  Chancery  and  the  legacy  was  paid  in  1817.  In  1834 
there  were  no  qualified  beneficiaries  in  Chigwell  and 
the  income  was  intermittently  paid  to  two  blind  women 
in  Whitechapel.  In  195 1—2  the  income  was  £2  6s.  %ii. 
and  gifts  of  £1  each  were  made  to  two  blind  women, 
one  in  Chigwell  and  one  in  Buckhurst  Hill. 

James  Hatch,  lord  of  Chigwell  Hall  manor,  by  will 
proved  1807,  left  j^i,ooo  in  trust  to  maintain  his  tomb 
at  Little  Ilford,  to  make  an  inscription  in  Chigwell 
church   recording    the    bequest,    and    for    the    most 

deserving  poor  of  Chigwell  not  in  receipt  of  parish 
relief 3<  The  provision  for  the  tomb  was  invalid,  but 
payments  were  apparently  made  for  it  at  various  times. 
In  1834  £10  was  distributed  in  small  cash  gifts.  In 
195 1-2  the  income  was  £,2St  of  which  ;£20  were 
distributed  in  gifts  of  j^i  each. 

Mary  Grainger,  by  will  proved  1808,  left  ^1,000 
in  trust  for  eight  poor  widows  of  Chigwell  of  over  50 
years  of  age.35  Preference  was  to  be  given  to  the  moral 
and  industrious  and  distribution  was  to  take  place  on 
St.  Thomas's  Day.  In  1835  ^31  los.  was  distributed. 
In  195 1-2  the  income  was  ^{^22  10/.,  of  which  j^20 
was  distributed  in  eight  gifts  of  ^^2  \os. 

Mrs.  Barbara  Fisher  in  1809  bequeathed  ;^ioo  to 
the  poor  of  Chigwell.36  In  1834  the  interest  was  used 
to  buy  bread  which  was  distributed  to  the  poor  accord- 
ing to  the  size  of  their  families.  In  195 1-2  the  income 
of  C'i  6j-  was  used  for  the  general  purposes  of  the 
United  Charities. 

Mrs.  Rosetta  Waddell,  by  will  proved  1866,  left 
£25  for  the  benefit  of  the  deserving  poor  of  the  parish 
who  were  not  receiving  parish  relief.3'  In  1896  the 
income  was  used  to  supplement  the  endowment  of  the 
almshouses,  in  gifts  to  the  almswomen.  In  195 1-2  it 
amounted  to  13/.  and  was  used  for  the  general  pur- 
poses of  the  United  Charities. 

By  a  scheme  of  1899  all  the  above  charities  were 
united  under  one  board  of  trustees  who  were  to  carry 
out  the  original  purposes  of  each.^s  In  195 1-2,  in 
addition  to  the  payments  specifically  mentioned  above, 
a  payment  of  £j  4/.  was  made  to  Chigwell  County 
Primary  School.  Apparently  the  trustees  believed  that 
this  sum  had  formerly  been  paid  to  St.  Mary's  Girls' 
School,  but  there  appears  to  be  no  mention  of  such  a 
payment  in  the  scheme  of  1899  or  elsewhere  in  the 
Charity  Commission  Records. 

Joan  Sympson,  by  will  proved  1562,  left  £io  for 
the  repair  of  the  highway  between  Chigwell  and 
London.3  9  This  was  added  to  a  trust  which  she  had 
founded  three  years  earlier.  In  1 871  a  small  piece  of 
land,  apparently  allotted  earlier  in  respect  of  common 
rights,  was  sold  for  £^^.^°  In  1938  a  field  comprising 
the  whole  landed  property  of  the  charity  was  sold  for 
j/^3,150.  By  195 1  the  charity  held  ^1,080  stock.  In 
the  early  19th  century  the  charity  appears  to  have  been 
virtually  dead,  probably  because  the  road  was  then 
being  repaired  by  a  turnpike  trust.*'  Trustees  were 
appointed  in  1857  and  later  in  the  century  the  charity's 
income  was  used  to  repair  the  footpath  along  the 
Abridge-Woodford  road.  In  the  20th  century  the 
charity  has  paid  the  county  council  for  the  repair  of 
the  road.  Much  of  the  income  has  been  reinvested: 
in  1947  none  was  spent. 

The  Harsnett  Charity  (1629),  the  main  provision  of 
which  was  for  the  foundation  of  the  schools  at  Chigwell, 
included  an  endowment  of  ^^lo  a  year  to  be  spent  on 
bread  to  be  given  to  those  poor  people  of  the  parish 
who  attended  church,  and  20^.  a  year  to  the  parish 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/11.  The  date 
must  have  been  an  error  since  the  school 
was  not  founded  until  1629. 

23  Chigwell  Par.  Reg. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/11. 

25  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  H.C.  216, 

pp.  223-5  ("835).  «i  (>);  E-R-0.,  D/P 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/11. 
"  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  pp.  223-5. 
28  char.  Com.  files. 
»  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  pp.  223-5. 

30  E.R.O.,  D/P  166/8/11;  Kelly's  Dir. 
Essex  (1899,  1933). 
3^  Ciiar.  Com.  files. 

32  P.C.C.  40  Brudenell;  Rep.  Com.  Char. 
(Essex),  ibid.;  Char.  Com.  files. 

33  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex);  Char.  Com. 
Recs.;  MS.  Book  'An  Acct.  of  Donations 
&c.,  to  the  Poor  of  Chigwell',  in  possession 
of  the  Trustees  of  Chigwell  United 
Charities.  For  Mrs.  Fisher  see  below, 
Fisher's  Charity. 

34  Ibid. 

35  Ibid. 

36  Ibid. 

3'  Char.  Com.  files;  'Acct.  of  Dona- 
tions &c.' 

38  Char.  Com.  files;  Chigwell  Par. 
Mag.,  Sept.  1926. 

39  Char.  Com.  files;  E.R.  xix,  1-7,  70- 
77;  E.A.T.  N.s.  xi,  153.  See  also  Topo- 
graphy, above. 

■»"  See  Agriculture,  above. 
4'  There  is  no  mention  of  this  charity  in 
the  1835  Report. 




clerk  for  ringing  the  church  bell  daily  at  6  a.m.''^  In 
1834  both  these  payments  were  still  being  made, 
though  the  clerk  was  no  longer  required  to  ring.  A 
Chancery  order  of  1863  ignored  the  provision  for  the 
clerk,  which  thereafter  lapsed,  but  continued  the  pay- 
ment for  bread.  In  1871  this  also  was  stopped  by  an 
Endowed  Schools  Scheme  which  ruled  that  the  ^lo 
was  to  be  applied  to  educational  purposes.  An  old 
bread  cupboard  used  in  connexion  with  this  charity 
was  for  many  years  attached  to  the  inside  wall  of  the 
church  near  the  south  door.  About  1900  it  was  found 
to  be  delapidated  and  was  moved  to  the  vestry .■♦3 

John  Crowfoot,  by  will  proved  1903,  left  /Cs°°  '" 
trust  for  the  distribution  of  coal  at  Christmas  among  the 
poor  of  the  parish  of  All  Saints,  Chigwell  Row.«  For 
some  years  part  of  the  income  was  used  to  give  a 
bonus  to  the  parish  coal  club,  but  in  1950  the  whole 
income  of  ^14  5/.  ^J.  was  used  to  buy  coal  for  22 

Philip  Savill,  by  will  proved  1922,  left  ;^i,ooo  in 
trust  for  gifts  to  100  deserving  poor  of  the  parish  of 
Chigwell  Row,  preferably  Anglicans.*'  In  1950  the 
income  was  £2$,  which  was  distributed  in  cash  to  12 


Fyfield  is  about  2  miles  north  of  Chipping  Ongar,' 
and  has  an  area  of  2,450  acres.^  Its  name  is  derived 
from  the  5-hide  unit  of  assessment  used  by  the  Anglo- 
Saxons.3  In  several  respects  it  is  one  of  the  most  inter- 
esting parishes  in  the  hundred.  There  is  an  unusual 
number  of  moated  sites  and  pre- 18th-century  houses. 
Four  houses,  Fyfield  Hall,  Lampetts,  Dame  Anna's 
Farm,  and  the  rectory,  date  from  the  Middle  Ages.  The 
church,  which  dates  from  the  12th  century,  is  one  of 
the  few  in  the  district  with  a  central  tower  and  north  and 
south  aisles.  Considerable  sums  must  have  been  spent 
on  its  erection  and  on  alterations  and  additions  in  the 
13  th  and  14th  centuries.  Fyfield  thus  seems  to  have 
been  a  place  of  some  importance  and  wealth  in  the 
Middle  Ages  and  this  is  borne  out  by  the  taxation 
statistics  printed  below  (pp.  300  f).  As  late  as  1671  it 
was  more  densely  populated  than  any  other  place  in  the 
hundred  except  Chipping  Ongar  and  Moreton  (see 
below,  pp.  306 f.).  In  1801  the  population  was  jii.'* 
Fyfield  was  then  sixth  of  the  parishes  in  the  hundred  in 
order  of  population  density.'  The  population  rose 
slowly  to  629  in  1861.*  It  subsequently  declined  to 
468  in  1 88 1.'  There  was  some  later  fluctuation  but  in 
1921  it  was  again  468.*  There  was  an  increase  to  693 
in  193 1 '  and  in  195 1  the  population  was  710.'"  The 
present  density  is  much  lower  than  in  those  parishes 
of  the  hundred  where  there  has  been  great  building 
development  but  is  still  higher  than  in  most  of  the 
rural  parishes.  At  the  end  of  the  i8th  century  the 
principal  centre  of  population  was  Norwood  End,  in 
the  north  of  the  parish.  Since  that  time  most  of  the 
houses  there  have  disappeared  and  the  population  is 
now  concentrated  mainly  in  the  village  of  Fyfield  near 
the  centre  of  the  parish.  This  is  one  of  the  few  nucleated 
villages  in  the  hundred  and  near  it  to  the  east  are  the 
parish  church  and  the  ancient  manor  house  of  Fyfield 

There  are  hills  rising  to  about  260  ft.  above  sea-level 
in  the  south-east  and  280  ft.  in  the  north-west.  In  the 
valley  between  these  two  hills  is  the  River  Roding  which 
enters  the  parish  in  the  east  and  flows  south  to  form 
part  of  the  southern  boundary  before  leaving  Fyfield  in 
the  south-west.  At  this  point  the  land  is  below  1 50  ft. 
Witney  Wood  is  in  the  south-east,  and  there  are  some 
small  patches  of  woodland  in  the  north-west.  The  road 

*'  Rep.  Com.  Char.  {Essex) ;  Char.  Com. 
•♦3  Inf.  from  the  late  Howard  Wall. 
+♦  Char.  Com.  files. 
45  Ibid. 
'  O.S.  2}  in.  Map,  sheet  S'^JS°- 
*  Inf.  from  Essex  County  Council. 
3  Chief  Elements  in  Eng.  Place-Names 
E.P.N.S.  i  (2)),  36. 

3  so- 

il f. 

♦  V.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  ' 
5  Ibid. 
'  Ibid. 
'  Ibid. 

*  Ibid.;  Census,  191 
«  Census,  193 1. 

">  Census,  195  I. 

>'  Inf.    from    Mr.    Filshie    of   Witney 


from  Chipping  Ongar  enters  the  parish  in  the  extreme 
south-west  and  runs  north-east  to  the  Rodings  and 
Dunmow.  Close  to  the  south-west  corner  a  drive  leads 
off  the  east  side  of  the  road  to  Folyats,  an  irregularly 
shaped  roughcast  house  built  about  1914  by  J.  W. 
Newall  of  Forest  Hall  in  High  Ongar  (q.v.).  The  site 
was  chosen  for  its  fine  view  over  the  Forest  Hall  estate." 
About  I  mile  farther  along  the  road  a  lane  leads  east- 
wards to  Herons  Farm.'^  The  West  Ham  Open  Air 
School  stands  on  the  west  side  of  the  road  about  2  50  yds. 
beyond  the  turning  to  Herons.  A  little  farther  to  the 
north  is  the  hamlet  of  Clatterford  End.  Here  there  is 
an  L-shaped  block  of  cottages  of  late  17th  or  early  1 8th- 
century  date,  with  pargeted  plaster  panels  of  zigzag 
pattern.  Clatterford  Hall,  on  the  east  side  of  the  road, 
is  a  red-brick  house,  probably  of  the  late  i8th  or  early 
19th  century.  There  have  been  picturesque  alterations 
at  various  later  dates.  Clatterford  House  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  road  has  similar  chimney-pots.  It  was  prob- 
ably built  about  the  middle  of  the  19th  century.'^ 

Beyond  Clatterford  End  Ongar  Road  is  joined  by  a 
road  which  leads  westward  to  Moreton  and  by  a  lane 
which  leads  northward  to  Lampetts. '*  About  J  mile 
along  on  the  north  side  of  the  road  to  Moreton  is  Penny- 
feathers.  This  house  stands  on  a  moated  site  and  appears 
to  date  from  the  late  17th  or  early  i8th  century. 
Farther  west  on  the  same  road  are  four  pairs  of  council 

Nearly  J  mile  north-east  of  the  road  junction,  on  the 
south  side  of  Ongar  Road,  is  the  village  of  Fyfield.  The 
post-office  is  at  the  north  end;  from  there  a  road  known 
formerly  as  the  Street  and  now  as  Queens  Street,  runs 
southward.  On  the  east  side  of  Queens  Street  is  a  row 
of  houses  of  which  the  most  northerly  is  the  Queens 
Head  Inn.  These  have  external  details  mostly  of  the 
1 8th  and  early  19th  centuries  but  the  structures  are 
older.  At  the  south  end  stands  the  block  of  two  houses, 
called  Bruetts,  devised  by  Anthony  Walker  in  1687  for 
the  use  of  the  church  clerk''  and  of  the  schoolmaster."' 
North  of  Bruetts  is  another  house  known  as  Brewitts. 
This  appears  to  be  a  16th-century  structure  with  later 
additions.  It  is  said  that  there  was  once  a  tannery  at  the 
back  of  it.'7  All  the  buildings  on  the  west  side  of  the 
Street  have  been  built  since  the  middle  of  the  19th  cen- 
tury. They  include  the  Mission  Hall.'* 

'2  See  below,  Manor  of  Herons. 

'3  It  does  not  appear  on  the  Tithe  Map 
of  18+2:  E.R.O.,  D/CT  148. 

'♦  See  below,  Manor  of  Lampetts. 

'5  See  below,  Charities. 

'6  See  below  Schools. 

"  Inf.  from  Mrs.  B.  S.  Blowes,  present 

■8  See  below.  Nonconformity. 


South  of  the  school  the  road  turns  sharply  eastward 
by  Fyfield  Bridge  and  continues  to  the  eastern  boundary 
of  the  parish  as  Willingale  Lane.  West  of  the  bridge  a 
drive  leads  northward  to  Fyfield  Hall."  Nearly  oppo- 
site the  drive  is  the  church.^"  At  the  south-west  corner 
of  the  churchyard  stands  the  building  which  in  the  late 
19th  century  was  known  as  the  Vicarage.^'  There  is  a 
water-mill^^  on  the  River  Roding  about  200  yds.  south- 
west of  the  church.  Until  early  in  the  20th  century 
there  was  a  windmills  about  200  yds.  west  of  the 
water-mill;  the  track  leading  to  the  windmill  still  exists. 
A  little  to  the  east  of  the  church  a  lane  known  as  Church 
Lane  leads  southward  to  Cannon's  Green,  formerly 
Bury  Green.  Wethers,  formerly  White  Hall,  stands  at 
the  north  end  of  Church  Lane  on  its  east  side.  This 
house  contains  a  fine  oak  staircase  of  late  i6th-  or  early 
17th-century  origin.  Near  the  staircase  is  the  base  of  an 
original  chimney.  The  house  was  altered  and  probably 
much  reduced  in  size  in  the  early  1 8th  century.  Later 
still  brick  wings  were  built  at  the  back.  On  the  west 
side  of  Church  Lane,  opposite  Wethers,  is  a  row  of 
three  cottages  which  has  gabled  dormers  and  one  chim- 
ney with  diagonal  shafts.  At  present  only  one  tenement 
is  occupied.  South  of  the  row  is  a  single-story  three- 
roomed  cottage  which  was  church  property  from  at 
least  the  17th  century  until  1947.^^  It  probably  dates 
from  the  i6th  century.  Since  1947  it  has  been  re- 
thatched  and  plastered  and  thoroughly  reconditioned. 
South  of  this  cottage  there  are  seven  pairs  of  council 
houses.  The  cottages  at  Cannon's  Green  are  mostly  of 
the  1 8th  or  early  19th  centuries.  Two  of  these  have 
some  curious  coursed  rubble  walling  consisting  of 
knapped  flints  mixed  with  broken  brick,  possibly 
material  from  a  demolished  building.  One  of  the  two 
may  have  belonged  to  the  church  in  1835.^5  Near  the 
church  to  the  east  is  Fyfield  House,  a  brick  building 
which  dates  from  about  1830.  Almost  opposite  Fyfield 
House  is  the  rectory .^^  At  Witney  Green,  about  ^  mile 
east  of  the  church,  there  was  in  about  1768  a  'fair  man- 
sion house,  some  time  the  seat  of  George  Pochin 
Esquire,  SherrifFof  this  county  in  1700'."  The  present 
farm-house  appears  to  be  mostly  of  the  early  19th  cen- 
tury with  an  addition  of  about  i860,  but  at  least  one 
wing  has  evidently  been  demolished.  In  the  yard  is  a 
fine  symmetrical  red-brick  stable  range  dated  1777. 
An  old  farm-house  and  buildings,  all  demolished  in 
1886,28  stood  about  100  yds.  to  the  north.^'  Little 
Witney  Green,  opposite  Witney  Green  on  the  west 
side  of  Willingale  Lane,  is  in  course  of  demolition.  It 
appears  to  have  been  a  small  timber-framed  house  of 
the  early  17th  century. 

North  of  the  village  the  road  from  Ongar  is  known 
as  Dunmow  Road.  Ponders  Lodge  Farm,  on  the  east 
side  of  this  road  near  the  post-office,  is  a  two-story 
timber-framed  house  with  a  T-shaped  plan.  Part  of  the 
front  oversails  and  has  curved  brackets  to  the  soffit 
probably  dating  from  about  i  500.  The  large  chimney 
and  back  wing  may  be  later  additions.  The  sash  win- 
dows and  pargeting  patterns  on  the  plaster  are  of  the 
1 8th  century.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  road  there 
are  several  cottages  which  date  from  the  17th  century 
and  earlier.    A  little  to  the  north  of  Ponders  Lodge 

Farm  is  the  Black  Bull  Inn,  beyond  which  there  is  a 
single-story  weather-boarded  cottage  belonging  to  the 
church  and  perhaps  dating  from  the  17th  or  i8th  cen- 

Opposite  the  Black  Bull  Inn  a  road  leads  north- 
westwards to  Norwood  End.  This  area  of  the  parish  is 
now  more  sparsely  populated  than  it  was  in  1777.30  At 
Holme  Garden  in  Norwood  End  there  is  a  moat  en- 
closing an  area  which  is  about  1 50  yds.  across  and  con- 
sists of  two  adjacent  sites  of  roughly  rectangular  shape. 
In  1770  there  was  a  local  tradition  that  Henry,  Lord 
Scrope  (d.  141 5)  had  a  'magnificent  seat'  on  this  spot.^' 
On  the  west  side  of  the  road,  opposite  the  moat,  stands 
the  Nook,  a  small  timber-framed  building  which  prob- 
ably dates  from  the  early  19th  century.  It  has  the 
appearance  of  a  small  school  or  nonconformist  chapel 
of  that  period  and  is  said  to  have  been  a  'nonconformist 
academy'.32  It  is  now  a  private  dwelling  and  is  in  pro- 
cess of  being  rebuilt.  A  little  to  the  north  of  the  Nook 
a  track,  formerly  a  lane,  leads  south  to  Green's  Farm 
and  then  to  Makings  Farm.  Green's  Farm  stands  on 
a  moated  site  and  appears  to  date  from  the  late  17th  or 
early  i8th  century.  Makings  Farm  probably  dates 
from  the  early  17th  century.  It  is  much  altered  but 
retains  a  chimney  with  diagonal  shafts.  North-west  of 
Holme  Garden  is  Dame  Anna's  Farm.  This  stands  on 
a  moated  site  and  is  a  timber-framed  two-story  house  of 
medieval  origin.  It  appears  to  have  consisted  originally 
of  an  open  hall  possibly  with  a  two-story  wing  at  the 
west  end.  The  vertical  timbers,  which  are  exposed 
internally,  are  close-set  and  heavy.  The  screens  passage 
across  the  east  end  of  the  hall  is  still  in  existence.  The 
screen  itself  is  of  chamfered  oak  studs  alternating  with 
tall  single  panels,  probably  of  i6th-  or  early  17th- 
century  date.  There  is  a  two-story  porch  at  the  front 
of  the  house  and  a  small  staircase  wing  at  the  back; 
these  two  features  may  have  been  added  when  a  ceiling 
was  inserted  in  the  hall.  The  heavy  beams  supporting 
this  ceiling,  now  sagging,  are  probably  of  the  i6th  cen- 
tury. The  brick  chimney  with  four  diagonal  shafts 
appears  to  have  been  inserted  near  the  west  end  of  the 
hall  at  the  same  period.  There  are  indications  that  the 
east  end  of  the  house  is  also  a  rather  later  addition,  as 
two  separate  partitions  exist  side  by  side  to  the  east  of 
the  screens  passage.  The  westernmost  of  these  has  two 
curved  braces  to  the  tie-beam  which  are  visible  on  the 
first  floor.  The  upper  story  of  the  gabled  porch  over- 
sails  on  three  sides  and  has  curved  brackets  to  the  soffit. 
The  moulded  oak  door-frame  is  of  i6th-  or  early  17th- 
century  date.  In  the  window  east  of  the  porch  is  a  frag- 
ment of  heraldic  glass  of  the  17th  or  1 8th  century.  This 
has  the  incomplete  inscription  'Chard  and  Brom'.  Prob- 
ably in  the  present  century  the  west  part  of  the  front 
was  faced  with  red  brick.  Three-light  sash  windows 
were  inserted,  those  on  the  ground  floor  having  large 
decorative  lintels  of  stone  or  cement.  There  is  a  brick 
single-story  addition  at  the  east  end  of  the  house.  From 
Dame  Anna's  Farm  a  lane  leads  north-westwards  to 
Hales  Farm,  formerly  Old  Hides  Farm,  which  probably 
dates  from  the  early  17th  century. 

Nearly  J  mile  from  the  Bull  Inn  northward  along 
Dunmow  Road  is  the  site  of  a  big  house,  called  Pickerells, 

'^  Sec  below,  Manor  of  Fyfield. 

"  See  below,  Church. 

"  Ibid. 

"  Sec  below. 

*5  Sec  below. 

*^  See  below,  Church. 

'i  Ibid. 

^'  Ibid. 

^'  Morant,  Essex,  i,  135. 

28  Inf.  from  Mr.  Filshie,  present  oc- 

"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  148. 

3"  Chapman  and  Andre,  Maf>  of  Essex 
J777,  plate  xii.    Cf.  O.S.  6  in.  Map  (ist 

cdn.),  sheet  xlii. 

3'  Hisl.  Essex  by  Gent,  iii,  334. 

32  Inf.  from  Rector  of  Fyfield.  Mr. 
Cooke  of  Dame  Anna's  Farm  calls  it 
'Norwood  End  Church'.  See  below,  Non- 




which  in  the  i8th  century  belonged  to  the  Brands  of 
Herons.33  Unlike  Herons,  Pickerells  descended  to 
Thomas,  20th  Lord  Dacre  (d.  i85i).34  By  1835  the 
house  had  disappeared,3s  but  old  foundations  have  been 
found  on  the  site  during  the  last  few  years.s*  The  farm 
which  has  been  called  Pickerells  since  before  1 873^' was 
known  as  Ash's  Farm  until  after  1842  when  it  was 
owned  by  Lord  Dacre.3  8  It  stands  about  300  yds.  to 
the  north  of  the  site  of  the  former  Pickerells  and  prob- 
ably dates  from  the  late  1 7th,  or  early  1 8th,  century, 
with  a  front  addition  of  about  1800. 

The  inhabitants  of  Fyfield  were  at  first  responsible 
for  the  upkeep  of  Fyfield  Bridge,3'  but  in  1616  Robert, 
3rd  Baron  Rich,  lord  of  the  manor  of  Fyfield,  was  said 
to  be  responsible  for  it.'"'  The  parish  was  again  respon- 
sible for  the  bridge  in  the  early  19th  century.  It  is  not 
included  in  the  list  of  county  bridges  about  1800'"  or 
in  1830.42  In  or  shortly  before  1835  it  was  said  that 
the  occupier  of  Fyfield  Hall  estate,  with  the  assistance 
of  the  neighbouring  gentry,  had  recently  erected  a 
bridge  at  Fyfield,  from  plans  and  specifications  by 
George  Bridges,  a  London  builder.^s  In  1835  part  of 
the  bridge  appears  to  have  been  a  county  charge.**  In 
1858  the  county  surveyor  noted  that  the  bridge  was 
built  of  oak  and  that  in  1 856  it  had  been  widened  at  the 
expense  of  the  county  which  was  responsible  only  for 
the  additional  width.^s 

In  1 79 1  a  wagon  went  at  noon  on  Saturdays  from 
Fyfield  to  the  'Saracen's  Head',  Aldgate.**  In  1826-7 
a  coach  ran  from  Ongar  and  Fyfield  on  every  day  except 
Sunday,  to  the  'Bull',  Aldgate,  passing  through  Abridge 
and  Chigwell.'t'  The  vans  of  S.  Clements  and  the 
wagons  of  Thomas  Nichol  also  served  Fyfield  and  other 
villages.**  In  1848  George  Yeallett  was  carrier  to 
London  on  Tuesday,  Thursday,  and  Saturday.*'  In 
1862  a  coach  went  daily  to  London. so 

In  1 840  a  'memorial'  for  a  postal  service  in  Fyfield 
and  other  parishes  was  sent  to  the  Postmaster-Generals' 
and  in  1845  Fyfield  asked  for  a  receiving  office. s^  The 
request  was  shortly  granted. S3  In  1877  an  application 
for  a  money-order  office  was  refused, s*  but  in  1881 
a  post-office  was  established,  serving  also  Cannons 
Green, 55  with  delivery  extended  in  the  next  year  to 
Norwood  End. 56  A  telegraph  office  was  opened  under 

33  See  below,  Manor  of  Herons;  Hht, 
Essex  hy  Gent,  iii,  333. 

34  E.R.O.,  e/RPl  685-737. 

"  Ref.  Com.  Char.  {Essex),  H.C.  216, 
pp.  227-8  (1835),  x)ci  (i).  The  explana- 
tion of  the  disappearance  of  the  house  may 
lie  in  the  fact  that  from  1 7  80,  if  not  before, 
until  after  184.2  the  land  belonging  to 
Pickerells  Farm  was  occupied  by  the  Ash 
family  who  also  occupied  other  farms  in 
the  vicinity.  Pickerells  was  possibly 
demolished  for  better  utilization  of  the 
land.  In  184.2  William  Ash  lived  at  Ash's 
farm-house  (sec  below). 

"  Inf.  from  Mrs.  Doe  of  present 

3'  O.S.  6  in.  Map  (ist  edn.),  sheet  xlii. 

38  E.R.O.,  D/CT  148.  The  Brands 
owned  'John  Ash  farm'  before  1768; 
Morant,  Essex,  i,  135.  This  was  almost 
certainly  the  farm  described  as  'Ash's 
Farm'  in  1842.  The  latter  was,  however, 
described  as  Golds  in  Chapman  and  Andr6, 
Map  of  Essex  jyy;,  plate  xii.  John  Ash 
occupied  nearly  all  the  Brands'  estate  in 
Fyfield,  including  Pickerells  and  another, 
slightly  larger,  farm,  by  1780.  He  was 
succeeded  in  1827-8  by  Mrs.  Ash  who 
was  still  the  occupier  in  1832.  In  1842 
William  Ash  occupied  'Ash's  Farm'  which 

included    the    land    on 
Pickerells  had  stood. 

39  E.R.O.,  Q/SR  75/33,  142/24. 

40  E.R.O.,  e/SBa  1/26. 
4>  E.R.O.,  2/ABz  2. 

42  E.R.O.,  e/ABz  I. 

43  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  338  n. 

44  E.R.O.,  Q/ABz  2. 

45  E.R.O.,  Q/ABz  3. 

46  Uni'versal  Brit.  Dir.  (1791),  i,  24. 

47  Pigot's  Com.  Dir.  (1826-7),  App.  51. 

48  Ibid.  82.  Cf.  Chipping  Ongar,  p.  158. 

49  irhile's  Dir.  Essex  {i%^i),4it). 
so  JVhite's  Dir.  Essex  (1863),  726. 

5"  P.M.G.  Mins  1840,  vol.  52,  p.  535. 

52  Ibid.  1845,  vol.  80,  p.  406. 

53  ff kite's  Dir.  Essex  (ii6T,),yzS. 

54  P.M.G.  Mins.  1877,  vol.  168,  min. 


55  Ibid.  1881,  vol.  219,  min.  8958. 

56  Ibid.  1882,  vol.  232,  min.  7276. 
5'  Ibid.  1893,  vol.  497,  min.  8078. 
58  Ibid.  1923,  min.  5644. 

!»  Inf.  from  Chief  Constable  of  Essex. 
Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  first  mentioned  a 
sergeant-in-charge  in  1898. 

60  Inf.  from  Herts,  and  Essex  Water- 
works Co. 

6>  Inf.  from  Rector  of  Fyfield. 

62  Inf.  from  East.  Elec.  Bd. 


guarantee  in  189357  and  the  telephone  service  was 
estabhshed  in  1923.58  A  police  officer  is  stationed  in 
the  parish.59 

Water  was  supplied  by  the  Herts,  and  Essex  Water- 
works Co.  in  the  later  19th  century*"  but  there  is  no 
sewerage  system.*'  Electricity  was  supplied  to  most  of 
the  parish  in  1938.*^  The  village  hall  was  built  about 
1920,^3  and  a  sports  ground  was  opened  in  1951.**  A 
branch  of  the  county  library  was  opened  in  1937. 

Fyfield  has  always  been  a  rural  parish  devoted  mainly 
to  agriculture.  No  evidence  has  been  found  to  support 
the  tradition  that  Henry,  Lord  Scrope  (d.  141 5),  lord 
of  the  manor  of  Fyfield,  lived  in  the  parish,*5  nor  is 
there  evidence  that  any  other  lord  of  this  manor  lived 
in  Fyfield  in  medieval  times.  Certainly  no  owner  of  the 
manor  has  been  resident  since  early  in  the  i6th  cen- 
tury.** The  owners  of  Herons  never  lived  in  Fyfield 
except  for  a  period  in  the  1 8th,  and  perhaps  in  the  1 7th, 
century.*'  The  Brands  lived  in  Fyfield  during  the  first 
part  of  the  1 8th  century,*^  but  by  1768  Thomas  Brand, 
then  lord  of  the  manor,  was  no  longer  resident.*'  Sub- 
sequent owners  of  Herons  never  lived  in  Fyfield.'"  The 
owners  of  Lampetts  lived  in  the  parish  in  the  17th  cen- 
tury and  in  the  first  half  of  the  1 8th  century,"  but  after 
the  death  of  John  Collins  in  1750  they  were  not  resident 
until  at  least  the  latter  half  of  the  19th  century.'^ 

In  1842  E.  F.  Maitland  owned  387  acres  in  Fyfield, 
the  Hon.  W.  P.  T.  Long-Wellesley  288  acres,  the 
Revd.  J.  B.  Stane  (of  Forest  Hall  in  High  Ongar,  q.v.) 
263  acres,  J.  B.  Stane  216  acres,  and  the  trustees  of 
Eleanor  Kirwan  238  acres.'^  None  of  these  owners 
farmed  their  land  themselves.'4  J.  M.  Wilson  owned 
112  acres  which  were  part  of  the  manor  of  Envilles  in 
Little  Laver  (q.v.).'s  There  were  three  other  substan- 
tial owners  in  the  parish;  Lucy  Evans  owned  but  did 
not  occupy  Dame  Anna's  Farm  (131  acres);  Thomas, 
Lord  Dacre  owned  but  did  not  occupy  Ash's  Farm 
(116  acres) ;  and  Captain  Harry  Ord  held,  as  trustee  of 
Mrs.  Ord,  Green's  Farm  (70  acres)  which  was  occupied 
by  W.  Whitney,  and  Hale's  Farm  (58  acres)  which  was 
occupied  by  J.  White.'*  There  were  three  other  farms 
of  over  40  acres." 

Fyfield  has  always  been  a  parish  of  mixed  farming 
with  a  heavy  predominance  of  arable.    In  1086  there 

which    the    first 

63  Inf.  from  County  Librarian. 

'4  Inf.  from  Rector  of  Fyfield. 

65  See  above;  and  below,  Church. 

"  See  below.  Manor  of  Fyfield ;  E.R.O., 
Q/RTh  I,  5;  ibid.  Q/RPl  685-737;  ibid. 
D/CT  148. 

"  See  below.  Manor  of  Herons. 

«8  Hist.  Essex  by  Gent,  iii,  338;  Wright, 
Hist.  Essex,  ii,  339  n.;  see  below,  Church, 
The  Brands  may  have  lived  at  Pickerells, 
a  substantial  house;  see  above;  and 
Morant,  Essex,  i,  135.  A  new  house  was 
built  at  Herons  soon  after  Thomas  Brand 
disposed  of  the  manor :  sec  below.  Manor 
of  Herons. 

"  Morant,  Essex,  i,  135;  Hist.  Essex  by 
Gent,  iii,  334;  Complete  Peerage,  iv,  16— 


70  E.R.O.,  Q/RPl  685-737;  see  below. 
Manor  of  Herons. 

"  E.R.O.,  Q/RTh  I,  5;  Morant,  Essex, 
i.  '35;  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  339. 

'2  E.R.O.,  Q/RPl  685-737;  ibid. 
D/CT  148. 

'3  E.R.O.,  D/CT  148. 

'4  Ibid. 

'5  Ibid. 

'<■  Ibid.       . 

"  Ibid. 


were  5  ploughs  in  the  manor  of  Fy field;  there  was 
woodland  for  400  swine,  10  acres  of  meadow,  and  also 
a  hive  of  bees.'*  In  184 1  it  was  estimated  that  there 
were  1,655  acres  of  arable,  425  acres  of  meadow,  and 
1 20  acres  of  woodland." 

In  1086  the  manor  contained  a  mill,*"  and  in  1281 
there  was  a  windmill  there.*'  A  windmill  was  in  use  in 
the  parish  until  about  1910*^  when  it  was  blown  down 
and  cleared  away.  It  was  an  open-based  wooden  post 
mill.83  A  mill  on  the  River  Roding  is  still  using  water- 
power  to  grind  cattle  food.'*  The  building  is  weather- 
boarded  and  appears  to  date  from  the  i8th  or  early 
19th  century.  The  mill  house  is  a  double  fronted 
plastered  cottage  probably  built  about  1 840. 

The  Fyfield  Pea  {Lathyrus  tubemus)'^^  has  been 
naturalized  at  Fyfield  since  about  1800.  It  is  a  native 
of  Europe  and  West  Asia.**  It  can  still  be  found  in 
hedges  and  fields  in  Fyfield,  in  particular  in  a  field  east 
of  the  rectory,  but  is  considered  to  be  not  so  plentiful  as 

The  works  of  Ernest  Doe  &  Son,  tractor  repairers, 
are  opposite  Pickerells. 

In  1066  FYFIELD  was  held  by  Leuric  as  a  manor 

and  as  \\  hide  and  30  acres  and  was  worth 

MANORS   ^5.*'    In  1086  it  was  held  by  Roger  of 

John  son  of  Waleran  and  was  worth  [,1  .^^ 

In  1094  the  manor  was  still  held  of  John  by  Roger.*' 

Maud  wife  of  Hasculf  de  Tany  was  heiress  of  John.'o 

It  is  almost  certain  that  Maud  held  the  manor  of 
Fyfield  in  demesne  early  in  the  12th  century."  Grae- 
land  de  Tany,  son  of  Maud,  died  in  1 179-80.92  His 
son  and  heir  Hasculf,  and  the  successors  of  Hasculf,  un- 
doubtedly held  the  manor  in  demesne  of  the  king  in 
chief  by  knight  service,  the  amount  of  which  was  re- 
ported as  I  fee  until  1428  and  afterwards  as  ^  fee.'^ 

Hasculf  de  Tany  died  in  1 192-3.9''  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Gilbert  de  Tany  who  was  probably  his  son 
and  who  died  in  1 22 1  leaving  a  widow  Emma  who  had 
dower  in  Fyfield. '^  In  1221  the  heirs  of  Gilbert  were 
described  as  William  de  Fambridge,  Maud  wife  of 
Adam  de  Legh,  and  Nicholas  de  Beauchamp.'*  In 
1223  Adam  and  Maud  de  Legh  granted  their  rights  in 
the  inheritance  to  Stephen  son  of  Alan  de  Normanby 
and  Alice  his  wife  and  to  the  heirs  of  Alice.*'  This 
Stephen  seems  to  have  been  known  later  as  Stephen  de 
Langton.9*  In  1230  it  was  reported  that  Stephen  de 
Langton  held  \,  and  Nicholas  de  Beauchamp  \,  of 
Gilbert  de  Tany's  barony  of  7J  fees."  A  large  part  of 
Gilbert's  estate  in  Fyfield  was  evidently  allotted  to 
Nicholas  de  Beauchamp,  who  died  in  1 243  in  possession 
of  an  estate  there  consisting  of  254  acres  of  arable,  8 
acres  of  meadow  in  demesne,  6  acres  of  pasture,  a  wood, 
rents  amounting  to  69;.  \d.  a  year,  and  some  works."   It 

is  not  certain  what  happened  to  this  estate  when  Nicholas 
died.  He  left  a  minor,  whose  name  is  unknown,  as  the 
heir  to  his  other  estates.^  Part  of  his  Fyfield  estate,  how- 
ever, may  have  passed  to  Stephen  de  Langton.  Stephen 
and  his  wife  Alice  had  some  interest  in  Fyfield  at  least 
as  early  as  1228,  but  it  is  not  clear  what  was  the  extent 
of  this  interest  before  the  death  of  Nicholas.^  It  is  cer- 
tain, however,  that  in  1258  Stephen  had  in  Fyfield  a 
messuage  and  a  carucate  of  land  which  he  then  granted 
to  Roger  de  Beauchamp  and  to  the  adult  heirs  of  Roger 
to  hold  of  him  by  the  service  oi\  fee  and  a  yearly  rent 
of  1 1 1  J.  ^d.,  1 30  quarters  of  wheat,  and  150  quarters 
of  oats.*  After  Stephen's  death  Roger  was  to  hold  the 
premises  in  fee  and  to  be  quit  of  the  annual  rent.' 
Stephen  was  dead  by  1 26 1.*  In  the  quo  warranto  in- 
quiries of  1274-5  it  was  reported  that  Roger  de  Beau- 
champ held  the  manor  of  Fyfield  of  the  king  in  chief  at 
I  fee  and  that  he  held  the  assize  of  bread  and  ale  and 
view  of  frankpledge,  but  by  what  warrant  was  un- 
known.' Roger  died  in  1281  in  possession  of  an  estate 
in  Fyfield  consisting  of  a  messuage,  2  carucates  arable, 
2o(.?)  acres  of  meadow,  10  acres  of  pasture,  80  acres  of 
wood,  a  windmill,  and  rents  amounting  to  £6  13/.  \d. 
a  year.*  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  John.'  In  1295 
John  de  Beauchamp  received  licence  to  enfeoff  Henry 
de  Enfield,  Alice  his  wife  and  John  their  son  with  44 
acres  of  land  which  they  were  to  hold  of  the  king  by 
^  fee.'°  Henry  de  Enfield  was  probably  lord  of  Envilles 
manor  in  Little  Laver  (q.v.).  In  1303  it  was  reported 
that  John  de  Beauchamp  and  his  tenants  held  I  fee  in 
Fyfield."  In  1309  John  de  Beauchamp  settled  the 
manor  of  Fyfield  on  his  son  Nicholas  but  reserved  a  life 
interest  for  himself '^  John  was  still  alive  in  1320,  but 
by  1329  Nicholas  was  in  possession  of  the  manor."  In 
1332  Nicholas  received  licence  toenfeoffjohn  Hotham, 
Bishop  of  Ely,  with  the  manor.'*  In  1334  the  king 
granted  to  John  Hotham  and  his  heirs  free  warren  in 
all  their  demesne  lands  of  the  manor. '5  In  November 
1334  John,  Bishop  of  Ely,  received  licence  to  grant  the 
manor  to  John  son  of  Peter  Hotham.'*  In  1337  Sir 
John  Hotham  received  licence  to  grant  the  manor  to 
his  son  John  and  Ivetta  his  wife  to  hold  to  them  and 
their  issue  with  remainder  to  Ivetta's  brother  Henry, 
son  of  Geoffrey  le  Scrope,  and  his  heirs."  John  died 
without  issue  in  13 51.'*  In  1355  his  widow  Ivetta 
granted  the  manor  to  her  brother  Henry  le  Scrope  to 
hold  during  her  life  at  a  rent  of  ^^62  1 3/.  \d.  during  the 
lifetime  of  Mathias  de  Beauchamp,  who  was  probably 
the  occupier,  and  ^^66  13/.  \d.  after  the  death  of 
Mathias."  Ivetta  was  dead  by  I374.2*'  Her  brother 
Henry,  ist  Lord  Scrope  of  Masham,  then  held  the 
manor  in  his  own  right  until  he  died  in  1392,  leaving  as 
his  heir  his  son  Stephen,  2nd  Lord  Scrope,  who  died  in 

'8  y.C.n.  Essex,  i,  545a. 
"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  148. 
«»  F.C.H.  Essex,  i,  545a. 
8*  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  ii,  pp.  235—6. 
82  E.R.  x\,  168. 

85   Ibid. 

8*  Inf.  from  miller. 

85  r.C.H.  Essex,  i,  38. 

86  Clapham,  Tutin,  and  Warburg,  Flora 
of  Brit.  Isles  (1952). 

8'  r.C.H.  Essex,  i,  545a. 

88  Ibid. 

89  /4nn.  Mon.  (Rolls  Ser.),  iii,  428,  430- 
I ;  see  below,  Church. 

«»  f^.C.H.  Essex,  i,  545,  note  2 ;  E.A.  T. 
N.s.  viii,  104-5. 

"  Ann.  Mon.  (Rolls  Ser.),  iii,  430-1 ; 
Mon.  Angl.  v,  88-89  j  see  below.  Church. 

'2  Ann.  Mon.  (Rolls  Ser.),  iii,  430-1 ; 
E.A.T.  N.s.  viii,  104-5;  P'P^  ^-  "^° 
(P.R.S.  xxix),  6. 

"  E.A.T.  N.s.  viii,  104-5;  Feud.  Aids, 
ii,   136,   160,  222;  Cal.  Close,   1454-61, 


9*  Pipe  R.  1 193  (P.R.S.  N.s.  iii),  8. 

95  Ex.  e  Rot.  Fin.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  71-72 ; 
Feet  of  F.  Essex,  \,  6y. 

9i>  Excerpta  e  Rot,  Fin.  \,  72. 

9'  Feet  ofF.  Essex,  \,  67. 

98  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  i,  74. 

99  P/^OfiJ.  1230  (P.R.S.  N.s.  iv),  137. 

■  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  \,  p.  288  ;  Ex.  e  Rot,  Fin. 
(Rec.  Com.),  i,  402.  Nicholas  also  held 
the  advowson. 

2  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  i,  p.  288. 

5  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  i,  74,  1 1 6,  1 20,  134. 


*  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  \,  232.  5  Ibid. 

6  Cal.  Close,   1 261-4,   '6;  Ex.  e  Rot. 
Fin.  (Rec.  Com.),  ii,  364. 

'  Rot.  Hund.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  153. 

8  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  ii,  pp.  235-6. 

9  Ibid. 

'"  Cal.  Pat.  1292-1301,  144. 
'*  Feud,  Aids,  ii,  136. 
'2  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  125. 
'3  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  200—1 ;  Cal.  Pat. 
'3-7-3°. +50. 
'♦  Cal.  Pat.  1330-4,  235. 
'5  Cal.  Chart.  R.  1327-41,  320. 
■'  Cal.  Pat.  1334-8,46. 
"  Ibid.  487. 

^8  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  \x,  pp.  429—30. 
'9  Cal.  Pat.  1354-8,  174. 
"  Cal.  Pat.  1 374-7.  34-35- 



1406.2'  The  king  then  assigned  the  manor  to  Margery 
widow  of  Stephen  in  dower,  for  life,  with  reversion  to 
Henry,  3rd  Lord  Scrope,  son  and  heir  of  Stephen.^^  In 
May  141 3  Margery  granted  the  manor  to  Henry  for 
40  years  at  an  annual  rent,  on  condition  that  the  estate 
should  revert  to  her  if  Henry  should  die  within  her  life- 
timers  Henry  was  beheaded  in  141 5  and  the  king  then 
took  possession  of  the  manor  of  Fyfield  with  the  rest  of 
Henry's  lands.^''  Margery  immediately  petitioned  for 
restitution  of  the  manor  as  her  right  and  in  November 
141 5  obtained  it.^s  She  died  in  1422.^*  The  Crown 
then  took  possession  of  the  manor  the  custody  of  which 
was  in  February  1423  granted  to  Sir  John  de  Langton 
and  John  de  Aske."  In  December  1423  John  le  Scrope, 
brother  and  heir  of  Henry,  3rd  Lord  Scrope,  recovered 
the  lands  which  his  mother  Margery  had  held  in 
dower.r'  Later  John  recovered  the  barony.  When 
John,  Lord  Scrope,  died  in  1455  he  held  the  manor  of 
Fyfield  jointly  with  his  wife  Elizabeth  who  survived 
him.2'  She  died  in  1466  and  the  manor  then  passed  to 
her  son  Thomas,  Lord  Scrope,  who  died  in  1475.3°  In 
1476  Elizabeth  widow  of  Thomas  was  granted  custody 
of  the  manor  during  the  minority  of  her  son  Thomas, 
Lord  Scrope.3>  When  Thomas,  Lord  Scrope,  died  in 
1493  he  was  seised  of  Fyfield  jointly  with  his  wife 
Elizabeth  who  survived  him.^^  Elizabeth  died  in  1 5 17, 
having  outlived  both  her  only  child  Alice,  iuo  jure 
Baroness  Scrope,  and  her  grandchild  Elizabeth.33  The 
heir  to  the  manor  of  Fyfield  was  then  Eleanor,  widow 
of  Ralph,  Lord  Scrope,  who  had  settled  the  reversion 
on  her  before  his  death  in  1 5 1 5.2^  Eleanor  died  before 
25  March  1531.35  The  manor  then  passed  to  the 
daughters  of  Elizabeth,  sister  and  coheir  of  Geofirey, 
loth  Lord  Scrope:  Alice  wife  of  Charles  Dransfeld, 
Elizabeth  wife  of  Nicholas  Strelley,  Dorothy  wife 
of  Lancelot  Esshe,  and  Agnes  wife  of  Marmaduke 
Wyvill.3*  In  1537-8  these  sold  the  manor  to  Sir 
Richard  Rich,  afterwards  ist  Baron  Rich.3'  After- 
wards the  manor  followed  the  same  descent  as  Paslow 
Hall  manor  in  High  Ongar  (q.v.)  until  the  death  of  the 
EarlofMornington  in  1863.38  It  then  passed  to  Henry,  . 
1st  Earl  Cowley,  a  cousin  of  the  Earl  of  Mornington." 
After  Lord  Cowley's  death  in  1884  the  manor  was  held 
by  his  son  William,  Earl  Cowley,  who  died  in  1895.^" 
By  1898  the  manor  had  passed  to  Andrew  Alfred 
CoUyer  Bristow  of  Beddington  (Surr.)  who  kept  it 
until  his  death  in  1906-12,  after  which  it  was  held  by 
his  trustees  until  after  1937.^' 

In  1842  Fyfield  Hall  farm  consisted  of  288  acres 
which  were  in  the  occupation  of  Thomas  Horner.^^ 
At  that  time  the  farm  was  still  owned  by  the  Wellesley 
family,  lords  of  the  manor  of  Fyfield.''3  By  the  end  of 
1865,  however,  the  farm,  or  at  least  part  of  it,  had  be- 
come separated  from  the  manor.  J.  L.  Newall  who  was 

at  this  time  purchasing  the  Forest  Hall  estate  (see  High 
Ongar),  bought  part  of  Fyfield  Hall  farm  in  1865  and 
the  remainder  in  iij\.**  Afterwards  the  farm  de- 
scended with  Forest  Hall  until  the  estate  was  sold,  in 
several  lots,  in  I9i9.'»5  At  that  time  the  farm  consisted 
of  224  acres  which  were  let  to  G.  and  D.  W.  White  at 
a  rent  of  £342  a  year.''* 

Fyfield  HalH'  is  a  timber-framed  house  of  various 
dates.  The  plan  is  complex,  having  at  the  core  part  of 
an  aisled  hall,  possibly  of  the  early  14th  century.  This 
was  of  two  approximately  equal  bays,  the  axis  running 
east  and  west.  The  south  aisle  is  now  missing.  At  the 
east  end,  also  on  an  east-west  axis,  is  another  medieval 
structure,  probably  of  later  date  than  the  original  hall. 
Parallel  to  the  hall  and  built  against  its  north  aisle  is  a 
two-story  range,  dating  from  about  1500.  Three  more 
gabled  wings  have  been  added  at  different  dates.  One, 
at  the  north-west  corner  of  the  house,  contains  the  stair- 
case and  is  probably  of  the  i6th  or  early  17th  century. 
The  others,  at  the  south-west  corner  and  across  the  east 
end  of  the  north  range,  date  from  the  i8th  century  or 
later.  The  early  plan  is  remarkable  for  its  use  of  the 
east— west  axis  throughout  instead  of  the  more  usual 
cross-wings  of  medieval  times. 

The  timbers  of  the  north  aisle  of  the  14th-century 
hall  are  mostly  in  position,  although  concealed  by  later 
work.^'  Between  the  bays  stands  an  oak  post  from 
which  the  curved  braces  forming  the  two  arches  of  the 
'nave  arcade'  spring.  The  lower  part  of  this  post,  octa- 
gonal on  plan  and  about  1 5  in.  in  diameter,  can  be  seen 
in  a  cupboard  on  the  ground  floor.  The  capital  has  a 
14th-century  moulding  and  the  base  has  long  spur  stops. 
Above  the  level  of  the  springing  the  post  has  a  square 
section  and  is  carried  up  to  support  a  massive  plate  run- 
ning longitudinally  at  the  junction  of  the  'nave'  and 
aisle  roofs.  At  each  end  of  the  hall  the  projection  of  the 
plate  is  over  I  ft.  in  length,  suggesting  that  the  original 
14th-century  building  had  overhanging  gables.  Most 
of  the  original  timbers  of  the  'nave'  roof,  which  is  of  the 
trussed  rafter  type,  are  in  position,  all  heavily  blackened 
with  smoke  from  an  open  hearth.  An  unusual  feature  is 
the  presence  of  straight  wind-braces,  pegged  through 
to  each  rafter  and  crossing  at  the  top.  The  bracing 
members  of  the  central  truss  are  missing  but  the  position 
of  mortices  and  slots  in  the  main  members  strongly  sug- 
gests that  long  straight  braces  crossed  between  the  collar 
and  the  apex  of  the  roof  and  formed  a  scissor  truss. 
There  are  indications  of  smaller  braces  below  the  tie- 
beam.  In  the  north  aisle  the  position  of  a  window  can 
be  determined  by  the  presence  of  mortices  for  diagonal 
muUions  on  the  underside  of  the  wall  plate.  The  south 
aisle  has  been  destroyed,  but  the  central  post  is  still  in 
place.  It  has  been  cut  back  so  that  its  mouldings  and 
octagonal  shape  are  obliterated. 

"  C136/78/1;  0137/56;  C(Jm/>/«/<P«r- 
age,  xi,  561—4. 
"  C145/294;  C139/4;  Complete  Peer- 

C 139/4;      Cal.     Closef 

C139/4;      Cal.     Close, 
251;    Complete   Peerage, 

"  CI45/294-; 

"  C145/294; 
1413-19,  229, 
xi,  566. 

^5  Cal.  Close,  141 3-19,  229,  251. 

**  Complete  Peerage,  xi,  564. 

"  Cal.  FineR.  1422-30,  28. 

'«  Cal.  Fine  R.   1422-30,  66-67. 

"  Cal.  Close,  1454-61,  94-95  ;  Complete 
Peerage,  xi,  566—8. 

3"  C140/21;  C140/53;  Complete  Peer- 
age, xi,  569. 

3"  Cal.  Pat.  1467-77,  582,  599;  Com- 
plete Peerage,  xi,  569-70. 

32  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  VII,  i,  p.  396. 

33  C142/33/121;  Complete  Peerage,  xi, 

3*  C142/33/121;  Complete  Peerage,  xl, 


35  Complete  Peerage,  xi,  572. 

36  E.R.O.,  D/DCw  M102;  y.C.H. 
rorks.  N.R.  i,  234;  Complete  Peerage,  xi, 
572.  Geoffrey,  Lord  Scrope,  son  of 
Thomas,  Lord  Scrope  (d.  1475)  had  suc- 
ceeded his  brother  Ralph  in  1515  and  died 

unmarried  in  1517- 

37  CP40/1098R0.  i48;CP25(2)/i2/65 
East.  &  Trin.  29  Hen.  VIII;  CP25(2)/ 
12/66    Trin.    30    Hen.    VIII;    E.R.O., 


D/DCw  M102. 

38  E.R.O.,    D/DCw    M115;    Complete' 
Peerage,  ix,  241. 

3»  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1870  f.);  Complete 
Peerage,  iii,  480—1. 

*°  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1878  f.). 

I'  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1898  f.). 

«  E.R.O.,  D/CT  148. 

«  Ibid. 

«  E.R.O.,  Sale  Cat.  A.  225. 

45  Ibid.  ••'  Ibid. 

■17  See  p.  48. 

48  Many  of  the  features  described  were 
discovered  during  a  survey  made  in  1954 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Royal  Com- 
mission on  Historical  Monuments  and  the 
National  Buildings  Record. 

probable  _ 

'Scissor*  Iruu 

Scale  For  Sections 




Rafters    renewed 

Rafters    renewed 


h  ^    ^   ^     ^     p 



•■.'/'■■      !-:.! 

B    II 

I     I 

i     1     I     t^l     1^1     i 

B    fl    P    H    H 


3   R   H.:^ 



5E.CTION     66   Of  ORIGINAL   HALL 

C  CO 

)8th.  or  iptb.c 


I  °      !!.  .   .   .   .  n.NOH-TH  II    A  J  5tt i; 

Scale    for    Plan 

30        35       aofect 

M  t  O 


E.  V  A  L 







The  structure  east  of  the  hall  is  divided  from  it  by  a 
space  about  6  ft.  wide,  possibly  an  external  passage. 
Part  of  it  was  open  to  the  roof  and  at  one  time  a  central 
truss  was  fitted  with  a  king-post.  There  is  some  smoke- 
blackening  of  the  roof  timbers. 

The  two-story  north  range  is  built  alongside  the  aisle 
wall  but  is  independent  of  it  structurally.  It  is  of  four 
bays,  divided  in  the  roof  by  three  king-post  trusses.  The 
westernmost  king-post  is  rebated  and  hollow-chamfered, 
suggesting  that  at  this  end  there  was  an  open  roof  visible 
from  an  important  upper  room  or  solar.  The  upper 
floor  oversails  along  the  north  side  and  has  curved 
brackets  to  the  soffit.  The  ends  of  the  joists  are  con- 
cealed by  a  moulded  bressummer,  over  40  ft.  long,  en- 
riched with  a  running  design  typical  of  about  1500. 
The  nail-studded  entrance  door  is  probably  original. 

The  reconstruction  of  the  hall  probably  took  place  in 
the  i6th  century.  A  ceiling  was  inserted  and  the  central 
chimney  built.  The  introduction  of  an  upper  story 
needing  light  and  head-room  would  necessitate  the 
demolition  of  the  south  aisle.  The  staircase  wing  may 
be  of  the  same  period  but  the  other  additions  are  later. 
The  chimney  in  the  north  range  was  built  in  two  stages, 
the  older  stack  having  a  shaped  panel  which  probably 
carried  a  date  or  initials.  The  upper  part  of  the  south 
chimney  is  now  dated  1700. 

The  sash  windows,  including  the  splayed  bays  on  the 
south  front,  were  all  inserted  about  1886.  The  timber 
porch  and  the  loggia  were  added  after  1945.  In  the 
garden  to  the  east  of  the  house  there  is  a  rectangular 
fish-pond  known  as  the  'Catholic  Pond'. 

The  manor  of  HERONS  was  in  the  ownership  of  the 
priory  of  Little  Leighs  when  the  latter  was  dissolved  in 
1536.""  Its  earlier  history  is  uncertain  but  its  origins 
are  perhaps  to  be  found  in  several  estates  which  may 
have  been  merged  by  the  priory  at  the  end  of  the  13  th 

Leighs  priory  may  have  possessed  lands  in  Fyfield 
before  1247.  In  1211-12  Oger  son  of  Ernald  de 
Curton  held  i  fee  in  Tendring  and  Fyfield. 5"  Oger 
apparently  granted  the  fee  to  Thomas  de  Lungevill' 
who  in  1223  conveyed  at  least  part  of  it,  including  lands 
in  Fyfield,  to  William  de  Curton,  brother  of  Oger. 5'  In 
1233  Eustace  de  Curton,  who  may  have  been  the  son 
of  William,  granted  100  acres  of  land  in  Fyfield  to 
Ralph  Gernon,  probably  the  founder  of  Leighs  priory." 
Ralph,  who  apparently  owned  no  lands  in  Fyfield  at  his 
death  in  1247,  may  have  granted  this  estate  to  the 

After  1282  the  priory  may  have  acquired  in  Fyfield 
two  other  estates  each  of  which  had  formed  a  separate 
manor  in  the  i  ith  century.  In  1066  one  was  held  by 
Alwin  as  80  acres  and  as  one  manor  worth  3o;.5'*  In 
1086  this  was  held  of  Count  Eustace  of  Boulogne  by 
'lunanus'  and  was  then  worth  40;.  55  The  other  manor 
was  held  in  1066  by  Brictmar  as  40  acres  and  as  one 

manor  worth  5/.S*  In  1086  this  manor  was  held  of 
Count  Eustace  by  Richard  and  was  worth  lo/.s'  These 
two  manors  were  probably  merged  in  the  1 2th  century. 
The  overlordship  passed  with  the  honor  of  Boulogne  to 
the  Crown  after  the  death  in  1 1 59  of  William,  Count  of 
Boulogne.  The  mesne  tenancy  was  held  in  the  reign 
of  Henry  II  by  Pharamus  of  Boulogne,  great-grandson 
of  Count  Eustace  of  Boulogne. ss  It  descended  to 
Pharamus'  daughter  Sybil  wife  of  Ingram  de  Fiennes 
and  subsequently  to  her  son  William  de  Fiennes.5» 
Afterwards  Ingram  son  of  William  de  Fiennes  appa- 
rently held  the  manor.*"  In  1248  he  granted  to  Ralph 
de  Marcy  i  messuage  and  1 20  acres  of  land  in  Fyfield 
toholdof  himat  a  rent  of  32/.  a  year."  This  estate  was 
equal  in  extent  to  the  combined  acreage  of  the  two 
Fyfield  manors  which  were  held  of  Count  Eustace  in 
1086.  In  1282  William  de  Fiennes,  son  of  Ingram, 
conveyed  some  rights  in  Fyfield  to  Robert  Burnell, 
Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells.*^  It  is  not  clear  what  was  the 
effect  of  this  conveyance.  Soon  afterwards,  however, 
Leighs  priory  may  have  acquired  the  manor  and  added 
to  it  lands  acquired  previously  from  Ralph  Gernon.  In 
1 29 1  the  priory  had  an  estate  in  Fyfield  valued  at 
£7  10s.  ia'.63  In  1 303  and  1 346  it  was  reported  that  the 
priory  held  in  Fyfield  J  fee  of  the  honor  of  Boulogne.** 
This  estate  may  have  derived  its  name  of  Herons  from 
one  who  farmed  it  in  the  14th  or  1 5  th  century.*' 

Immediately  after  the  dissolution  of  Leighs  priory  in 
1536  the  manor  was  granted  by  the  Crown  to  Sir 
Richard  Rich,  afterwards  ist  Baron  Rich.**  On  his 
death  in  1567  it  passed  to  his  son  Robert,  2nd  Baron 
Rich,  who  settled  it  on  his  eldest  son  Richard  when 
Richard  married  Katherine  Knevett.*'  Richard's  death 
without  issue  in  1 580  was  followed  by  that  of  his  father 
in  I58i.*8  The  manor  then  passed  to  Robert,  3rd 
Baron  Rich,  who  in  16 12  conveyed  it  to  Robert 
Bourne.*'  In  1643  Richard  Bourne,  who  may  have 
been  a  nephew  of  Robert  Bourne,  conveyed  the  manor 
to  Alexander  Benton  and  Richard  Master.^o  In  1694 
Thomas  Richardson  and  his  wife  Anne  granted  it  to 
-Charles  Nowes  to  hold  during  Anne's  life."  In  1697 
Charles  Nowes  and  his  wife  Ann,  and  John  Brett  Fisher 
and  Judith  his  wife  conveyed  the  manor  to  John  Savill.72 
By  171 1  the  manor  was  owned  by  Timothy  Brand  of 
London.'^  Afterwards  it  passed  to  Thomas  Brand  who 
may  have  been  Timothy's  grandson  and  who  also  owned 
Pickerells  Farm.'''  Before  1768  Thomas  Brand  was 
succeeded  by  his  son  Thomas  who  in  1771  married 
Gertrude,  suo  jure  Baroness  Dacre.'5  Before  1780 
Thomas  Brand  granted  Herons  to  Thomas  Brand 
Hollis,  although  he  retained  in  Fyfield  a  considerable 
estate,  including  Pickerells  and  Ash  Farms,  which  later 
descended  to  his  son  Thomas,  Lord  Dacre  (d.  1851).'* 
Thomas  Brand  Hollis  was  owner  of  Herons  until  about 
1804  when  it  passed  to  Dr.  Disney."  In  1811-12 
Disney  was  succeeded  by  the  Revd.  John  Bramston 

*'  L.  fef  P.  Hen.  ^111,  x,  p.  420. 

50  ReJ  Bk.  of  Exch.  580;  Bk.  of  Fees, 

"  Bk.  of  Fees,  242,  1435;  Feet,  of  F. 
Essex,  i,  49,  63. 

"  Feel  of  F.  Essex,  i,  93,  114;  r.C.H. 
Essex,  ii,  155;  E.A.T.  N.s.  xii,  90. 

"  Cal.  Irtq.  p.m.  i,  p.  292;  Ex.  e  Rot. 
Fin.  (Rec.  Com.),  ii,  23. 

5t  V.C.H.  Essex,  i,  467*. 

55    Ibid.  56   Ibid.  57   Ibid. 

5'  Bk.  of  Fees,   1428;  Genealogist,  N.s. 
xii,  145-51. 
59  Bk.  of  Fees,  235-6,  240,  1428,  1435. 
'"  De   La   Chenaye-Desbois   et    Badier, 

Dictionnaire  de  la  Noblesse,  viii,  39-41. 

6 '  Feet  of  F.  Essex,\,  181. 

'2  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  36;  C.  Moor, 
Knights ofEd-w.  I (Harl.  Soc.  Ixxxi),  ii,  23 ; 
De  La  Chenaye-Desbois  et  Badier, 
Dictionnaire  de  la  Noblesse,  viii,  39-41. 

63   Tax.  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  25. 

6<  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  136,  160. 

65  P.N.  Essex  (E.P.N.S.),  xii,  57;  Feet 
of  F.  Essex,  ii,  123. 

66  L.  &  P.  Hen.  FUI,  x,  p.  420. 

67  C142/147/141;  C142/192/29. 

68  C142/192/29. 

69  CP2<(2)/294  Trin.  10  Jas.  I. 

'»  CP25(2)/4i9    Mich.    19    Chas.    I; 


Sepulchral  Memorials  of  Bobhingivorth,  cd. 
F.  A.  Crisp,  31-33. 

"  CP25(2)/828  Trin.  6  Wm.  &  Mary. 

"  CP25(2)/829  Hil.  9  Wm.  III. 

"  E.R.O.,  Q/RSg  I. 

'■♦  Morant,  Essexy  i,  135.  A  Thomas 
Brand  was  buried  in  Fyfield  in  1718: 
Wright,  Hist.  EsseXy  ii,  339.  He  was  prob- 
ably the  father  of  the  Thomas  Brand  of 
Pickerells  mentioned  by  Morant. 

75  Ibid.;  Hist.  Essex  by  Gent,  iii,  336; 
Complete  Peerage^  iv,  16. 

76  E.R.O..  i2/RPl  685-737 J  ibid. 
D/CT  1+8. 

77  E.R.O.,Q/RPl  709-15. 









—  o 
13     . 




5. a 

: :  :d : 

Jill   ;; 

I  o 









V» . .... 










Stane  of  Forest  Hall,  High  Ongar  (q.v.).^*  Herons 
remained  part  of  the  Forest  Hall  estate  until  that  estate 
was  put  up  for  sale  by  auction  in  191979  In  1842 
Herons  Farm  consisted  of  262  acres  of  which  205  acres 
were  arable.*"  From  1813  until  after  1842  the  occupier 
was  James  Lucking.*'  In  19 19  the  farm  consisted  of 
234  acres  of  arable  and  pasture,  all  of  which  was  let  to 
R.  and  H.  Oliver  at  a  rent  of  ^^3 86  a  year.*^ 

The  site  of  the  original  manor  house,  partly  covered 
by  farm  buildings,  is  south  of  the  existing  farm-house. 
It  was  surrounded  by  a  moat  with  a  second  moated  en- 
closure, perhaps  for  cattle,  to  the  west  of  it.^s  The 
present  house  dates  from  the  late  i8th  or  early  19th 
century  with  a  wing  of  about  1870  on  its  west  side. 
One  of  the  timbered  barns  may  be  of  the  17th  century. 

The  manor  of  LJMPETTS  appears  for  the  first 
time  under  that  name  in  the  15th  century.*'*  It  probably 
derived  the  name  from  Thomas  Lam  pet  (see  below).*' 

The  early  history  of  the  manor  cannot  be  traced  with 
certainty.  It  is  possibly  to  be  identified,  however,  with 
the  manor  which  was  held  in  1066  by  Alestan  and  in 
1086  by  Roger  of  John  son  of  Waleran.**  It  was  then 
held  as  30  acres  and  was  worth  20/.*'  It  is  likely  that 
after  1086  this  small  estate  was  held  of  the  manor  of 
Fyfield.  In  1475  Lampetts  was  held  of  Thomas,  Lord 
Scrope,  lord  of  the  manor  of  Fyfield.**  In  1485  it  was 
said  to  be  worth  40J.*' 

Thomas  Lampet  was  a  tenant  of  the  manor  of  Fyfield 
by  1385  and  from  then  until  at  least  1396  he  was  con- 
tinually presented  for  failing  to  do  suit  at  the  manor 
court.'"  He  was  dead  by  141 1."  In  1412  it  was  re- 
ported that  Isabel  Lampet  held  lands  and  tenements  in 
Fyfield. 9^  Later  the  estate  passed  into  the  ownership  of 
the  Wrytell  family  which  had  connexions  with  the 
Lampetsin  141 1. 'J  In  1473  Walter  Wrytell  apparently 
gave  instructions  that  after  his  death  his  manor  of 
Lampetts  was  to  be  used  for  the  maintenance  of  an  obit 
in  Bobbingworth  church.'^  Later>  however,  he  must 
have  changed  his  mind,  for  at  thet  ime  of  his  death  in 
1475  Lampetts  was  settled,  by  his  demise,  on  his  wife 
Katherine  for  life  with  remainder  to  his  heirs. 's 

After  1475  the  manor  of  Lampetts  followed  the  same 
descent  as  that  of  High  Laver  (q.v.)  until  15 10.  In 
1 5 10  Lampetts  was  allotted  to  Edward  and  Gresilda 
Waldegrave  to  hold  to  them  and  to  the  heirs  of  Gre- 
silda.9'  In  1 539  William  Rochester,  son  of  Gresilda  by 
her  first  husband  John  Rochester,  granted  the  manor  to 
Sir  Richard  Rich,  later  ist  Baron  Rich."  In  1 564  Rich 
conveyed  the  manor  to  John  Waylett.'*  In  1565 
Waylett  granted  it  to  Nicholas  Collins.^'  The  estate 
remained  in  the  Collins  family  until  after  the  death  of 
John  Collins  in  1750.'  He  was  succeeded  by  his  only 
child  Mary  who  brought  the  manor  in  marriage  to 
Jacob  Wragg,  Rector  of  North  Cadbury  (Som.).^  After 
Wragg's  death  in  1785-6  Mrs.  Wragg  held  the  estate 
until  she  died  in  1804-5.3  Her  executors  then  sold  it 

in  1806  to  Ebenezer  Maitland  who  retained  ownership 
until  after  i863.*  In  1842  the  estate  consisted  of  330 
acres. 5  The  manor  house,*  which  stands  on  a  moated 
site,  is  a  timber-framed  structure  of  two  stories.  The 
central  part  was  originally  an  aisled  hall  of  the  14th  cen- 
tury, built  on  an  east-west  axis  and  consisting  of  two  or 
more  bays.  The  cross-wing  at  the  east  end,  which  pro- 
jects slightly  to  the  south,  was  added  in  the  1 5th  century. 
The  division  of  the  hall  into  two  stories  may  have  taken 
place  in  the  i6th  century  and  at  the  same  time  the 
north  aisle  roof  was  replaced  by  two  gables  to  give  light 
to  the  upper  floor;  the  raising  of  the  eaves  level  on  the 
south  side  is  of  much  later  date.  The  small  staircase 
block  in  the  angle  between  the  hall  and  the  east  wing  is 
also  probably  of  the  i6th  century.  The  west  cross-wing 
was  probably  built  or  rebuilt  early  in  the  1 8th  century. 

The  original  14th-century  construction  appears  to  be 
somewhat  later  than  that  at  Fyfield  Hall.  The  position 
of  the  two  longitudinal  plates  marking  the  limits  of  the 
'nave'  can  be  seen  in  the  roof  space.  Below  these  lay  the 
nave  arcades.  The  post  in  the  centre  of  the  arcade  on 
the  south  side  is  still  partly  visible  behind  plaster  in  a 
ground-floor  cupboard.  It  is  octagonal  in  section  and 
about  I  ft.  in  diameter.  The  corresponding  post  of  the 
north  aisle  is  buried  in  a  later  partition.  A  curved 
timber  forming  one  side  of  the  easternmost  arch  of  the 
south  arcade  can  be  seen  both  from  the  roof  space  and 
against  the  later  chimney  breast  on  the  first  floor.  The 
construction  of  the  upper  part  of  the  north  aisle  can  also 
be  traced,  but  several  of  the  timbers  are  missing.  In  the 
roof  space  above  the  nave  all  the  timbers  are  much 
smoke-blackened.  Across  the  centre  is  a  king-post  truss 
with  a  cambered  tie-beam  below  which  were  originally 
two  large  arched  braces.  One  of  these  is  still  in  position. 
The  short  king-post  is  octagonal.  It  has  four-way  struts 
and  a  moulded  capital  and  base.  There  are  indications 
of  a  second  king-post  truss  near  the  west  end  of  the  hall 
where  the  addition  of  the  later  cross-wing  has  cut  into 
the  14th-century  construction.  This  may  represent  the 
site  of  a  demolished  screens  bay.  An  original  doorway 
near  the  east  end  of  the  north  aisle,  however,  suggests 
an  alternative  site  for  the  screens  passage. 

The  roof  of  the  two-story  east  wing  is  divided  into 
three  bays  by  two  original  trusses,  the  timbers  of  which 
are  not  smoke-blackened.  One  of  the  king-posts  is  octa- 
gonal, the  other  octagonal  on  a  square  base  and  both 
have  fairly  elaborate  mouldings.  This  was  almost  cer- 
tainly a  15th-century  solar  wing. 

The  chamfered  beams  which  support  the  inserted 
ceiling  in  the  hall  have  bar-stops  of  the  i6th  or  early 
17th  century.  The  central  chimney  and  one  at  the 
south-east  corner  of  the  house  have  diagonal  shafts  and 
moulded  brickwork  and  are  probably  of  much  the  same 
date.  There  is  panelling  of  a  similar  period  near  the 
west  end  of  the  house.  Most  of  the  fittings  and  panelling 
in  the  west  wing  date  from  the  first  half  of  the  i8th 

'•  E.R.O.,Q/RPl  715-37. 

"  E.R.O.,  Sale  Cat.  A.  225. 

«»  E.R.O.,  D/CT  148. 

«'  E.R.O.,  e/RPl  718-37;  ibid.  D/CT 

82  E.R.0.,5afcCa/.  A.  225. 

"  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Rccs. 

8<  Cat.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  VU,  i,  pp.  61-62, 

«5  Cal  Inq.  f.m.  Hen.  VU,  i,  pp.  61-62, 


*'  y.C.H.  Essex,  i,  545a;  see  above, 
Manor  of  Fyfield. 

«'  V.C.H.  Essex,  i,  545^. 

88  C140/52. 

89  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen,  VU,  i,  pp.  61-62. 
»o  E.R.O.,  D/DCw  M97. 

»i  Eeet  of  F.  Essex,  iii,  256. 

92  FeuJ.  Aids,  vi,  439. 

93  Feet  ofF.  Essex,  iii,  256. 

94  Morant,  Essex,  i,  135. 

95  C140/52;  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  VU,  i, 
pp.  61—62,  383. 

94  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T96/69. 
9'  CP40/1102  rot.  157. 

98  CP25(2)/i27/i624.    Cf.  Blake  Hall 
Manor  in  Bolibingworth. 

99  P.R.O.,  MS.  Cal.  Feet  of  F.  Essex, 


Mich.  7-8  Eliz.  (the  original  final  concord 
is  now  missing). 

■  CP25(2)/i3S/i725;  CP25(2)/922 
Trin.  4  Anne;  C142/481/44.  In  the 
records  the  family  name  is  sometimes  spelt 
Collins,  sometimes  Collin,  and  occasionally 

2  Hist.  Essex  hy  Gent,  iii,  336. 

3  E.R.O.,  Q/RPl  685-710. 

<  E.R.O.,  e/RPl  711-37;  ibid.  D/CT 
148 ;  ibid.  2/RPr  1/27;  fVhite's  Dir.  Essex 

5  E.R.O.,  D/CT  148. 

'  See  pi.  p.  50. 


century.  The  roof  on  the  south  side,  the  present  sash 
windows,  and  other  details  are  of  the  early  19th  cen- 
tury. Part  of  the  house  is  now  in  use  as  a  farmworker's 
dwelling;  the  rest  is  unoccupied. 

The    rectory   of  Fyfield   was   never   appropriated 

although  for  a  long  period  in  the  1 2th  cen- 

CHURCH  tury  the   Cluniac  priory  of  Bermondsey 

(Surr.)  had  the  right  to  receive  the  greater 

part  of  the  tithes  of  the  parish  as  well  as  the  advowson 

of  the  rectory. 

In  1094  Roger,  lord  of  the  manor  of  Fyfield,  with 
the  consent  of  his  overlord  John  son  of  Waleran,  gave 
'the  tithes  of  Fyfield'  to  Bermondsey  priory.'  In  1 107 
or  later  Maud  wife  of  Hasculf  de  Tany  and  her  son 
Graeland  confirmed  this  gift  and  also  granted  to  the 
priory  the  advowson  of  Fyfield  church.*  In  1183 
the  priory  released  the  advowson  to  the  then  lord  of  the 
manor,  Hasculf  son  of  Graeland  de  Tany.  After  this 
the  advowson  was  held  by  the  lords  of  the  manor  of 
Fyfield  until  1 890-1  when  it  was  granted  by  William, 
Earl  Cowley,  to  George  Mayor.'  The  advowson  was 
held  by  Mayor  until  1897  or  1898  after  which  it  was 
held  by  Mrs.  A.  Hewitt  until  1914  or  1915.'"  Mrs.  J. 
Worthington' Atkin  then  held  it  until  1929  or  1930 
after  which  it  was  held  by  Canford  School  (Dors.)." 
The  living  is  now  (1955)  in  the  gift  of  the  Church 
Pastoral  Aid  Society  which  controls  the  Martyrs' 
Memorial  Trust,  of  which  the  Canford  School  Trust 
forms  part.'^ 

In  return  for  the  release  of  the  advowson  in  11 83 
Hasculf  de  Tany  confirmed  to  the  priory  |  of  the  tithes 
from  his  demesne,  together  with  those  from  his  demesne 
assarts  made  or  to  be  made,  and  undertook  to  give  them 
1  acre  of  land  on  which  to  erect  a  tithe  barn,  and  also  to 
secure  to  them  a  perpetual  annuity  of  40J.  payable  by 
the  parson  of  Fyfield."  In  about  1254  it  was  reported 
that  the  rectory  of  Fyfield  was  worth  24  marks  and  that 
the  monks  of  Bermondsey  received  |  of  the  tithes  from 
the  demesne  of  'two  lords  of  that  vill'  as  well  as  40/. 
from  the  parson.'*  In  1291  the  church  of  Fyfield  was 
valued  at  ;^I2;'5  the  prior  of  Bermondsey  had  there  a 
portion  worth  £3  6s.  id.  and  a  pension  of  ^2.'*  In 
1 342  the  prior  of  Bermondsey  brought  an  action  against 
the  parson  of  Fyfield  for  payment  of  the  annuity  of  40^. 
due  to  his  house."  In  1427  the  church  was  still  taxed 
on  the  valuation  of  1 29 1. '8  In  1535  the  abbey  of  Ber- 
mondsey still  held  in  Fyfield  a  pension  and  a  portion 
which  were  then  valued  together  at  ^£4."  At  that  time 
the  rectory  of  Fyfield  was  valued  at  £25  "js.  2^^/.^°  The 
abbey  was  surrendered  on  i  January  1538.^'  In  1650 
the  'improved'  value  of  the  tithes  was  £1 20  and  the 
value  of  the  glebe  lands  and  buildings  £s^."  The 
tithes  were  commuted  in  1842  for  ;^74i;  there  were 
then  64  acres  of  glebe.^3 

Anthony  Walker  D.D.,  Rector  of  Fyfield  from  1650 

until  1692,  helped  in  the  publication  oi Eikon  Basilike 
and  published  various  books  and  sermons.^* 

The  rectory  stands  on  a  large  moated  site  about  400 
yds.  to  the  north-east  of  the  church.  It  is  irregularly 
shaped  and  has  been  altered  and  extended  at  different 
periods.  Running  from  front  to  back  in  the  centre  of 
the  house  is  a  medieval  timber  roof,  probably  represent- 
ing part  of  a  two-storied  cross-wing  of  the  i  5th  century. 
The  north  end  of  the  roof  has  curved  wind-braces  and 
in  the  south  bay  is  an  arch-braced  collar  beam  with  the 
king-post  missing.  East  of  this  roof  and  at  right  angles 
to  it  is  another  timber-framed  wing  which  may  be  of 
medieval  origin.  There  are  additional  wings  of  later 
date  at  the  west  end  of  the  house.  In  the  i8th  century 
the  whole  front  was  faced  with  red  brick  and  there  are 
some  interior  details  of  the  same  period.  In  about  1770 
the  house  was  described  as  'a  large  stately  brick  building 
almost  surrounded  with  a  moat  which,  with  the  house, 
encloses  a  pleasant  garden'.^s  In  1944  blast  from  a  fly- 
ing bomb  caused  considerable  damage  and  in  1952  the 
front  was  rebuilt  in  yellow  brick  and  parts  of  the  roof 
were  renewed.  The  porch  and  the  original  sash  win- 
dows were  replaced. 

Although  this  building  is  certainly  of  medieval  origin, 
in  the  middle  of  the  i6th  century  at  least  the  rector 
lived  in  another  house,  which  was  then  known  as  'the 
parson's  house'  and  was  situated  on  the  south  side  of  the 
church.  In  October  1 546  Robert  Nooke,  then  rector, 
let  to  Humphrey  Nycolls,  servant  to  Sir  Richard  Rich, 
afterwards  ist  Baron  Rich,  for  5 1  years,  at  £2^  Js.  2\d. 
a  year,  the  rectory,  church,  and  parsonage  of  Fyfield, 
reserving,  however,  for  his  own  residence  his  house 
south  of  the  churchyard  called  'the  parsonnes  house'.^* 
By  1610,  however,  the  house  to  the  south  of  the  church 
was  not  regarded  as  the  parsonage-house  for  a  terrier  of 
1610  described  the  rectory  as  including  'a  Parsonage- 
House,  with  two  barns,  and  other  edifices  within  the 
yard,  and  a  house  abutting  upon  the  churchyard,  then 
in  dispute  at  law'.^'  In  1650  the  rectory  was  said  to 
include  'a  parsonage  house,  glebe  lands  and  a  small  tene- 
ment'.^* Whatever  the  source  or  the  outcome  of  the 
dispute  of  1610,  a  property  at  the  south-west  corner  of 
the  churchyard  was  part  of  the  glebe  in  1842  and  re- 
mained so  until  1948,  when  it  was  sold.^'  In  the  late 
19th  century  it  was  known  as  the  Vicarage.^o  The  back 
part  of  the  building  is  timber-framed  and  weather- 
boarded  with  a  tiled  mansard  roof  and  dates  from  the 
1 8th  century,  if  not  earlier.  The  front  was  added  in 
the  19th  century  and  the  building  now  comprises  two 
attached  cottages. 

The  parish  church  of  ST.  NICHOLAS  consists  of 
nave,  north  and  south  aisles,  chancel,  central  tower, 
north  porch,  and  organ  chamber.  The  nave  and  the 
first  stage  of  the  tower  are  mostly  of  flint  rubble  with 
some  Roman  brick.   The  second  stage  of  the  tower  is 

'  Ann.  Mon.  (Rolls  Ser.),  iii,  428, 
430—1.  Roger  held  only  2  of  the  4  manors 
in  Fyfield  at  this  time.  Presumably  his 
grant  was  only  of  his  own  tithes. 

*  Ann.  Mon.  (Rolls  Ser.),  iii,  430-1. 
In  these  annals  the  date  assigned  to 
Maud's  gift  was  1 107.  J.  H.  Round 
thought  this  date  too  early  to  be  probable : 
E.A.T.  N.s.  viii,  104-5. 

«  Ncwcourt,  Repert.  ii,  261-2;  Kelly's 
Dir.  Essex  (1870  f.);  Clergy  List,  1842- 
91 ;  Crockford's  Cler.  Dir.  (1889,  1891). 

'»  Clergf  List,  1892-7;  Kelly's  Dir. 
Essex    (1898!);    Chel.    Dioc.    Tear    Bk. 

"  Clergy  List,  191 6  f.;  Crockford  s  Cler. 

Dir.  (1929,  1930);  Chel.  Dioc.  Year  Bk. 
1937  f. 

"  Chel.  Dioc.  Year  Bk.  I940f.  Inf.  from 
the  Revd.  K.  C.  Stevenson. 

"3  E.A.T.  N.s.  viii,  104-5.  In  1181  the 
parson  of  High  Ongar,  who  had  cure  of 
souls  in  Norton  Mandeville  (q.v.),  paid  to 
the  church  of  Fyfield  a  sack  of  corn  and  a 
sack  of  oats  because  Norton  was  so  near 
to  that  church.  Norton  had  its  own  church 
by  1 1 90,  however. 

'■•  Lunt,  Val.  of  Norwich,  337.  The 
identity  of  one  of  the  'lords  of  that  vill'  is 
uncertain  :  see  Manors  of  Fyfield,  Herons, 
and  Lampetts. 

'5  Tax.  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  21. 


I'  Ibid. 

"  E.A.T.  N.s.  viii,  104. 
'*  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  205. 
>9  Falor  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  ii,  58. 
2"  Ibid,  i,  437. 
"  V.C.H.  Surr.  ii,  74. 
2^  E.R.  xliv,  161. 
»  E.R.O.,  D/CT  148. 
2«  E.R.  iliv,  156-72. 
25  Hist.  Essex  by  Gent,  iii,  334. 
2'  Lond.  Episc.  Reg.  Bonner  f.  87*. 
^7  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  261. 
28  E.R.  xliv,  161. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  148;  inf.  from  present 
30  E.A.T. ti.i.m,  184. 







Fyfield  Church:  Chancel  in  1834 

Lambourne  Church  in  1825 



largely  of  red  brick.  There  is  a  timber  belfry.  The  ex- 
terior of  the  church  is  mostly  covered  with  cement,  now 
in  poor  repair,  and  numerous  buttresses  of  the  i8th  and 
19th  centuries  show  where  weaknesses  have  developed 
in  the  structure.  The  building  differs  in  several  respects 
from  the  type  of  parish  church  found  in  the  district. 
The  1 2th-century  plan  with  the  tower  standing  'cathe- 
dralwise'3'  is  unusual,  and  it  is  evident  that  large  sums 
were  spent  on  improvements  during  the  13  th  and  14th 
centuries.  The  chancel  in  particular  has  some  good 
interior  features. 

The  nave  was  built  in  the  1 2th  century.  The  walling 
at  each  end  of  the  two  arcades  is  3  ft.  thick  and  is  evi- 
dently the  original  1 2th-century  work.  The  lower  part 
of  the  tower  is  of  the  same  date,  including  the  large  stair 
turret  on  the  north  side  reaching  to  the  second  stage. 
The  stair  has  a  circular  newel  of  Roman  brick  and  there 
are  arches  of  Roman  brick  to  the  round-headed  windows 
in  the  south  and  west  walls  of  the  second  stage  of  the 
tower.  The  former  window  has  been  blocked  by  brick- 
work and  the  latter  opens  into  the  roof  space  above  the 
nave.  There  is  one  very  small  rectangular  opening  in 
the  north  wall  of  the  stair  turret,  and  there  are  two  in 
the  east  wall. 

In  about  1220  a  north  aisle  of  three  bays  was  added 
to  the  nave.  The  pointed  arches  are  of  two  chamfered 
orders  and  rest  on  circular  columns  with  moulded  capi- 
tals and  bases.  Attached  half-columns  form  the  responds 
against  the  ends  of  the  1 2th-century  walls.  In  the  middle 
of  the  13th  century  the  south  aisle  was  added.  This  is 
similar  in  general  arrangement  to  the  north  aisle  but  the 
arches  are  moulded  and  the  supporting  columns  are 
octagonal.  The  single-light  window  in  the  west  wall  is 
probably  of  the  13th  century  but  its  four-centred  head 
was  added  later.  There  are  traces  of  colour  decoration 
of  uncertain  date  on  both  arcades. 

The  chancel  was  built  about  1330-40.  The  date 
can  be  fixed  approximately  by  the  detail  of  the  interior. 
All  the  windows  are  of  the  14th  century  and  have 
moulded  labels  and  head  stops.  The  tracery  of  the  east 
window  has  been  replaced,  but  the  fine  carving  of  the  - 
jambs  and  rear  arch  survives.  On  the  north  side  the 
arch  has  beasts  of  the  chase  and  on  the  south  a  series  of 
cowled  heads.  The  jambs  are  carved  with  flowers  and 
leaves  in  high  relief  In  both  north  and  south  walls  are 
two  windows,  the  easternmost  being  two-light  with 
shafts  to  the  internal  splays.  The  other  windows  are 
single  light,  the  sill  of  that  on  the  south  side  being  taken 
down  to  form  a  'low  side'  window.  Between  the  win- 
dows in  the  south  wall  are  stepped  sedilia  of  three  bays. 
The  arches  are  cinquefoiled  and  between  them  are 
octagonal  shafts  of  Purbeck  marble.  The  moulded  label 
has  four  carved  head  stops,  one  head  wearing  a  mitre^^ 
and  anothera  curious  pointed  head-dress  terminating 
in  a  flower.  In  the  spandrel  above  a  third  head  are  three 
balls  carved  in  relief;  it  has  been  suggested  that  these  are 
the  emblems  of  St.  Nicholas."  East  of  the  sedilia  is 
a  piscina  of  similar  detail  and  farther  east  there  is  a 
credence  with  one  jamb  cut  off  by  the  east  wall  of  the 
chancel.34  Below  the  chancel  is  a  vault  which  has  a 
wide  arched  opening  externally  under  the  east  window. 

This  opening  was  sealed  during  the  restoration  of  1 893, 
but  one  account  of  the  church  suggests  that  it  was  for- 
merly pierced  with  quatrefoil  openings,^'  possibly  for 
the  viewing  of  relics.  Another  account,  given  in  1898 
by  the  then  rector,  the  Revd.  L.  Elwyn  Lewis,  referred 
to  the  existence  of  arcading  internally  below  the  east 
window. 3*  The  fact  that  part  of  the  credence  is  now 
cut  off  suggests  that  the  lower  part  of  the  east  wall  has 
been  widened,  perhaps  obliterating  the  arcade. 

Some  windows  were  inserted  elsewhere  in  the  church 
in  the  14th  century.  These  include  one  in  the  south 
wall  of  the  tower  and  the  westernmost  windows  in  the 
north  and  south  aisles.  The  other  aisle  windows  may 
have  been  of  the  same  date,  but  if  so  they  were  replaced 
in  the  19th  century.  The  south  doorway  has  I4th<en- 
tury  splays  and  the  stoup  on  the  north  side  has  a  14th- 
century  trefoiled  head,  probably  taken  from  a  window. 
The  arch  between  the  tower  and  the  nave  is  of  the 
14th  century,  much  restored.  The  responds  have  three 
attached  shafts.  The  north  porch  retains  moulded 
timbers  of  the  late  14th  century  and  a  pointed  timber 
arch  of  which  the  spandrels  were  probably  once  filled 
with  tracery. 

Early  in  the  1 5  th  century  there  were  some  alterations 
at  the  east  end  of  the  north  aisle.  An  east  window  was 
inserted  of  which  the  tracery  is  now  missing;  the  win- 
dow itself  was  blocked  by  the  early  19th  century .3^ 
Also  in  the  15th  century  a  niche  was  built  across  the 
north-east  corner  of  the  aisle.  It  has  an  elaborately 
carved  canopy  with  a  ribbed  vault  and  probably  once 
held  a  figure  of  the  Virgin.^*  The  nave  roof  has  three 
15th-century  trusses;  the  square  king-posts  have  four- 
way  struts  and  two  have  moulded  capitals  and  bases. 

Some  years  before  1768^'  part  of  the  tower  fell,  per- 
haps after  being  struck  by  lightning.'*'*  Before  the  end 
of  the  1 8th  century  the  second  stage  was  largely  rebuilt 
in  red  brick  and  a  window  was  inserted  on  the  north 
side.  Above  the  brickwork  is  a  hipped  roof,  above 
which  is  a  square  weather-boarded  belfry  with  ball 
finials  at  the  corners.  There  is  a  small  boarded  spire. 
The  west  wall  of  the  nave  may  have  been  rebuilt  in  the 
1 8th  century. 

In  the  first  half  of  the  igth  century  a  vestry  was 
formed  by  extending  the  north  aisle  eastward  as  far  as 
the  stair  turret  of  the  tower  .■"  In  1853  the  church  was 
restored*^  and  in  1875  tracery  was  inserted  in  the  east 
window  at  the  expense  of  W.  S.  Horner.*^  In  1 893 
j^i,300  was  spent  on  restoration.^*  Some  blocked  win- 
dows were  uncovered  and  a  new  west  door  and  window 
inserted.  The  window  replaced  a  'hideous  wooden 
structure'  of  the  i8th  century .♦5  Both  the  tower  arches 
were  largely  rebuilt  and  the  chancel  roof  may  have  been 
reconstructed  at  the  same  time.  The  oak  teredos  and 
chancel  seating  were  installed,  the  oak  coming  from 
St.  Paul's,  Knightsbridge.t*  The  seating  in  the  nave  is 
also  of  the  late  19th  century,  incorporating  some  i6th-' 
century  moulded  rails. 

During  the  incumbency  of  the  Revd.  L.  Elwyn  Lewis 
(1895-1905),  who  held  high  church  views,  a  surpliced 
choir  was  started  and  the  old  organ  was  moved  from  the 
west  end  of  the  church  into  the  vestry.'"  In  1 901  a  new 

"  Morant,  Essex,  i,  13;. 

3^  This  perhaps  represents  the  mitred 
Abbot  of  Bermondsey:  E.A.T.  N.s.  vii, 
184.  "  E.A.T.  N.s.  vii,  184. 

M  A  print  of  1834  by  A.  Suckling  shows 
that  the  credence  was  walled-up  at  that 
time:  E.R.O.  Prints,  Fyficld.  See  plate 
facing  p.  53. 

35  Methuen's  Little  Guides:  Essex,  108. 

3'  E.A.T.  N.s.  vii,  185-6. 

37  Ibid.  '*  Ibid- 

3«  Morant,    Essex,   i,    135.     Cf.    Hist. 
Essex  by  Gent.  iii.  337. 

«  E.A.T.  N.s.  vii,  186. 

<■  Ibid.  185. 
*' Kelly's    Dir.    Essex    (1886  f.).     The 


Directory  of  1874  gave  the  year  of 
restoration  as  1852. 

*3  Inscription  in  situ. 

■"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1895). 

*i  E.R.  iii,  6. 

to  Ibid. 

«'  Inf.  from  Mrs.  T.  W.  Gamage  » 
member  of  the  choir  at  the  time. 


organ  was  installed  against  the  north  wall  of  the  tower,''^ 
largely  at  the  rector's  own  expense.'*'  The  vestry  is  now 
an  organ  chamber. 

The  square  font  bowl  of  Purbeck  marble  is  of  the 
kte  1 2th  century.50  Two  of  the  sides  are  decorated 
with  recessed  arcading  and  the  other  two  have  a  central 
fleur-de-lis  flanked  by  vine  leaves. 

The  oak  screen  between  the  nave  and  the  tower  was 
carved  by  A.  J.  B.  Challis  of  Clatterford  Hall  in  19 14.5' 
The  pulpit  is  of  the  same  date. 

There  are  six  bells,  all  modern  or  recast.  One  was 
originally  of  the  1 5th  century,  recast  twice.  The  sixth, 
which  is  inscribed  'Salus  et  Victoria',  was  added  as  a 
war  memorial  and  was  dedicated  in  1952.5^  Under  the 
organ  on  the  north  side  of  the  chancel  there  is  said  to  be 
a  slab  bearing  the  indent  of  a  foliated  cross,  flanked  by 
square  pennons  or  axes.53  There  is  a  tradition  that  this 
covers  the  headless  body  of  Henry,  Lord  Scrope,  be- 
headed in  141 5.5+  Also  in  the  chance!  are  some  18th- 
century  floor  slabs  with  shields  of  arms  to  members  of 
the  Pochin  family  and  to  one  of  the  Beverley  family. 
There  are  also  several  18th-century  slabs  to  the  Collins 
family  of  Lampetts  and  to  the  Brands  of  Herons. 

The  plate  includes  a  large  cup  of  1699  given  by  Dr. 
Anthony  Walker,  one  paten  of  1638  and  another  of 

In  1570  Elizabeth  I  granted  to  Thomas,  2nd  Lord 
Wentworth,  in  fee  such  'concealed'  estates  as  he  could 
discover  to  a  total  annual  value  of  ^^200. 5*  In  March 
1572,  in  fulfilment  of  this  grant,  she  conveyed  many 
concealed  estates,  including  one  in  Fyfield,  to  Richard 
Hill  of  Heybridge  and  William  James  of  London. 5' 
The  Fyfield  estate  consisted  of  3  messuages  or  cottages, 
called  the  Church  Houses,  and  an  acre  belonging,  then 
or  lately  in  the  tenure  or  occupation  of  the  inhabitants 
of  the  vill  of  Fyfield,  appointed  for  the  maintenance  of 
an  obit,  a  guild,  and  other  similar  objects. s  8  Despite 
the  grant  of  1 5  7  2 ,  Fyfield  chu  rch  property  undou  btedly 
included  three  houses  in  the  early  17th  century.  In 
May  1659  it  was  agreed  at  a  vestry  meeting  that  the 
rental  of  the  church  rents,  then  torn  and  defaced,  should 
be  copied  out  'and  be  esteemed  as  the  former  rental 
was'. 5'  The  'Rental  of  the  church  houses  of  Fyfield' 
was  then  copied  into  the  vestry  minute-book.  It  totalled 
j^3  3/.  4a'.  and  included  £1  from  'the  church  house  at 
Widney  Green',  ^^i  from  'the  house  in  Fyfield  street', 
1 5/.  from  'the  house  by  the  church  in  which  the  Clarke 
dwelleth',  3/.  from  'Pyckerells',  zs.  jJ.  from  'Long 
Harry's',  is.  \od.  from  'John  Palmers  houses',  <^d.  from 
'^  a.  meadow  in  moor-mead',  and  id.  from  'the  tene- 
ment called  Hatches'.*"  In  1668  the  'church  field  be- 
longing to  the  church  house  on  Widney  Green  and 
containing  i  a.'  was  let  by  the  churchwardens  to  Henry 
Spooner  for  twelve  years  at  a  rent  of  (jj  for  the  whole 
term  'which  money  was  advanced  and  employed  to- 
wards the  now  [or  new]  building  of  the  church  house 
aforesaid'.*'  In  1687  Dr.  Anthony  Walker  devised  a 
house  called  Bruetts,  in  Fyfield  Street,  for  the  church 

clerk  to  dwell  in  free.*^  By  1710  the  church  house  'by 
the  church'  seems  to  have  been  occupied  by  a  poor  man 
whose  rent  of  ^^i  los.  was  paid  for  him  by  the  parish.*^ 
The  total  of  the  church  rents  was  then  £\  \os.  c,d.,  the 
increase  since  1659  being  due  partly  to  the  higher  rent 
for  the  house  by  the  church  and  partly  to  a  new  item  of 
16/.  for  'thehoppit  by  the  churchyard'.*'*  The  annuities 
amounted  to  6s.  ^d.,  being  zs.  6d.  from  John  Bull  for 
Long  Harris  field,  iid.  from  'Thomas  Palmer',  and  3/. 
'out  of  Pickrills'.*5  By  March  1719  the  rents  totalled 
^5,  there  being  another  fresh  item  of  13^.  for  'the 
hoppett  by  Berrys  Green',  later  known  as  Cannon's 
Green.**  In  February  1720  a  vestry  meeting  agreed 
with  John  Pochin  of  Witney  Green  that  he  should  de- 
molish a  cottage  upon  the  green  belonging  to  the  church 
on  condition  that  he  erected  another  cottage  of  equiva- 
lent value.*' 

In  1786  it  was  stated  that  unknown  donors  had  given 
to  the  parish  for  purposes  also  unknown  'a  rent-charge 
of  6s.  ^d.',  tenements  of  the  then  annual  value  of 
£2  4_f.  yd.  and  land  of  the  then  annual  value  of  j^i  9;'.** 
The  value  of  the  land  was  evidently  the  same  in  1786 
as  it  had  been  in  1719  but  the  value  of  the  houses  was 
apparently  reduced.*' 

In  1835  rents  totalling  ^^12  9/.  from  the  church 
houses  and  lands  as  well  as  annuities  totalling  6s.  ^d. 
went  into  the  churchwardens'  general  account.'"  The 
hoppets  by  the  church  and  on  Cannon's  Green  were 
both  let  to  the  rector  for  i6s.  and  13/.  a  year  respec- 
tively, the  sums  at  which  they  had  been  let  early  in  the 
1 8th  century."  The  church  houses  which  the  overseers 
rented  from  the  churchwardens  at  ^i  I  a  year  for  the 
use  of  the  poor  were  described  in  1835  as  'Street 
House',  a  'house  by  the  church',  and  'a  house  on  Can- 
nons Green'  which  was  said  to  have  been  'built  by  the 
parish  upon  the  site  of  an  old  house,  of  which  the  rent 
used  to  go  to  the  churchwarden's  account'.'^  The 
church  cottage  on  Witney  Green,  whose  demolition 
had  been  ordered  in  1720,  had  apparently  been  re- 
placed by  a  house  on  Cannon's  Green  which,  it  would 
seem,  was  rebuilt  before  1835.  By  1842,  however,  the 
church  owned  only  two  cottages.'^  One  of  them  was 
on  the  east  side  of  the  church,  fronting  upon  Church 
Lane,  and  was  undoubtedly  the  house  which  had  ap- 
peared as  'by  the  church'  in  the  rentals  drawn  up  before 
and  after  1659.''*  The  other  cottage,  situated  imme- 
diately north  of  the  Black  Bull  Inn'5  on  what  is  now 
known  as  Dunmow  Road,  is  probably  to  be  identified 
with  'Street  House'.  The  church  still  owned  some  land 
at  Cannon's  Green  in  1842,  but  by  that  time  it  had 
apparently  disposed  of  its  house  there.'*  The  hoppet 
south  of  the  churchyard  still  belonged  to  the  church." 

In  1903  part  (c.  29  p.)  of  the  meadow  called  Church 
Hoppet,  situated  south  of  the  churchyard,  was  sold 
for  £1 4  to  the  parish  council  for  use  as  a  burial  ground.'* 
When  the  sale  was  made  it  was  established  in  the 
face  of  some  doubt  that  the  trustees  of  the  church 
estate  were  the  churchwardens:  in  fact  then  and  in  1922 

<'  E.R.  ix,  174. 

■•9  Inf.  from  Mrs.  T.  W.  Gamage. 

50  There  are  similar  bowls  at  Moreton, 
Little  Laver,  and  Norton  MandeviUe. 

5'  Tablet  in  situ. 

5*  Inf.  from  present  rector. 

"  E.A.T.  N.8.  viii,  257;  Hist.  Essex  by 
Gent,  iii,  334. 

5*  Hist.  Essex  by  Gent,  iii,  334;  inf.  from 
present  rector. 

55  Ch.  Plate  of  Essex,  135. 

5«  C66/1083  m.  7. 

5'  Ibid. 

58  Ibid.  m.    21. 
5«  E.R.O.,  D/Pi44/g/i. 
'»  Ibid. 
'■  Ibid. 

*2  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  H.C.  216, 
pp.  225-7(1835),  xxi(i). 
'3  E.R.O.,  D/P  144/8/1. 
<•*  Ibid. 
<'5  Ibid. 

"  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

"  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  pp.  227-8. 

"  Cf.  Morant,  Essex,  \,  135,  where  the 
charities  were  said  to  include  'Six  pounds 
a  year  towards  the  reparation  of  the 
church,  the  donor's  name  unknown'. 

">  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  pp.  227-8. 

"  Ibid. 

'2  Ibid. 

'3  E.R.O.,  D/CT  148. 

'♦  Ibid. 

"  Ibid. 

'6  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

'8  Char.  Com.  files. 




the  'parish  warden' — presumably  the  people's  warden 
— acted  as  trustee,  though  later  the  rector  and  parochial 
church  council  took  some  share  in  the  administration  of 
the  estate."  In  1922  a  further  part  (i  r.,  12  p.)  of 
Church  Hoppet  was  sold  for  {jio  to  the  parish  council 
also  for  use  as  a  burial  ground.*" 

From  the  latter  part  of  the  19th  century  until  shortly 
after  1930  a  small  outbuilding  at  the  back  of  the  cottage 
near  the  Black  Bull  Inn  was  let  as  a  separate  dwelling.*' 
In  about  1930  the  three  dwellings  were  let  for  a  total 
of  about  £i<).^^ 

In  1 947  the  cottage,  then  known  as  Walker  Cottage, '3 
on  the  east  side  of  the  church,  was  sold  for  ;£i90,  most 
of  which  went  to  repay  Dr.  Walker's  School  Founda- 
tion and  the  parochial  church  council  for  money  spent 
on  it  in  the  past.**  The  residue  was  invested.** 

In  195 1  the  charity  was  divided  into  two:  one  part, 
the  Church  Estate,  had  an  endowment  of  ^^50  14/., 
presumably  arising  from  the  sales  of  church  land,  of 
which  the  income  was  used  for  general  church  pur- 
poses.** The  other  is  known  as  the  Charity  for  the 
Poor,  and  has  an  endowment  of  ^^61  4/.  312'.,  which  was 
provided  by  the  sale  of  the  'Walker  Cottage'.*'  Its 
income  was  to  be  devoted  to  the  poor  of  the  parish, 
since  the  cottages  of  the  charity  were  in  1834  used  for 
the  benefit  of  the  poor.** 

The  cottage  north  of  the  Black  Bull  Inn  still  belongs 
to  the  church  but  is  at  present  up  for  sale.*' 

Fyfield  was  one  of  the  places  at  which  a  new  Congre- 
gational church  or  school  was 
NONCONFORMITT  started  soon  after  the  formation 
of  the  Essex  Congregational 
Union  in  1798.90  There  was,  however,  no  mention  of 
such  a  church  or  school  at  Fyfield  in  the  returns  of 
1829.  A  nonconformist  mission  hall  was  opened  in  the 
village  in  1894  and  is  still  in  use."'  It  is  a  small  red- 
brick building  bearing  that  date. 

Medieval  court  rolls  for  the  manor  of  Fyfield  survive 

for  the  periods  1 3  8  5-97, 

PARISH  GOVERNMENT  i40i-4,and  1413-43." 

AND  POOR  RELIEF         In  the  14th  century  the 

number  of  courts  held 
each  year  varied  between  2  and  4.  Usually  two  of 
them  included  view,  of  frank-pledge.  In  the  1 5  th  cen- 
tury courts  were  usually  held  twice  a  year,  at  Easter 
and  Whitsun,  and  nearly  always  included  view  of 
frank-pledge.  The  homage  numbered  12  or  more. 

The  courts  were  largely  concerned  with  the  control 
of  trade.  The  commonest  subject  of  presentment  was 
breach  of  the  assize  of  ale ;  the  offenders  against  this 
assize  were  often  women,  who  were  presented  year 
after  year  on  the  same  charge.  Breach  of  the  assize  of 
bread  was  also  frequently  presented.  Occasionally  fines 
were  imposed  on  regrators.  Apart  from  trade  offences, 
the  most  common  subjects  of  presentment  at  the  courts 
were  the  failure  to  scour  wayside  ditches  and  the  ob- 
struction of  watercourses.  Small  fines  were  sometimes 
imposed  for  minor  assaults. 

Two  constables  and  two  aletasters  were  chosen  at  the 
Easter  court  in  most  years.  Aletasters  were  often  fined 
for  inefficiency. 

"  Ibid. 

80  Ibid. 

"  Church  Account  Book  in  possession 
of  rector  J  local  information. 

*^  Church  Account  Book;  Char.  Com. 

»3  This  name  seems  to  have  originated 
in  the  confusion,  apparent  for  some  time 
past,  between  the  Church  Estate  Charity 

and  those  founded  by  Dr.  Anthony  Walker 
in  the  17th  cent. 
«♦  Char.  Com.  files. 

85  Ibid. 

86  Ibid. 

87  Ibid. 

88  Ibid. 

The  modern  series  of  court  rolls  for  Fyfield  run«, 
with  some  short  breaks,  from  1509  until  1 865.91  In 
the  first  half  of  the  i6th  century  courts  were  held  in 
most  years  and  often  twice  in  a  year.  From  the  middle 
of  the  i6th  century  until  about  1640  they  were  held 
once  a  year.  They  usually  included  view  of  frank- 
pledge. After  1 640  courts  were  no  longer  held  annually 
and  did  not  always  include  view  of  frank-pledge.  In 
the  second  half  of  the  17th  century  there  were  23  courts 
of  which  1 3  included  the  view.  In  the  1 8th  century 
courts  which,  nominally  at  least,  included  view  of  frank- 
pledge, took  place  in  1703,  1709,  171 1,  and,  for  the 
last  time,  in  1749. 

Most  of  the  business  transacted  at  the  courts  after 
1509  concerned  minor  nuisances  and  breaches  of 
manorial  custom.  In  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII  the  pre- 
sentment of  breaches  of  the  assizes  of  bread  and  ale 
were  still  common.  There  were  still  occasional  present- 
ments for  assault  until  1617.  In  1585  a  man  was  pre- 
sented for  'keeping  bad  order'  in  his  house.  Towards 
the  end  of  the  i6th  century  the  number  of  presentments 
of  nuisances  declined  markedly.  After  1 589  there  were 
rarely  more  than  two  or  three  such  presentments  at  any 
one  court.  From  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Charles  I 
there  were  frequently  no  leet  presentments  even  when 
the  court  nominally  included  view  of  frank-pledge. 

In  the  17th  century,  particularly  in  the  latter  half, 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  manor  court  was  yielding  to  that 
of  the  parish  vestry.  In  1626  the  manor  court  ordered 
that  no  one  should  demise  any  cottage  within  the  manor 
to  any  person  living  outside  Fyfield  and  no  one  should 
entertain  any  pauper  from  outside  the  parish  without 
leave  from  the  churchwardens,  overseers,  and  the 
parishioners.  In  1647  the  manor  court  elected  as  con- 
stables Thomas  Gynne  and  John  Church  who  in  1648 
rendered  an  account  to  the  parish  vestry.'*  Afterwards 
the  constables  continued  to  account  to  the  vestry"' 
although  they  were  sometimes  appointed  in  the  manor 
court  until  the  last  decade  of  the  17th  century.  A  court 
appointed  R.  Church  and  J.  Church  as  constables  in 
1654.  No  appointments  were  made  by  the  next  court 
leet  which  was  held  in  May  1656;  it  does  not  appear 
what  body  appointed  I.  Allam  and  A.  Kent  who  were 
constables  from  1657,  if  not  before,  until  166 1.  A 
court  leet  chose  two  constables  in  1661  and  one  in  1662 
'for  the  parish  of  Fyfield'.  The  rolls  do  not  record  any 
further  appointments  by  the  manor  court  until  1692. 
On  the  other  hand,  until  1680  the  vestry  minutes  did 
not  include  the  constables  in  the  lists  of  appointments 
and  reappointments  made  by  the  vestry.9*  In  1680, 
however,  it  was  recorded  that  at  a  meeting  of  the  parish 
on  Easter  Monday  all  the  old  officers,  including  the 
constables,  were  'continued  for  the  following  year'.'' 
In  168 1,  shortly  before  a  court  leet,  a  vestry  meeting 
chose  two  new  constables  for  the  year  1681-2,'*  but 
the  next  court  leet,  which  was  held  in  May  1692,  chose 
two  constables.  The  following  court  leet,  held  in 
October  1696,  also  chose  T.  Luck  and  E.  Havers  as 
constables  for  the  parish.  It  may  be,  however,  that  the 
court  merely  confirmed  appointments  made  at  a  vestry 
meeting  earlier  in  the  year,  for  in  the  vestry  minutes  it 

The  Nook  at  Norwood  End  (see  above, 
p.  44)  may  have  been  used  as  the  church, 
or  school. 

"  Kelly's  Dir.  Eitex  (1933). 

92  E.R.O.,  D/DCw  M97-101. 

"  E.R.O.,D/DCw  M 102-15. 

»♦  E.R.O.,J>/P  1+4/8/1. 

89  Inf.  from  present  rector. 
9»  R.   Burls,  Essex   Congr. 

Union  i    19. 

95  Ibid. 
»'  Ibid. 

9'  Ibid. 
98  Ibid. 



was  recorded  that 'T.  Luck  and  E.  Havers  were  chosen 
as  constables  for  the  year  1696'."  The  rolls  record  no 
later  appointments  of  constables  in  the  manor  court. 

Two  vestry  minute-books  survive."  The  first  covers 
the  period  1648-1732.  The  second  contains  overseers' 
accounts  from  1827  to  1836  and  vestry  minutes  from 
1854  to  1890. 

During  the  period  1648-1732  meetings  of  the  pubhc 
vestry  usually  seem  to  have  been  held  only  at  Easter  in 
each  year.  In  only  seven  years  in  the  whole  of  this 
period  was  more  than  one  meeting  recorded  and  in  only 
two  of  these  years  were  as  many  as  three  meetings  re- 
corded. If  a  resolution  of  1704  was  carried  out,  how- 
ever, there  must  have  existed  from  that  time  a  select 
committee  which  met  often  in  each  year:  the  vestry 
ordered  'that  there  be  always  three  persons  chosen  by 
a  vestry  at  Easter  to  assist  the  churchwardens  in  the  re- 
pair of  the  church  and  that  the  overseers  of  the  poor  and 
constables  and  churchwardens  shall  not  disburse  above 
20s.  without  an  order  of  vestry  or  the  major  part  of  the 
three  persons  with  the  churchwardens'. 

The  vestry  minutes  were  usually  signed  only  when 
there  was  an  important  resolution.  The  number  of 
those  attending  the  meetings,  in  addition  to  the  church- 
wardens and  overseers,  usually  varied  between  one  and 
seven  but  on  five  occasions  there  were  more  than  ten. 
The  chairman  was  never  named  as  such  in  the  minutes. 
The  rector  signed  first  when  he  attended  the  meetings, 
but  there  were  some  important  meetings  which  he  did 
not  attend.  In  his  absence  one  of  the  larger  landowners 
signed  first.  Members  of  the  Collins  family,  of  Lam- 
petts,  were  always  prominent  at  the  meetings,  and  John 
Collins  often  signed  first,  or  first  after  the  rector. 

The  work  of  the  vestry  consisted  mainly  in  nominat- 
ing parish  officers,  granting  rates,  and  approving  officers' 
accounts.  There  were  usually  two  men  in  each  office. 
Until  1672  the  overseers  sometimes  continued  in  office 
for  three  or  more  years.  After  1672  they  often  served 
two  years  consecutively  but  rarely  more.  The  church- 
wardens and  constables  usually  remained  in  office  for 
at  least  two  years  and  often  for  much  longer.  The  over- 
seers, churchwardens,  and  constables  were  each  granted 
separate  rates  for  which  they  accounted  separately 
throughout  the  period  1648-1732.  Until  1672  the 
overseers  sometimes  presented  several  years'  accounts 
at  once.  After  1672  they  always  presented  annual 
accounts.  The  churchwardens  and  constables,  on  the 
other  hand,  occasionally  presented  two  or  even  three 
years'  accounts  in  one  until  the  end  of  the  period  covered 
by  the  first  vestry  minute-book. 

In  1662-3  the  constables' receipts  from  rates  totalling 
6ti.  in  the  pound  were  ,^28  13J.  2d.  This  implies  a 
rateable  value  of  about  j^i, 1 50.  In  1669-72,  however, 
a  2</.  rate  yielded  ^^i  i  12/.  3a'.  This  implies  a  rateable 
value  of  about  ^^1,394  and  this  continued  to  be  the 
rateable  value  until  after  1690.  In  the  period  1827-36 
the  rateable  value  was  about  j^i,750. 

In  1835  the  parish  owned  three  houses  known  as  the 
'Poorhouses'  and  for  which  the  overseers  paid  to  the 
churchwardens  ;^i  I  a  year.^  'Street  House'  and  a  house 
on  the  east  side  of  the  churchyard  were  occupied  rent- 
free  by  poor  women,  placed  there  by  the  parish  officers.' 

w  Ibid. 

•  E.R.O.,  D/P  1+4/8/1-2.  Unless 
otherwise  stated  all  the  following  informa- 
tion is  derived  from  these  minute-books. 

2  Rep.  Com.  Char.  {Essex),  H.C.  216, 
p.  228  (1835),  xxi  (i);  E.R.O.,  D/P 
144/8/2.  The  church  had  owned  3  houses 
since  the   i6th  cent.,  if  not  before:  see 

above,  Church.  Another  house,  called 
Bruetts,  was  devised  by  Dr.  Anthony 
Walker  in  1687  for  the  church  clerk  to 
live  in  free;  since  1873  this  has  been 
occupied  by  the  parish  clerk :  see  below, 

3  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  p.  228. 

♦  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  i/io.  The  number  of 

It  does  not  appear  how  the  third  house,  on  Cannon's 
Green,  was  used,  but  it  may  have  been  a  workhouse. 
There  is  no  doubt,  however,  that  in  most  cases  poor 
relief  was  given,  in  various  forms,  outside  a  workhouse. 
In  1813-15  there  was  no  person  on  'permanent  rehef 
inside  a  workhouse,  but  in  each  of  those  years  there  were 
41-43  adults  on  permanent  relief  outside.''  Provision 
for  the  poor  was  made  in  various  ways,  including  the 
binding  out  of  paupers'  children  as  apprentices  and  the 
payment  of  rents  and  weekly  doles.  In  171 1  the  rents 
of  1 1  poor  persons  were  paid,  the  total  cost  to  the  parish 
being  £12  14^.:  in  addition  weekly  doles,  amounting  to 
^i  OS.  8</.,  were  paid  to  10  households  of  whom  4  also 
had  their  rent  paid.  In  one  case  at  least,  early  in  the 
1 8th  century,  a  pauper  was  allotted  to  parishioners  on 
a  rota  system.  In  1708  it  was  agreed  at  a  vestry  meeting 
that  if  'Thomas  Ashfeld,  a  poor  fellow  that  is  to  go 
about  the  parish  by  a  former  agreement,  should  fall  sick 
or  lame  in  any  place  that  he  goes  to  he  shall  not  lie  alto- 
gether upon  those  persons  where  he  is  present  but  that 
it  shall  be  at  the  charge  of  the  whole  parish'.  In  1721, 
when  the  same  Thomas  Ashfeld  was  put  on  an  eight- 
year  rota  of  some  3  2  parishioners,  there  was  a  similar 
resolution  to  the  effect  that  'if  any  sickness  or  lameness 
should  happen  during  these  years  it  shall  be  at  the  cost 
of  the  parish  and  likewise  his  clothing'. 

Under  the  Commonwealth  the  total  cost  of  poor 
relief  usually  varied  between  ^^i  5  and  ;£2  5  a  year. 
From  1675  until  1693  it  was  frequently  between  ,^30 
and  ^^40  a  year.  No  figures  survive  for  1693—6.  From 
Easter  1696  until  Easter  1701,  however,  it  averaged 
about  ^100  a  year.  These  expensive  years  were  fol- 
lowed by  five  years  in  which  the  cost  ranged  between 
;^7i  and  £85  a  year.  In  1706-7  it  rose  to  a  new  maxi- 
mum of  j^ii7.  In  April  1707  the  vestry  ordered  the 
badging  of  the  poor  according  to  law  (8  and  9  William 
III,  c.  30  (1697))  and  ordered  that  an  inventory  should 
be  made  of  every  pauper's  goods.  There  was  a  slight 
decline,  to  £10^,  in  the  cost  of  rehef  in  the  following 
year  and  at  Easter  1708  the  vestry  agreed  'that  if  any 
overseer  in  the  parish  shall  relieve  any  person  by  a 
weekly  collection  that  does  not  wear  the  badge  or  come 
themselves  for  their  collection  unless  they  are  sick  or 
lame,  the  said  overseer  shall  forfeit  the  sum  of  40/.' 
Nevertheless  the  cost  of  rehef,  after  remaining  at  ;^I03 
for  two  more  years,  began  to  rise  again  in  1710— 1 1  and 
in  171 5-16  reached  £142.  In  the  next  year  it  fell  again 
to  j/^103.  From  1717  until  1731  it  fluctuated  between 
;^69  and  ;£lo8.  No  figures  survive  for  1731-75.  In 
1776  expenses  were  ;^i  56  and  the  average  for  the  three 
years  1783-5  was  ,£^2 6 8. 5  In  1800-1  the  cost  of  relief 
was  ;£765.  It  fell  to  a  minimum  of  ,^324  in  1807-8, 
and  rose  to  ;^6  8  3  in  i8i3-i4andj^6i3  in  18 16-17.*  In 
the  years  1827-3  2  it  was  between  ;^500  and  i^6oo  each 
year.  It  then  declined  to  about  ^{^3  50  a  year  in  1834-6. 
In  June  1836  Fyfield  became  part  of  the  Ongar  Poor 
Law  Union. 

In  1687  Dr.  Anthony  Walker,  Rector  of  Fyfield,  de- 
vised a  house  and  about  J  acre  of  land  in 
SCHOOLS    Fyfield  and  a  farm  of  56  acres  in  High 
Ongar,  mainly  for  the  support  of  a  free 
school  for  poor  children.'  For  ;^8  a  year  and  the  use  of 
persons  'relieved  occasionally'  was  32  in 
181 3,  37  in  1 8 14,  and  29  in  1815. 
s  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  i/i. 
6  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  1/9. 
'  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  H.C.  216, 
pp.    225-7    (i^SS)'   ™   (')•     ^°'   other 
minor  charges  on  the  charity  income  see 
above.  Church  and,  below.  Charities. 




the  larger  of  the  two  tenements  called  Bruetts  in  Fyfield 
Street,  the  teacher  was  to  instruct  pupils  in  reading, 
writing,  arithmetic,  and  the  catechism  and  to  supervise 
them  in  prayer.* 

The  history  of  the  school  is  obscure  until  1807  when 
15  pupils  attended  it.  They  were  then  being  taught 
according  to  the  founder's  direction,  the  girls  learning 
plain  needle-work  in  addition.  Any  child  might  attend 
whom  the  rector  and  churchwardens  judged  to  be 
poor.'  Where  the  school  was  held  is  not  clear;  it  may 
have  been  in  the  master's  house.  By  1 8 1 8  the  managers 
were  planning  to  expand  the  school.  The  charity  in- 
come had  recently  increased  and  the  master,  now  paid 
j^i6  a  year,  also  took  paying  pupils. ■"  In  1819  a  new 
schoolroom  was  built  for  ,^170  from  the  accumulated 
surplus  of  the  charity  income.  It  was  behind  the  master's 
house  in  Fyfield  Street,  had  a  playground  attached,  and 
could  accommodate  70  children."  There  was  no  im- 
mediate increase  in  attendance,  however;  in  1827—8 
there  were  still  only  i  5  free  pupils.'^ 

From  about  1830  the  number  of  pupils  increased. 
In  1832  there  were  21  and  in  1833  49,  some  of  whom 
paid  fees.  The  charity  income  was  then  £47,  the 
master's  salary  ;^32.  The  only  other  school  in  Fyfield 
was  one  with  four  pupils.'^  By  1835  there  were  30  free 
pupils  at  Walker's  school,  almost  all  of  them  children  of 
Fyfield  labourers,  and  25  paying  pupils,  of  whom  12 
were  boarders.  The  curriculum  was  as  in  1807  except 
that  the  boys  were  taught  some  history  and  geography. 
The  master,  who  still  received  £l'2;  paid  two  assistants 
and  hired  an  additional  classroom,  presumably  for  his 
paying  pupils.  He  also  supplied  pens,  ink,  and  fuel. 
No  poor  child  was  refused  a  place  on  denominational 
grounds,  but  all  the  free  pupils  attended  church  and 
were  taught  the  catechism.  Trustees  were  in  control, 
with  the  rector  as  treasurer.'''  The  school  was  united 
to  the  Diocesan  Board  of  Education's  and,  at  least 
between  1 807  and  1 847,  was  administered  jointly  with 
the  Sunday  school.'*  It  has  subsequently  been  regarded 
as  a  Church  school,  as  it  probably  had  been  from  its 
inception,  but  it  appears  not  to  have  been  in  union  with 
the  National  Society. '^ 

Until  the  Education  Act  of  1870  there  was  little 
change  from  the  conditions  of  1837,  except  that  the 
boarding  establishment  was  probably  discontinued  at 
some  point;  in  1 863  there  was  another  boarding-school 
in  the  village.' *  In  1867  there  were  76  pupils  under  a 
master  and  mistress,"  but  in  1871  there  were  only 
about  56.^"  In  1871  it  was  reported  that  the  school 
could  provide  57  of  the  94  places  necessary  to  ensure 
universal  education  in  Fyfield.^'  In  1875  a  new  school 
was  built  near  the  site  of  the  old.^^  The  estimate  of  cost 
was  ;C550-  Charity  property  was  mortgaged  for  ,£400 
and  the  deficit  met  by  a  voluntary  rate.^^  Average 
attendance  increased  slightly  until   1891,  when  the 

building  was  enlarged  to  provide  130  places.^  The 
average  attendance  was  83  in  1893  and  74  in  1905.M 

The  school  had  received  a  goverpraent  grant  oi  £6\ 
in  1880  and  this  rose  to  j^i  10  in  1899.^*  After  the 
Education  Act  of  1902  the  school  passed  under  the 
administration  of  the  Essex  Education  Committee  as  a 
non-provided  school.  After  a  further  fall  to  58  in  1910 
the  average  attendance  rose  to  78  in  1920  and  84  in 
1929.  In  1926  the  annual  income  was  nearly  jC6o." 
In  1936  the  school  was  reorganized  for  mixed  juniors 
and  infants.  In  1948  the  managers  applied  for  aided 
status.28  In  May  1952  there  were  three  teachers  and 
89  children.29 

The  school  is  a  single-story  brick  building  on  a  T- 
shaped  plan.  The  larger  of  the  two  tenements  called 
Bruetts  is  still  the  schoolmaster's  house.  This  was  re- 
built in  the  late  i8th  or  early  19th  century. 

West  Ham  County  Borough  Council  Residential 
Open  Air  School  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  ^£8,000  in 
1885.3°  It  was  certified  in  May  1885  as  an  Industrial 
School  for  boys,  not  to  exceed  no  in  number.-"  In 
April  1925  it  was  converted  to  a  residential  open-air 
school  for  80  boys.'^  In  193 1  it  was  enlarged  to  take 
60  girls  in  addition. '^  The  school  consists  of  a  consider- 
able collection  of  buildings.  The  main  block  is  two  to 
three  stories  high  and  of  gault  brick  with  red-brick 

For  the  'Unknown  Donors  or  Church  Estate  Charity' 
see  above — Church. 
CHARITIES  In  1687  Dr.  Anthony  Walker,  Rec- 
tor of  Fyfield,  devised  property  in 
Fyfield  and  High  Ongar^'t  for  the  provision  of  a  school" 
and  a  rent-free  house  for  the  church  clerk,  and  for  the 
benefit  of  the  poor.  In  1834^^2  12/.  was  distributed  to 
the  poor  in  bread.  This  part  of  the  charity,  however, 
seems  to  have  disappeared  later,  since  by  1905  the 
whole  of  the  endowment  was  held  for  educational  pur- 
poses except  the  clerk's  house  and  a  small  yearly  sum 
for  its  maintenance. 

The  house  left  for  the  clerk  was  the  smaller  of  the 
two  tenements  called  Bruetts,  in  Fyfield  Street,  the 
larger  being  for  the  schoolmaster  or  dame.  In  1873  it 
was  disputed  whether  the  charity  was  for  the  church 
clerk  or  the  parish  clerk ;  the  decision  went  in  the  church 
clerk's  favour,  and  the  house  is  still  occupied  by  his 
successor.  In  1949  the  school  charity  and  the  parochial 
church  council  both  advanced  money  for  the  repair  of 
the  house,  which  had  been  little  altered  for  some  cen- 
turies. It  is  timber-framed  with  a  steep  roof  and  dates 
from  the  i6th  century  or  earlier.^* 

John  Collins,37  by  will  dated  1 75 1,'*  left  a  field  in 
Moreton  to  the  poor  of  Fyfield.  It  was  let  at  ^^5  a  year 
in  1834  and  in  1907,  when  it  was  sold  for  ;^I20  which 
was  invested.  In  1834  the  income  was  spent  on  bread, 
distributed  with  Walker's  Charity,  and  on  l^.  doles  to 

'  Ref).  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  pp.  225-6. 
«  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  2/4.. 

'0  Reim.  Educ.  Poor,  H.C.  224,  p.  256 

"  Re/>.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  pp.  226-7. 

■2  Nat.Soc.  Ref.  1828,  p.  53. 

'3  Educ.  Enquiry  Ahstr.  H.C.  62,  p.  276 
(1835),  xli;  Nat.  Soc.  Rep.  1832,  p.  50. 

'«  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  pp.  226-7. 

"  Nat.  Soc.  Enquiry  into  Church  Schs. 
1 846-7,  pp.  8-9. 

">  Ibid.;  Nat.  Soc.  Reps.  1828,  1832; 
E.R.O.,  D/AEM  2/4. 

"  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/127. 

'»  ffhite's  Dir.  Essex  (1863). 

'•>  y.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  561. 

20  Retns.  Elem.  Educ.  H.C.  201,  pp. 
112-13  (1871),  Iv. 

21  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/127. 

22  O.S.  6  in.  Map  (ist  cdn.),  sheet  xlii. 
«  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/127. 

24  Rep.  of  Educ.  Cttee.  of  Council,  1880 
[C.  2948-1],  p.  577.  H.C.  {1881),  xxxii; 
Rep.  of  Educ.  Cttee.  Council,  1886  [C. 
5123-1],  p.  5'9.  H.C.  (1887),  xxviii. 

25  Retn.  Schools,  1893  [C.  7529],  p.  714, 
H.C.  (1894),  Ixv;  Min.  of  Educ.  File 

2'  Rep.  of  Educ.  Cttee.  of  Council,  1880, 
p.  577;  Retn.  Schools,  1899  [Cd.  315], 
p.  70,  H.C.  (1900),  Ixv  (2). 

"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (i^zd). 


28  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/127. 

2'  Inf.  from  Essex  Educ.  Cttee. 

3"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1926).  For  this 
school  see  D.  McDougall,  Fifty  Tears  a 
Borough:  the  Story  of  West  Ham,  103-4, 
122  f.  3"  Ibid. 

^^  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (\<)-i,-^.         33  Ibid. 

3*  See  Frith  Hall  in  High  Ongar. 

35  Sec  above.  Schools. 

36  Ref.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  H.C.  216. 
pp.  225-7  ('^3S)>  *"  (')>  Char.  Com. 

3'  Ibid.j  Hist.  Essex  by  Gent,  iii,  336-7. 

3*  This  date,  given  in  Rep.  Com.  Char, 
(Esfex),  p.  2*27,  is  evidently  a  mistake. 
Collins  died  in  Sept.  1750. 


widows  and  other  poor  persons.  The  bread  doles  were 
stopped  in  1917  under  a  scheme  of  191 5.  In  1935  the 
income  of  ^^3  1 1/.  8a'.  was  distributed  in  small  sums  of 
cash  and  the  same  practice  appears  to  have  been  fol- 
lowed since. 

The  Revd.  Robert  Gibson,  by  will  proved  1 840,  left 
;^20o  in  trust  for  distribution  among  the  poor  of  the 

parish,  preferably  those  who  were  sober  and  industrious 
and  attended  church  regularly.  Charlotte  Gibson,  by 
will  proved  1859,  left  £200  in  trust  for  the  yearly  dis- 
tribution of  blankets,  sheets,  coals,  or  clothing  to  the 
poor  of  the  parish.  These  two  charities  have  generally 
been  distributed  together.  In  1950  the  income  of  ^^5 
from  each  was  given  away  in  food  and  clothing.39 


Greenstead  is  a  small  parish  adjoining  Chipping 
Ongar  to  the  west.'  From  1 548  to  1554  it  was  united 
with  Chipping  Ongar.^  Its  population  has  always  been 
small  until  the  last  20  years.  In  1801  it  was  102,  and 
in  193 1,  119.  The  population  in  195 1  was  785,  the 
large  increase  being  mainly  accounted  for  by  the  build- 
ing of  houses  on  the  estate  adjoining  Chipping  Ongar.' 
The  main  centres  of  population  are  at  the  east  and  west 
ends  of  the  parish,  not  in  the  centre  by  the  hall  and  the 

The  land  rises  from  about  200  ft.  above  sea-level  in 
the  east  to  300  ft.  in  the  west.  A  stream  which  rises  in 
the  west  flows  east  to  join  Cripsey  Brook  near  the 
north-east  corner.  Greenstead  Wood  is  in  the  west, 
between  the  stream  and  the  north  boundary.  The 
road  from  Chipping  Ongar  enters  Greenstead  in  the 
south-east  and  runs  through  the  parish  to  Greenstead 
Green  in  the  north-west.  At  the  Ongar  end  of  this 
road  there  is  a  small  built-up  area,  mostly  of  the  19th 
century  and  later.  To  the  north  of  this  is  a  large  hous- 
ing site  consisting  of  100  privately  built  houses,  30 
post-1945  council  houses,  and  two  groups  of  pre- 
fabricated houses. 

The  rectory  lies  on  the  road  about  |  mile  from 
Ongar.  To  the  west  of  it,  lying  close  together  to  the 
north  of  the  road,  are  the  parish  church  and  Green- 
stead Hall.  They  are  joined  to  Ongar  by  an  avenue  of 
trees  about  a  mile  long.'' 

There  are  a  number  of  houses  at  Greenstead  Green. 
Little  Thorbens  (now  called  The  Cottage)  is  a  small 
two-story  timber-framed  house  with  a  cross-wing  and 
an  overhanging  gable  at  its  west  end.  The  date  1564 
is  cut  on  one  of  the  roof  timbers. 5  Blackstock  House 
and  Tudor  Cottage  formerly  made  up  a  single  house, 
named  New  House.  Tudor  Cottage  is  timber-framed 
and  partly  weather-boarded,  and  dates  from  the  late 
1 6th  or  early  17th  century.  Blackstock  House,  on  the 
west,  is  a  gault  brick  addition  dating  from  about  1870. 
Greenstead  House  is  a  two-story  stucco  building,  dating 
from  the  i8th  century  with  a  large  addition  of  about 
i860.  Ivy  Cottage  adjoins  it  (see  below,  Schools). 
Hardings  Farm  is  opposite  Ivy  Cottage.  Also  at  Green- 
stead Green,  on  the  south  side  of  the  road  leading  to 
Ongar,  are  five  pairs  of  council  houses.  The  green 
from  which  this  part  of  the  parish  took  its  name  no 
longer  exists,  but  within  living  memory  there  was  a 
long  triangular  open  green  on  the  west  side  of  the  road 
here,  reaching  nearly  to  Toot  Hill  in  Stanford  Rivers.* 
The  present  road  from  Greenstead  Green  to  Toot  Hill 
appears  to  have  been  constructed  between  1838  and 

1873-4.'  Pensons  Lane  runs  from  Greenstead  Green 
north-east  to  Ackingford  Bridge  (see  Chipping  Ongar). 
Another  road  runs  north  from  Greenstead  Green  to 
Bobbingworth.  A  road  from  the  centre  of  the  parish 
runs  south  to  Stanford  Hall  and  the  church  in  Stanford 
Rivers.  Half  a  mile  to  the  east  of  this  road,  on  the 
southern  border  of  the  parish,  is  Lodge  Farm.  It  is  a 
timber-framed  house  of  mid-  or  late-i7th-century  date, 
and  it  contains  a  round-headed  corner  cupboard  of  the 
same  period. 

The  railway  from  Epping  to  Ongar  passes  through 
a  small  part  of  the  parish  on  the  north  east.  Blake  Hall 
station,  on  this  line,  is  J  mile  north  of  Greenstead 
Green  but  is  in  the  parish  of  Stanford  Rivers. 

Few  references  have  been  found  to  the  parish  roads. 
In  1598  Greenstead  was  presented  at  quarter  sessions 
for  the  bad  state  of  its  highways.  ^  In  16 18-19  ^^* 
road  from  Chipping  Ongar  to  Greenstead  was  in  a 
bad  condition  and  the  parishioners  of  Greenstead  and 
High  Ongar  were  said  to  be  jointly  responsible  for  its 

For  transport  and  postal  services  Greenstead  has 
always  depended  on  Chipping  Ongar  (q.v.) 

The  Greenstead  housing  estate  has  all  the  public 
services.'"  Water  was  supplied  to  some  parts  of  the 
parish  in  1908,  from  Chipping  Ongar  as  far  as  Green- 
stead church."  There  is  sewerage  as  far  as  the  Croft.'^ 
Gas  was  first  supplied  in  1934.  It  at  first  extended 
along  the  road  to  Blake  Hall  Station.'-J  Greenstead 
Green  has  had  electricity  since  1932.'^ 

In  1086  there  were  in  all  8  plough-teams  in  Green- 
stead, woodland  for  520  swine,  35  acres  of  meadow. 
There  were  then  only  14  pigs  on  the  manor:  the  num- 
ber had  declined  from  30  in  1066.  There  were  40 
goats  and  20  sheep,  a  rouncy,  and  3  beasts. '5  The 
parish  was  less  densely  wooded  than  Chipping  Ongar 
(q.v.)  to  the  east. 

The  manor  of  Greenstead  in  1349  was  said  to 
contain  60  acres  of  (arable)  land,  8  acres  of  meadow, 
1 5  acres  of  pasture,  and  a  wood.'*  In  1625  it  was  said 
to  contain  100  acres  of  land,  20  acres  of  meadow,  60 
acres  of  pasture,  and  60  acres  of  underwood."  In  1690 
there  were  100  acres  of  land,  80  acres  of  meadow,  100 
acres  of  pasture,  and  80  acres  of  underwood.'^  These 
figures  seem  to  indicate  that  from  the  14th  century 
onwards  the  demesne  farm  gradually  increased  in  size 
until,  by  the  end  of  the  17th  century  it  contained  about 
half  the  total  area  of  the  parish.  In  the  i8th  century 
there  were  at  least  three  farms  in  the  parish  apart  from 
the  home  farm  of  Greenstead  Hall."  During  the  first 

39  Char.  Com.  files. 

'  O.S.  2i  in.  Map,  sheet  52/50.    Area 
683  acres.  ^  See  Chipping  Ongar. 

3  Census }  inf.  from  Essex  County  Council. 

*  The  avenue  existed   in    1770:   Hist. 
Essex  by  Gent,  iii,  378. 

*  Inf.  from  the  occupier,  Mr.  Ginger. 

*  Inf.  from  Mrs.  Kinsman  of  Green- 
stead House.  The  green  is  well  shown  on 

the  Tithe  Map  (1838):   E.R.O.,   D/CT 

'  Cf.  Tithe  Map  and  0.5.  6  in.  Map 
(ist  edn.),  sheet  1  (1873-4). 
8  E.R.O.,  e/SR  14.1/21. 
•>  Ibid.  Q/SBa  1/35. 
">  Inf.  from  Councillor  Hadler. 
"  Inf.  from  Herts,  and   Essex  Water- 
works Co. 

■2  Inf.  from  Councillor  Hadler. 
"  Inf.  from  East.  Gas  Bd. 
'«  Inf.  from  East.  Elec.  Bd. 
■s  r.C.H.  Essex,  i,  502. 
'^  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  IX,  p.  z^z, 
'■>  CP43/169  rot.  52. 
'8  CP43/428  rot.  Si. 
"  See  below,  Manor. 




half  of  that  century  almost  all  the  land  in  the  parish 
was  acquired  by  a  single  owner.  It  was  split  up  again 
after  1750.^°  In  1839  the  parish  was  estimated  to  con- 
tain 289  acres  of  arable,  325  acres  of  meadow  and 
pasture,  3 1  acres  of  woodland,  and  23  acres  of  common, 
waste,  and  roads.^'  The  Hall  farm  contained  263  acres. 
There  were  three  other  farms  of  50—100  acres.  More 
than  400  acres  were  owned  by  the  lord  of  the  manor, 
and  within  the  next  30  years  two  other  farms  were 
added  to  the  main  estate,  leaving  very  little  land  in  the 
parish  outside  the  estate.^^ 

Inclosure  was  probably  facilitated  in  Greenstead  by 
the  small  number  of  interests  involved.  A  rental  of 
about  1525  has  numerous  references  to  crofts  in 
Greenstead,  which  suggests  that  much  inclosure  had 
already  taiien  place.^^  It  is,  however,  interesting  that 
the  green  which  gave  its  name  to  Greenstead  Green 
should  have  survived  until  modern  times.^ 

There  was  a  mill  at  Greenstead  in  io86.^5  In  1349 
there  were  two  mills  in  the  manor,  one  driven  by  water 
and  the  other  by  wind.^* 

The  sale  of  timber  from  Greenstead  during  the 
Napoleonic  wars  is  mentioned  below.^'  It  is  clear  from 
the  maps  that  Greenstead  wood  was  much  larger  in 
1777  than  it  was  a  hundred  years  later.^* 

In  the  time  of  Edward  the  Confessor  GREEN- 
STEAD was  held  by  Gotild  'as  a  manor  and 
MANOR  2  hides'.^'  In  1086  it  was  held  in  demesne 
by  Hamon  dapifer.^"  It  was  also  stated  in 
Domesday  that  one  Serlo  held  40  acres  of  the  manor,  that 
three  freemen  had  before  io66  held  J  hide  and  45  acres, 
and  that  'of  this  land'  one  Ralph  was  in  1086  holding 
J  hide  and  5  acres.  As  J.  H.  Round  has  commented, 
this  is  a  confused  passage:  'for  it  is  not  clear  whether  the 
holding  of  the  3  free  men  was  valued  as  part  of  the  main 
manor,  nor  if  it  were  is  it  clear  of  which  two  portions 
Ralph's  holding  was  part.'''  It  seems  most  likely,  how- 
ever, that  Ralph  had  taken  over  the  greater  part  of  the 
land  previously  occupied  by  the  three  men. 

From  Hamon  the  lordship  of  the  manor  descended 
in  the  same  way  as  Norton  Mandeville  (q.v.)  to  Robert, 
1st  Earl  of  Gloucester,  bastard  son  of  Henry  I.^^  In 
about  1 170  William,  2nd  Earl  of  Gloucester,  granted 
the  manor  to  Richard  de  Lucy,  along  with  the  service 
of  4  knights  owed  by  Richard  de  Marcy,  2  knights 
owed  by  Ralph  de  Marcy,  3  knights  owed  by  Maurice 
de  Toheham,  and  I J  knight  owed  by  Manasser  de 
Dammartin.33  It  is  not  unlikely  that  Richard  and  Ralph 
were  relatives  of  the  Domesday  tenants  Ralph  and 
Serlo."*  Greenstead  thus  became  part  of  Richard  de 
Lucy's  honor  of  Ongar,  and  the  tenancy  in  chief  of  the 

manor  descended  in  the  same  way  as  Chipping  Ongar 

The  descent  of  the  tenancy  in  demesne  between 
about  1 1 70  and  about  1250  is  obscure.  It  is  possible 
that  the  Marcy  family  continued  as  tenants  for  part  of 
this  time.36  By  about  1250,  however,  the  tenant  was 
Walter  de  Baskerville.3'  He  was  the  son  of  Walter  de 
Baskerville  (d.  1244)  of  Orcop  (Herefs.).^*  He  fought 
against  the  king  in  the  Barons'  Wars  and  in  1265  his 
lands  at  Orcop,  Greenstead,  and  elsewhere  were 
granted  to  Roger  de  Clifford."  Baskerville  subse- 
quently regained  possession  and  in  1279  granted 
Greenstead  to  Roger  de  la  Hay  in  exchange  for  land 
in  Great  Cowarne  (Herefs.).*" 

William  de  la  Hay  was  lord  of  the  manor  in  1328 
and  I333.*'  In  1346  he  granted  Greenstead  to  Sir 
Robert  Bourchier.*^  Bourchier  was  subsequently  sum- 
moned to  Parliament  as  a  peer.'*^  He  died  in  1 349  and 
was  succeeded  by  his  son,  John  Lord  Bourchier.** 
Greenstead  descended  with  the  title  to  Henry,  Lord 
Bourchier,  who  was  created  Viscount  Bourchier  {c. 
1445)  and  Earl  of  Essex  (i46i).*5  The  manor  passed 
to  Henry  Bourchier,  2nd  Earl  of  Essex,  and  on  his 
death  in  1540  to  his  daughter  Anne,  suo  jure  Baroness 
Bourchier,  wife  of  Thomas  Parr,  Baron  Parr  of  Ken- 
dal.** Parr  was  created  Earl  of  Essex  in  1 543  and  in 
the  following  year  conveyed  Greenstead  to  Sir  Richard 
Rich,  later  created  Baron  Rich.*7 

In  1578  Robert,  2nd  Baron  Rich,  conveyed  the 
manor  to  William  Bourne.**  He  was  the  son  of 
William  Bourne  of  Bobbingworth.*'  He  died  in 
1608,  leaving  an  eldest  son  William  (b.  1589),  and 
younger  sons  Richard  (b.  1599)  and  John  (b.  1602). 5" 
The  manor  was  probably  held  until  her  death  by  Anne 
(d.  1624)  widow  of  William  Bourne.5'  She  married 
Richard  Young  in  1613.52  After  her  death  the  manor 
appears  to  have  been  settled  on  her  son  John. 53  In 
1652  complaint  was  made  to  quarter  sessions  that 
Richard  Bourne,  owner  of  Greenstead  Hall,  had  been 
dispossessed  by  Thomas  Smith,  labourer,  and  others 
(named).  The  justices  ordered  that  Richard  should  be 
given  possession  of  the  property.^*  He  was  probably 
identical  with  Richard  (b.  1625)  son  of  John  Bourne." 
He  died  in  1660.56 

The  next  owner  of  the  manor  who  has  been  traced 
was  John  Hulson,  who  held  it  in  1683.57  Robert 
Hulson  was  the  owner  in  1690.58  In  1695  he  sold 
Greenstead  to  Alexander  Cleeve,  citizen  and  pewterer 
of  London. 59  Cleeve's  initial  purchase  comprised 
about  half  the  land  in  the  parish.  He  subsequently 
added  to  it  most  of  the  other  half  *»   After  his  death 

"  Ibid. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  153. 

^*  See  below,- Manor. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  M1/5. 

"  See  above,  p.  58.  In  1839  the  green 
contained  c.  16  acres,  reclconed  as  waste: 
E.R.O.,  D/CT  153. 

"  V.C.H.  Essex,  i,  502. 

^^  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  ix,  p.  242. 

*'  See  Manor. 

^'  Chapman  and  Andre,  Map  of  Essex 
J777,  sheet  xvii;  O.S.  6  in.  Map  (ist  edn.), 
sheets  I,  H. 

"  F.C.H.  Essex,  i,  502. 

30  Ibid. 

3>  Ibid. 

'*  L.  C.  Loyd,  Origins  of  Some  Anglo- 
Norman  Families  (Harl.  Soc),  50 ;  Domes- 
day Monachorum  of  Christ  Church,  Canter- 
bury (ed.  D.  C.  Douglas),  55-56. 

33  E.A.T.  N.s.  vii,  148.   The  grant  was 

confirmed  by  the  king  in  1 1 67-74.  For 
the  Dammartins  see  Norton  Mandeville. 

3*  Ibid.  149.  A  Serlo  de  Marcy  held 
Stondon  Massey  (q.v.)  in  the  13th  cent. 

3!  The  last  record  of  overlordship  is 
1566:  Morant,  Essex,  i,  152. 

36  For  the  Marcy  family  see  Stondon 
Massey,  Kelvedon  Hatch,  Navestock,  and 
Magdalen  Laver. 

3'  E.A.T.  N.s.  xviii,  18. 

38  C.  Moor,  Knights  of  Ed-w.  I  {Harl. 
Soc),  i,  50 ;  W.  H.  Cooke,  Hist.  Hereford 
(1892),  187. 

39  C.  Moor,  ibid. 

■»»  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  24. 
■•■  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  288. 

42  Cal.  Close,  1346-9.  5'- 

43  Complete  Peerage,  ii,  246. 

44  Ibid.;  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  ix,  p.  242. 

45  Complete  Peerage,  ii,  248-g. 

46  Ibid.;  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  288-9. 


4'  CP25(2)/i3/75  Trin.  36  Hen.  VIII. 

48  CP25(2)/i3i/i684. 

49  Visits,  of  Essex  (Harl.  Soc.),  pp.  156, 


">  Par.  Regs,  of  Greenstead,  ed.  F.   A. . 
Crisp,  4,  31.    Richard  and  John  were  the 
sons  of  their  father's  second  marriage,  to 
Anne  Day,  widow. 

"  See    below.    Church;   Par.   Regs,   of 
Greenstead,  19,  31 

52  Ibid.  19. 

53  CP43/169  (1625). 

54  E.R.O.,  2/SBa  2/7.9. 

55  Par.  Regs,  of  Greenstead,  6. 

5'  Ibid.     32.      He     founded     Bourne's 
Charity  (see  below.  Charities). 
5'  CP25(2)/655  Hil.  34-35  Chas.  II. 

58  CP43/428  rot.  81. 

59  P.  J.  Budworth,  Memorials  of  Green- 
stead—Budivorth,  6. 

'»  Ibid.  8. 


in  1738  his  widow  Anne  held  the  estate  for  life.*'  She 
died  in  1750  and  the  estate  was  then  divided  among 
Alexander  Cleeve's  children.  John  Cleeve,  Rector  of 
High  Laver,  inherited  New  House  Farm,  Jane  Velley 
received  Hardings,  Anne  Cleeve  had  Repentance 
Farm,  and  Mary  Hatt  had  Lodge  Farm.*^  In  1752 
Greenstead  Hall  and  the  manorial  estate  were  sold  by 
the  nine  surviving  children  of  Alexander  Cleeve  to 
David  Rebotier  of  London,  merchant.^-J 

David  Rebotier  died  in  1769  and  in  177 1  his  son 
Charles  and  his  daughter  Esther  Rebotier  sold  the 
manor  to  John  Redman  of  Mile  End  in  the  parish  of 
St.  Dunstan  (Mdx.).*^  Redman  died  in  1798;  he  left 
the  manor  to  Craven  Ord  of  the  Cursitors  Office,  who 
had  married  his  daughter  Mary.^s  It  was  provided 
that  Greenstead  should  be  held  in  trust  for  the  younger 
children  of  Craven  and  Mary.  During  the  Napoleonic 
Wars,  however,  Craven  made  sufficient  profits  from 
the  sale  of  timber  from  Greenstead  to  satisfy  the  por- 
tions of  his  younger  children,  and  on  his  death  in  1832 
the  manor  passed  to  his  eldest  son,  the  Revd.  Craven 
Ord(d.  i836).66 

In  1837  the  manor  was  bought  by  the  Revd.  Philip 
Budworth,  who  was  a  grandson  of  Jane,  daughter  of 
Alexander  Cleeve  and  wife  of  the  Revd.  Thomas 
Velley.*7  In  jg^j  Budworth  also  bought  New  House 
Farm,  which  had  been  sold  in  1778  by  the  executors 
of  John  Cleeve  and  had  become  the  property  of 
Sympson  Jessopp.**  Captain  Philip  J.  Budworth  was 
the  only  surviving  son  and  heir  of  the  Revd.  Philip 
Budworth.  He  settled  at  Greenstead  Hall  in  i8;4.*» 
In  1867  he  bought  Lodge  Farm  from  the  representatives 
of  Mrs.  Holbrook  and  thus  became  owner  of  all  but  a 
small  part  of  the  land  in  the  parish.'"  He  continued 
to  live  at  Greenstead  Hall  until  his  death  in  1885" 
and  took  an  active  part  in  local  affairs.'^  He  is  com- 
memorated by  the  Budworth  Hall  in  Chipping  Ongar. 
His  sons,  or  their  representatives,  were  the  main  land- 
owners in  Greenstead  in  I926.'3 

Greenstead  Hall  is  a  large  house  of  two  stories  with 
attics.  It  is  of  timber-framing  partly  covered  with  a 
later  facing  of  red  brick.  As  it  exists  today  most  of  the 
house  dates  from  about  1700  when  it  was  largely  re- 
built, probably  by  Alexander  Cleeve.  The  date  1695 
is  carved  on  the  east  front  and  a  sundial  on  the  south 
front  bears  the  date  1698  and  the  initials  a  and  mc 
(Alexander  and  Mary  Cleeve).  There  are,  however, 
timbers  near  the  west  end  which  appear  to  be  older, 
and  in  two  places  there  is  panelling  of  the  early  17th 
century.  The  report'''  of  an  open  hearth  under  the 
centre  of  the  present  drawing-room  on  the  south  side 
suggests  that  there  was  originally  a  medieval  hall  in  this 
position.    A  view  from  the  east  drawn  about   1770 

shows  the  house  as  altered  70  years  before.''  It  was 
then  plastered  and  roughly  square  in  shape  but  with 
two  projecting  wings  on  the  south  side.  The  main 
entrance  front  to  the  east  had  seven  windows  and  a 
central  pediment.  Part  of  the  north  side  of  the  house 
with  a  projecting  bay  no  longer  exists.  This  may  have 
been  the  dining-room  which  John  Redman  is  said  to 
have  demolished  in  the  late  i8th  century  in  order  to 
curb  the  extravagant  hospitality  of  his  son.'*  Redman 
made  many  improvements  to  the  house  and  its  grounds, 
including  the  existing  timber-framed  brick-fronted 
stables."  Large  alterations  were  carried  out  in  1875 
by  P.  J.  Budworth.'^  The  east  front  was  largely  re- 
built, including  the  central  pedimented  feature  in 
moulded  brickwork.  The  east  and  south  fronts  were 
faced  with  red  brick,  and  one  of  the  south  wings  was 
extended.  The  dates  1695  and  1698  were  probably 
recut  at  this  time.  Inside  the  house  there  are  some  good 
pine  chimney-pieces  and  panelling  of  about  1700  and 
a  fine  staircase  with  twisted  balusters  and  carved  string 
of  the  same  period.  This  is  very  similar  to  work  at 
Hill  Hall,  Theydon  Mount  (q.v.).  The  present 
occupier  has  made  some  interior  alterations  in  the  same 
style.  The  detached  17th  century-brewhouse  was  con- 
verted into  a  cottage  in  1950. 

There  seems  to  be  no  reason  to  doubt  the  established 
tradition  that  Greenstead  church  was  built 
CHURCH  in  the  nth  century  to  mark  the  place 
where  St.  Edmund's  body  rested  on  its 
way  from  London  to  Bury  St.  Edmund's  in  1013.  A 
description  of  the  event,  written  about  1 300,  says  that 
the  body  was  accommodated  at  Ongar  and  that  'a 
wooden  chapel  built  in  his  name  remains  until  today'." 
This  is  the  only  documentary  evidence  for  the  identi- 
fication. Greenstead  is  a  mile  from  Chipping  Ongar, 
but  it  is  curious  that  the  wooden  church,  which  is 
described  in  detail  below,  is  dedicated  not  to  St. 
Edmund  but  to  St.  Andrew.*" 

Walter  de  Baskerville  was  patron  of  Greenstead  in 
about  1254-.*'  William  de  la  Hay  held  the  advowson 
in  1328—33  and  it  subsequently  descended  along  with 
the  manor  until  the  17th  century.*^  Richard  Young 
and  Anne  his  wife  presented  Edward  Young  to  the 
rectory  in  1617.'^  Anne  had  previously  been  the  wife 
of  William  Bourne  (d.  1608),  lord  of  the  manor.  Her 
son  John  Bourne  made  a  conveyance  of  the  manor  in 
1625.*''  Thomas  Spencer  presented  in  1641  pro  hac 
vice.^^  Presentation  was  made  in  1646  by  Katherine 
Young,  widow,  and  Robert  Young  her  son,  and  in 
1 66 1  by  Katherine  alone.**  Nathan  Lacy,  rector  1661— 
1700,  married  a  second  wife  Mary.*'  After  his  death 
Mary  Lacy,  widow,  presented.**  Soon  after  this  the 
advowson  was  bought  by  Benjamin  Pratt,  curate  of 

^'  Budford,  Memorials  cf  Greenstead- 
Budivorth^  9. 

'2  Ibid.  10.  For  a  full  list  of  the  children 
see  ibid.  7.  Repentance,  which  no  longer 
exists,  was  in  the  extreme  south  of  the 
parish  on  the  road  to  Stanford  Rivers. 

63  Ibid.  16;  CP25(2)/ii24  East.  25 
Geo.  II. 

6<  Budworth,  op.  cit.  17  ;  CP25(z)/i3o8 
Hil.  12  Geo.  III. 

"  Budworth,  op.  cit.  17.  Ord  was  an 
antiquary  who  collaborated  with  Gough, 
Nichols,  and  others :  see  D.N.B. 

'*  Budworth,  op.  cit.  17.  "  Ibid. 

'8  Ibid. 

>">  Ibid. 

'0  Ibid. 

"  £.^.7".  N.s.  iii,  115. 

"  See  Chipping  Ongar,  Public  Services. 

73  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1926),  cf.  Bud- 
worth, op.  cit.  26.  From  c.  1895  Green- 
stead Hall  was  the  residence  of  Howel 
J.  J.  Price  (d.  194.3). 

'♦  Inf.  from  Mrs.  Tugendhat,  the  pre- 
sent occupier. 

75  Hist.  Essex  by  a  Gent,  iii,  378. 

"  Budworth,  op.  cit.  20. 

"  Ibid. 

'8  Cf.  ibid.  26. 

"  'Apud  Aungre  hospitabatur  vero  ejus 
nomine  lignea  capella  constructa  permanet 
usque  hodie' :  B.M.  Add.  MS.  14.847 
f.  20. 

80  It  is  of  course  possible  that  the  dedica- 
tion has  been  changed.  It  is  interescing  to 
note  that  the  church  of  Greenstead  by 
Colchester  has  the  same  dedication  to  St. 


81  E.A,T,  N.s.  xviii,  i8. 

82  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  289. 

83  Ibid. 

8*  CP43/i69rot.  52. 

85  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  289.  One 
institution  was  missed  by  Newcourt,  for 
the  rector  who  died  in  164.1  was  William 
Young:  cf.  Par.  Regs,  Greenstead,  ed. 
F.  A.  Crisp,  32. 

86  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  289. 

87  Var.  Regs.  Greenstead,  8,  9. 

88  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  289.  In  1689 
and  1 69 1  conveyances  of  the  advowson 
were  made  by  James  Lacy,  clerk,  pre- 
sumably the  son  of  Nathan  Lacy:  CP43/ 
4.24  rot.  205;  ibid.  430  rot.  21  j  J.  and 
J.  A.  Venn,  Alumn  i  Cantabrigienses,  pt.  i, 
>''.  33- 









St.  Botolph's,  Aldgate  about  1708-15.  By  his  will, 
dated  17 14,  Pratt  bequeathed  the  advowson  in  trust  to 
the  Bishop  of  London,  with  the  provision  that  at  each 
presentation  the  curate  of  St.  Botolph's  was  to  have 
first  refusal.*'  The  patronage  has  subsequently- 
remained  with  the  bishop,  subject  to  this  provision. 

The  rectory  was  valued  at  40J.  in  about  i2  54,">  at 
£,1  los.  in  izgi,"  and  at  £6  ly.  \d.  in  1535.'^  The 
tithes  were  commuted  in  1841  for  ^£210;  there  were 
then  30  acres  of  glebe. '3  The  rectory  house  is  an  early- 
igth-century  building,  whitewashed  externally. 

In  1548  the  parishes  of  Greenstead  and  Chipping 
Ongar  were  united  by  Act  of  Parliament.  In  spite  of 
its  small  size  the  Greenstead  church  became  the  parish 
church  of  the  combined  parish.  This  union,  however, 
was  dissolved  in  1554  and  the  parish  of  Greenstead 
returned  to  its  ancient  size  and  constitution. '< 

The  parish  church  of  ST.  ANDREW  consists  of 
nave,  chancel,  west  tower  with  spire,  and  south  porch. 
The  nave  is  a  unique  survival  of  early  timber  con- 
struction, probably  of  the  early  nth  century.  The 
chancel  is  partly  of  flint  rubble  and  partly  of  brick- 
work. The  tower  is  timber  framed  and  the  porch  is  also 
of  timber. 

The  circumstances  in  which  the  church  was  prob- 
ably built,  in  or  soon  after  1013,  have  been  described 
above.  The  present  nave  was  probably  the  original 
church.  It  is  29  ft.  long  by  17  ft.  wide.  The  timber 
walls  remain  on  the  north  and  south  sides.  They  are 
5  ft.  6  in.  high  and  consist  of  oak  logs,  varying  in  width 
from  7  to  17  in.,  cut  in  half  and  set  vertically,  the  flat 
surfaces  facing  inwards.  At  the  two  western  angles 
three-quarter  logs  are  used  with  a  right-angular  rebate 
cut  internally.  The  south  doorway  still  exists  and  nearly 
opposite  there  was  originally  a  north  doorway  2  ft.  5  in. 
wide.  The  nave  was  thoroughly  restored  in  1848. 
Descriptions  of  it  before  and  during  this  restoration  are 
of  particular  value.  In  1 748  Smart  Lethieullier  sent 
an  account  of  it  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,''  together 
with  elevational  drawings  which  were  later  published.'* 
A  hundred  years  later  the  Revd.  P.  W.  Ray,  then  rector, 
wrote  as  follows:''' 

the  building  ...  is  formed  of  split  trunks  of  oak  trees,  the 
top  part  being  cut  to  a  thin  edge  which  is  let  into  a  deep 
groove  in  the  plate  and  pinned.  The  bottoms  of  the  up- 
right timbers  were  morticed  into  the  sill.  Their  sides  were 
grooved,  with  tongues  of  oak  let  in  between  them  so  as  to 
make  the  whole  firm  and  weathertight'8  .  .  .  upon  the  face 
of  the  timbers  within  the  church  were  a  great  number  of 
triangular  cuts,  having  a  rough  bur  on  one  side  such  as 
would  be  produced  by  the  angle  of  an  adze.  These  cuts 
were  the  key  for  the  plaster  with  which  the  interior  of  the 
church  was  covered.  .  .  .  The  west  end  was  carried  up  in 
the  middle  as  high  as  the  ridge  of  the  roof  and  consisted  of 
two  layers  of  planks  fastened  together  with  tree  nails.  The 
planks  are  not  long  enough  to  reach  the  whole  height,  they 
are  therefore  so  arranged  as  to  break  both  the  perpendicular 
and  horizontal  joints. 

The  external  elevation  of  this  west  end,  part  of  which 
disappeared  in  1848,  is  shown  in  Lethieullier's  draw- 
ing. The  narrow  opening  which  can  be  seen  just  south 

of  the  centre  was  probably  made  to  give  access  to  the 
tower  after  that  was  added. 

The  chancel  was  probably  added  to  the  original 
wooden  church  in  the  12th  century.  Parts  of  the  flint 
rubble  plinth  remain.  The  east  wall  of  the  nave  was 
presumably  removed  then. 

The  small  stoup  with  a  pointed  head  to  the  west  of 
the  former  north  door  probably  dates  from  the  13  th 
or  14th  century. 

In  the  15th  or  i6th  century  the  square  tower  was 
added  to  the  west  end  of  the  nave  a  little  to  the  south 
of  the  centre  line.  It  is  weather-boarded  externally  and 
has  louvred  openings.  The  lower  story  of  the  tower  is 
now  used  as  a  vestry.  There  is  a  broach  spire.  About 
1 500  the  chancel  was  rebuilt  in  brick.  On  the  south 
side  is  an  early-i6th-century  doorway  with  moulded 
brick  jambs  and  an  elliptical  head.  Next  to  it  on  the 
west  is  a  window  of  similar  date  also  with  an  elliptical 
head.  The  four-centred  chancel  arch  is  probably  of 
the  1 6th  century.  In  that  century  also  the  nave  was 
probably  reroofed.  Views  of  the  church  before  the 
restoration  show  a  sagging  roof  line,  lower  than  that 
of  the  chancel,  with  two  dormers  on  the  north  side  and 
one  on  the  south." 

The  church  was  being  repaired  in  1683.  Beams  had 
recently  been  set  on  the  inside  of  the  chancel  but  it  was 
feared  that  this  would  not  prevent  the  cracks  on  both 
sides  of  the  east  window  from  getting  worse." 

Extensive  repairs  were  carried  out  in  1848.  The 
oak  sills  of  the  nave  walls,  which  originally  rested  on 
the  ground,  were  completely  decayed,  together  with 
the  lower  ends  of  the  logs.  These  last  were  shortened 
from  the  base  and  tenoned  to  new  sills  supported  on 
dwarf  brick  walls.  The  plaster  was  stripped  internally 
and  oak  fillets  fixed  over  the  joints.  The  north  door- 
way, which  had  already  been  plastered  up  before  this 
time,  was  blocked  by  the  insertion  of  three  new 
timbers.  The  nave  roof  was  replaced  and  three  addi- 
tional dormer  windows  constructed  so  that  there  are 
now  three  on  each  side.  A  new  window  was  inserted 
in  the  west  gable.  In  the  chancel  the  east  wall  was 
rebuilt  and  a  new  east  window  with  stone  'perpendi- 
cular' tracery  was  inserted.  A  new  window  was  also 
placed  in  the  north  wall  and  another  in  the  south  wall 
to  the  east  of  the  doorway.  The  east  wall  and  the 
chancel  arch  were  strengthened  by  the  external  addition 
of  buttresses.  A  traceried  window  was  placed  in  the 
tower,  and  a  new  timber  porch,  a  copy  of  I  gth-century 
work,  replaced  a  small  weather-boarded  struc- 

In  1 891-2  the  roof,  which  was  of  fir,  was  again 
found  to  be  decayed.  A  subscription  list  for  a  new  roof 
was  started  by  William  Hewett,  tenant  of  Greenstead 
Hall  and  churchwarden,  and  the  work  was  carried  out 
in  oak  by  Frederic  Chancellor,  the  diocesan  surveyor. 
He  followed  the  same  design  on  the  assumption  that  it 
was  a  copy  of  the  roof  taken  down  in  1848.3  At  the 
same  time  a  brick  buttress  on  the  north  side  of  the  nave 
was  removed,  exposing  sound  timbers  behind  it.*  No 
important  alterations  have  been  carried  out  since  1892, 


"  Morant,  Essex,  i,  153;  J.  and  J.  A. 
Venn,  Alumni  Cantab,  pt.  i,  iii,  390, 
G.  Hennessy,  Novum  Repert.  Eccl.  Parock. 
Lond.  Ixvli,  107. 

«»  Lunt,  Val.  of  Nor-wich,  336. 

»■   Tax.  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  23*. 

«»  yalor  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  437. 

«3  E.R.O.,  D/CT  153. 

»♦  For  the  details  of  this  temporary 
union  see  Chipping  Ongar. 

»5  B.M.  Stowe  MS.  752,  f.  49. 

«'  Vetusta  Monumenta,  ii,  pi.  7.  See  plate 
facing  p.  61. 

"  P.  W.  Ray,  Hist. of  Greenstead  Church, 
18-20.  Ray  was  rector  when  the  chjrch 
was  restored,  1848. 

98  Lethieullier's  description  of  the  joint- 
ing, '  the  edge  of  one  tree  made  to  slip  a 
little  within  its  neighbour",  is  probably 
less  accurate. 


"  A.  Suckling,  Memorials  of  Essex,  4 ; 
P.  W.  Ray,  Hist.  Greenttead  Church. 
'  E.A.T.  N.s.  xii,  268. 

2  For  various  pictures  of  the  church 
before  and  after  1848  see  E.R.O., 

3  E.A.T.  N.s.  iv,  223;  E.R.  i,  139} 
Notes  (sf  Queries,  1891,  316. 

♦  E.A.T.  li.s.  iv,  223. 


but  the  spire  was  recently  covered  with  shingles  of 
Canadian  cedar.5 

There  is  one  bell  by  William  Land,  1618,  and  a 
sanctus  bell,  uninscribed.  In  1552  there  were  two 
Rogation  bells  weighing  10  lb.  and  two  great  bells 
weighing  300J  lb.*  Early  in  the  19th  century  an  old 
bell  larger  than  the  present  bell,  being  cracked  and  un- 
hung, was  sold.' 

In  the  chancel  is  a  stone  pillar  piscina  with  an  octa- 
gonal bowl,  probably  late  15  th  century.  The  igth- 
century  quatrefoil  window  in  the  west  gable  of  the 
nave  contains  an  early  1 6th-century  roundel  of  stained 
glass,  showing  a  man's  head  and  shoulders  in  the  dress 
of  the  time.  A  crown  suggests  that  he  may  represent 
St.  Edmund.*  Two  other  pieces  of  stained  glass,  prob- 
ably of  similar  date,  were  removed  from  the  church 
before  1836.  They  came  into  the  possession  of  a 
Bobbingworth  farmer  who  took  them  with  him  to 
New  Zealand.  He  was  persuaded  to  return  them  to 
the  church  but  they  were  lost  in  a  shipwreck  off  the 
Scilly  Isles  on  their  return  journey  in  1871.'  Hanging 
in  the  nave  is  a  round-headed  wooden  panel  on  which 
is  an  oil  painting  of  about  1 500  showing  the  martyrdom 
of  St.  Edmund.'"  The  octagonal  oak  pulpit  was  pre- 
sented by  Alexander  Cleeve  in  1698."  One  panel  has 
the  date  and  I.  H.  S.  inlaid  in  darker  wood.  The  stone 
font  is  of  the  19th  century.  The  stained  glass  in  the 
four  chancel  windows  was  inserted  in  memory  of 
William  Smith,  d.  1871:  the  north  window  shows  the 
martyrdom  of  St.  Edmund  and  the  east  window  the 
Last  Supper  and  Crucifixion.  The  oak  screen  dividing 
the  vestry  from  the  nave  was  given  in  memory  of 
Gerard  Noel  Hoare  and  his  son,  between  them  church- 
wardens from  1907  to  1949. 

The  church  plate  consists  of  a  cup,  1739,  paten, 
1699  (the  gift  of  Alexander  and  Mary  Cleeve),  a 
flagon  1858  (the  gift  of  the  Revd.  P.  W.  Ray  and 
family),  and  an  alms-dish,  1817.  The  last  piece  was 
obtained  in  compliance  with  the  archdeacon's  instruc- 
tions in  1 8 1 7  to  'sell  pewter  plate  and  provide  patens 
for  the  offerings'." 

On  the  north  wall  of  the  chancel  is  an  alabaster 
tablet  in  memory  of  Jone,  second  wife  of  Alane  Wood 
(1585).  There  are  also  tablets  to  the  Revd.  W.  H. 
Warren  (1825)  and  Mary  wife  of  Craven  Ord  (1804). 
On  the  south  wall  is  a  tablet  to  Richard  Hewyt,  rector 
(1724).  In  the  nave  are  tablets  to  P.  J.  Budworth 
(1885)  and  his  son  Major-Gen.  Charles  E.  D.  Bud- 
worth  (1921). 

In    1792    the   rector   opened   a   Sunday  school  in 

Greenstead.    Only  one  child  attended 

SCHOOLS    from   this  parish,  however;   the  others 

came  from  Chipping  Ongar,  and  when 

the  Chipping  Ongar  Sunday  school  was  started  the 

Greenstead  school  was  discontinued. '3  In  1807  there 
was  no  school  in  the  parish,  but  by  181 8  the  Sunday 
school  had  been  reopened  by  the  rector  and  the  lord  of 
the  manor.  Craven  Ord.  It  then  had  22  pupils  and  it 
continued  with  varying  attendances  at  least  until 
1 846-7. '«  In  1828  a  small  day  school  existed, '5  but  by 
1833  it  had  been  closed.'* 

In  1839  the  rector  began  to  collect  subscriptions  for 
a  parish  school."  By  1846-7  this  was  being  attended 
by  some  34  children.  The  mistress  then  received  £30 
a  year.'*  About  this  time  a  new  building  was  erected, 
evidently  by  subscription,  on  a  site  on  the  waste  on 
Greenstead  Green,  presented  by  the  Revd.  Philip 
Budworth,  lord  of  the  manor.  The  rector  exercised  a 
close  supervision  over  it."  It  provided  33  places, 
'abundant  accommodation'  for  the  small  and  declining 
population  of  the  parish.  In  1870  there  were  about 
23  pupils.^"  Between  1878  and  1882  the  school  was 
closed;  the  children  subsequently  attended  the  schools 
at  Chipping  Ongar  and  Stanford  Rivers.^' 

The  former  school  house  stands  on  Greenstead 
Green,  beside  Greenstead  House;  it  is  now  known  as 
Ivy  Cottage.  (See  plate  facing  p.  126.) 

No  parish  records  are  known  to  survive  except  the 
registers.  A  few  figures  of  poor 
POOR  RELIEF  relief  are  available  from  Parlia- 
mentary returns  but  these  are  prob- 
ably not  very  reliable.^^  In  1776  expenditure  on  poor 
relief  was  ;^il.^3  For  the  three  years  1783-5  the 
average  annual  expenditure  was  ;{^29.^'»  By  1 800-1  the 
annual  expenditure  had  risen  to  ^^i  50,  but  in  1 802-3  '^ 
was  only  £7^.^^  Figures  of  expenditure  on  poor  relief 
alone  are  missing  for  the  years  1 803-1 1 ;  the  poor  rates, 
which  also  include  administrative  expenses  and  county 
rates,  rose  from  £()i  in  1803-4  to  ,{^255  in  1810-11.^* 
The  cost  of  relief  rose  from  £174  in  1811-12  to  /C486 
in  1819-20."  The  cost  for  1 820-1  was,  however, 
only  Xi4+-'* 

There  was  a  parish  poorhouse  by  1776.^'  In  1841 
there  were  'almshouses'  belonging  to  the  parish,  situated 
at  Greenstead  Green,  opposite  Greenstead  House.^" 
These  had  probably  been  provided  by  the  parish  for 
the  accommodation  of  its  poor:  there  is  no  evidence 
that  they  were  a  privately  endowed  charity.  They  had 
disappeared  by  1873—4.3' 

In  1836  Greenstead  became  part  of  Ongar  Poor 
Law  Union. 

For  an  account  of  Petit's  Charity  see  Stanford 
CHARITIES  Richard  Bourne  of  Greenstead  Hall 
(d.  1660)  left  to  the  poor  of  the  parish 
40;.  issuing  from  Lee  Fields.'-  In  1834  the  money  was 
used  to  buy  coal  for  all  the  poor  householders.  The 
rent-charge  was  not  collected  from  1908  to  1924  but 

*  Inf.  from  present  rector,  Revd.  W.  A. 

»  E.A.T.t).%.  11,236. 
'  Ch.  Bells  Essex,  265. 

*  Sec  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  pi.  p.  xxxv ; 
p.  112. 

«  E.R.  iii,  135;  xxii,  45. 

'»  See  E.R.  xlvii,  78. 

"  P.  J.  Budworth,  Mems.  of  Green- 
stead- Budivorth. 

"  Ch.  Plate  Essex,  135-6. 

'3  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  2/4. 

'♦  Ibid.;  ifrtnJ.  Educ.  of  Poor,  H.C.  224, 
p.  256  (1819),  ix  (i);  Nat.  Soc.  Reps. 
1 820,  I  828  j  Nat.  Soc.  Enquiry  into  Church 
Schs.  1 846-7,  8-9. 

"  Nat.  Soc.  Rep.  1828. 

"  Educ.  Enquiry  Abstr.  H.C.  62,  p.  276 
(1835),  xli. 

1'  E.R.O.,  D/P  30/28/18. 

■8  Nat.  Soc.  Enquiry,  1846-7,  8-9. 

'»  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1855,  1862). 

"  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  i/i/i ;  Retns.  Elem. 
Educ.  H.C.  201,  pp.  1 12-13  ('^7')'  l^- 

"  Kelly's  Dir.  £jKr  (1878,  1882,  1922). 
The  school  was  sold  in  1 890  for  ,^200 : 
Char.  Com.  files.  The  income  from  this 
sum,  known  as  the  Greenstead  School 
Foundation,  is  used  to  give  book  tokens 
at  Christmas  to  children  recommended  by 
the  headmasters  of  the  Ongar  Primary 
and  Secondary  Schools :  inf.  from  rector. 

22  The  parliamentary  returns  can  often 
be  checked  for  parishes  with  surviving  poor 


law  records;  for  other  places  in  Ongar 
hundred  they  have  been  found  inaccurate. 

»  E.R.O.,  (2/CR  i/i.  "  Ibid. 

"  E.R.O.,  e/CR  1/9.  "  Ibid. 

"  Ibid.;  Q/CR  1/12. 

28  Q/CR  1/12.  A  remarkable  drop,  if 
the  figure  is  correct;  but  it  may  be  an 

2«  Rep.  Sel.  Cttee.  on  Overseers  Retns. 
ijjy,  H.C.  Ser.  i,  vol.  ix,  p.  350. 

3»  E.R.O.,  D/CT  153.  The  almshouses, 
apparently  4  in  number,  were  in  a  terrace. 

3'  O.S.  6  in.  Map  (ist  edn.),  sheet  1 


32  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  H.C.  216, 
pp.  228-9  {i835)>  "'''  (')i  Char.  Com. 



it  is  now  being  paid  and  is  used  for  the  general  purposes 
of  the  charities. 

Mary  Rayner,  by  will  proved  1873,  left  j^200  for 
the  purchase  of  blankets  and  clothing  to  be  distributed 
to  the  deserving  poor  in  winter.33 

Edward  Sammes,  by  will  proved  1882,  left  to  the 
rector  ^10  and  ;£ioo  duty-free  to  be  invested  respec- 
tively for  the  upkeep  of  his  grave  and  for  the  purchase 
of  tea  and  sugar  to  be  distributed  on  6  January  to 
eighteen  poor  families  in  the  parish-^'*  The  first  bequest 
was  void  by  the  rule  against  perpetuities. 

The  three  charities  of  Bourne,  Rayner,  and  Sammes 

were  united  in  1904  to  form  the  Consolidated  Chari- 
ties.35  Their  income  was  to  be  used  for  the  poor  and 
sick,  primarily  as  gifts  in  kind,  and  in  help  to  hospitals 
&c.,  caring  for  the  sick  of  the  parish.  In  1945  the 
income  was  used  to  give  £1  is.  each  to  the  Ongar 
nurse  and  the  Ongar  Hospital  and  to  give  coal  to  two 
poor  people. 

Howel  J.  J.  Price  (d.  1943)  left  ^100  in  trust  for 
the  repair  of  his  grave  and  the  benefit  of  the  poor  of  the 
parish. 36  The  former  purpose  was  void.  In  1950  £1 
was  given  to  the  Greenstead  School  Foundation  and 
£1  to  the  Greenstead  Consolidated  Charities. 


Kelvedon  Hatch  is  3  miles  south  of  Chipping  Ongar 
and  4  miles  north-west  of  Brentwood,  on  the  east  bank 
of  the  Roding.'  It  contains  1,683  acres.  The  soil  is 
mainly  London  Clay  with  some  patches  of  Boulder 
Clay  and  Bagshot  beds.  The  land  slopes  up  from  the 
river  to  a  height  of  about  350  ft.  above  sea-level  in  the 
south-east  and  300  ft.  in  the  north-east.  Two  tribu- 
taries flow  into  the  Roding  in  the  north  of  the  parish 
through  shallow  valleys.  The  parish  was  part  of  the 
ancient  forest  of  Essex  and  the  sufiix  'Hatch'  by  which 
it  is  distinguished  from  Kelvedon  in  Witham  hundred 
probably  refers  to  a  forest  gate.^  Considerable  areas  of 
woodland  still  survive  and  there  are  also  parks  attached 
to  three  big  houses.  The  main  road  from  Ongar  to 
Brentwood  enters  the  parish  in  the  north-west  by 
Langford  Bridge  and  runs  south-east.  In  the  south  of 
Kelvedon  Hatch  it  crosses  a  stretch  of  land  which  was 
formerly  open  common  but  now  largely  inclosed.  The 
boundary  of  the  common  on  the  west  side  followed  a 
line  50  to  100  yds.  back  from  the  present  road.  On  the 
north  it  was  bounded  by  the  road  now  called  School 
Lane  and  on  the  east  it  extended  to  Fox  Hatch  in 
Doddinghurst  parish.  This  accounts  for  the  apparently 
haphazard  arrangement  of  the  older  houses,  which 
bears  little  relation  to  the  modern  road.  There  has 
been  considerable  development  in  this  area  during  the 
past  I  50  years  and  it  now  forms  the  village  centre  of 
the  parish.  From  the  village  roads  also  run  west  to 
Navestock  and  east  to  Blackmore  and  Stondon  Massey. 

There  were  three  ancient  manors  in  Kelvedon  Hatch. 
The  capital  manor  was  centred  on  Kelvedon  Hall,  a 
mile  south-east  of  Langford  Bridge.  The  ancient  parish 
church  was  beside  the  hall  and  the  1 8th-century  build- 
ing which  replaced  it  still  stands  there,  though  disused 
and  ruinous.  In  the  17th  and  i8th  centuries  the  manor 
house  which  dominated  the  little  church  was  owned  by 
Roman  Catholics,  the  Wrights,  who  were  buried  in 
the  parish  church  and  erected  sepulchral  monuments 
there  but  worshipped  secretly  in  the  chapel  which  they 
had  built  in  the  hall  itself  The  other  old  manors  were 
Myles's,  J  mile  north-east  of  Kelvedon  Hall,  and 
Germains,  J  mile  south  of  the  hall.  None  of  the 
medieval  manor  houses  has  survived.  The  present 
Germains  dates  from  the  i6th  century  and  Kelvedon 
Hall  from  the  1 8th,  while  old  Myles's  was  demolished 
in  1837.3  These  three  manor  houses  were  all  in  the 
north  or  centre  of  the  parish,  but  medieval  houses  also 
existed  farther  south  at  Hatch  Farm,  Brizes,  Priors, 

and  Woodlands.''  Priors  is  on  the  main  road  J  mile  east 
of  Germains.  The  other  three  are  in  or  near  the  modern 
village  of  Kelvedon  Hatch.  Only  Woodlands  now 
retains  medieval  features.  It  is  a  timber-framed  house 
about  50  yds.  west  of  the  main  road  and  south  of  the 
Eagle  Inn,  and  probably  dates  from  the  late  15  th 
century.  It  has  been  partly  demolished  so  that  the 
original  construction  is  exposed.  It  consists  of  a  single- 
story  hall  with  smoke-blackened  timbers  and  a  two- 
story  cross-wing  at  the  south  end.  The  latter  is  of  three 
bays,  divided  above  the  first  floor  by  king-post  trusses 
with  two-way  struts.  The  hall  also  has  a  king-post  and 
the  remains  of  what  was  possibly  a  second  truss. 
Chimneys  which  may  have  been  inserted  in  the  i6th 
or  17th  century  have  recently  been  demolished.  In 
the  1 8th  century  the  house  was  weather-boarded  and 
the  older  windows  replaced  by  sashes.  Hatch  Farm, 
on  the  north  side  of  the  former  common,  and  about 
100  yds.  east  of  the  modern  parish  church,  is  a  timber- 
framed  house  probably  dating  from  the  second  half  of 
the  1 6th  century.  The  house  was  originally  L-shaped 
with  the  staircase  in  the  north  wing,  but  there  is  now 
a  later  addition  in  the  angle  between  the  wings.  At  the 
junction  of  the  two  wings  is  part  of  a  large  original 
chimney-stack  with  a  moulded  capping.  The  interior 
retains  a  staircase,  plasterwork,  and  door-frames  of  the 
original  date.  In  the  i8th  century  the  roof  of  the  main 
wing  was  rebuilt  and  two  sides  of  the  house  faced  with 
red  brick.  Sash  windows  and  Georgian  doorways  were 
inserted.  Parts  of  a  moat  are  in  existence  to  the  north 
and  east  of  the  house. 

Priors  is  held  by  local  tradition  to  have  been  rebuilt 
early  in  the  17th  century  by  the  brothers  Richard  and 
Anthony  Luther.'  It  was  originally  a  timber-framed 
structure,  but  the  front  was  refaced  in  red  brick,  prob- 
ably in  the  second  half  of  the  i8th  century.  Brizes  was 
also  rebuilt  in  the  i8th  century.  Morant  (1768)  refers 
to  it  as  'a  good  old  house  .  .  .  built  by  Thomas  Bryce, 
citizen  and  mercer  of  London,  about  1498'.*  This 
earlier  house  had,  however,  been  replaced  before 
Morant's  time  by  the  present  mansion.  The  exact  site 
of  the  previous  house  is  not  known.  In  the  grounds  of 
the  present  house,  about  75  yds.  from  the  road,  is  a 
small  moated  site.  It  does  not  appear,  however,  that 
the  island  could  have  accommodated  a  medieval  house 
of  any  size  and  the  moat  itself  may  be  an  ornamental 
feature  of  the  i8th  century. 

The  present  house  was  probably  built  about  1720: 

"  Char.  Com.  files. 

3*  Ibid.  Sammes  was  a  prominent  builder 
and  shoplteepcr  in  Chipping  Ongar  (q.v.). 
35  Ibid. 
3'  Ibid.   Price  lived  for  many  years  at 

Greenstead  Hall. 

1  O.S.  2\  in.  Map,  sheets  51/S9,  52/50. 

2  P.N.  Essex  (E.P.N.S.),  59. 
'  See  below,  Manors. 

*  For  the  first  three  of  these  see  P.N. 

Essex,  59. 

s  Inf.  from  Capt.  F.  L.  Fane.   For  the 
Luther  brothers  see  Myles's. 

'  Morant,  Essex,  i,  187. 


this  date  is  said  to  be  on  one  of  the  rainwater  heads7 
At  that  time  the  property  was  owned  by  the  Glascock 
family.'  The  building  is  of  three  stories  and  has  an 
imposing  front  of  nine  bays.  The  centre  projects 
slightly  and  is  surmounted  by  a  pediment.  The  porch, 
which  may  be  a  later  addition,  is  of  the  Roman  Doric 
order  and  is  supported  on  four  columns.  Above  the 
doorway  is  a  round-headed  niche.  The  house  was 
evidently  altered  late  in  the  i8th  century  when  the  in- 
terior was  remodelled.  The  hall  has  a  Venetian  arch  en- 
riched with  plaster  ornament  and  behind  this  is  a  fine 
double  staircase.  The  staircase  window  is  round-headed 
and  fitted  with  painted  glass.  These  alterations  were 
probably  carried  out  for  William  Dolby,  who  succeeded 
his  brother  Charles  as  owner  of  Brizes  in  1781.'  In 
1788  William  Dolby  employed  Richard  Woods,  who 
in  1 77 1  had  carried  out  ornamental  alterations  to  the 
gardens  at  Myles's  (see  below)  to  replan  those  of 
Brizes.  The  plan  made  by  Woods  still  exists.'"  It 
included  'an  alcove  seat  or  temple',  'the  truss  Paladian 
bridge',  plantations  of  oak,  chestnut,  pine,  and  elm 
and  other  features,  covering  74  acres.  Most  of  these 
features  were  adopted." 

By  the  i6th  century  there  were  probably  a  number 
of  other  houses  around  the  common  in  the  south  of  the 
parish.  One  of  these,  Dodd's  Farm  to  the  south  of 
Church  Lane,  is  of  much  the  same  date  as  Hatch  Farm. 
It  is  an  L-shaped  building,  timber-framed  and  plastered. 
There  are  two  large  external  chimneys  of  a  similar  type 
to  those  at  Hatch  Farm,  and  in  this  case  the  short  octa- 
gonal shafts  are  original.  Internally  there  is  said  to  be 
a  fireplace  of  the  1 6th  century.'^ 

Poor's  Cottages,"  which  date  from  the  17th  century, 
were  also  built  at  the  common,  which  suggests  that  by 
that  time  the  common  was  the  most  important  centre 
of  population  in  the  parish.  By  1777  there  were  many 
houses  round  the  common  and  also  a  windmill. ■■»  The 
mill  was  in  use  until  the  First  World  War  but  was 
demolished  about  rgi6  as  it  was  thought  to  be  a  land- 
mark for  Zeppelins. '5  It  was  a  weather-boarded  smock 
mill.  The  mill  house  still  exists,  on  the  east  side  of  the 
main  road  nearly  opposite  the  'Eagle'.  It  is  a  single- 
story  cottage  dating  from  the  mid-i 9th  century.  During 
the  1 8th  century  Kelvedon  Hall,  Myles's,  and  Brizes 
were  all  rebuilt  as  imposing  Georgian  mansions  and 
the  medieval  parish  church  was  also  rebuilt. 

The  building  of  houses  at  the  common  had  been 
facilitated  by  small  inclosures  made  there,  and  no 
doubt  also  by  the  existence  of  common  rights.  The 
inclosures  seem  to  have  been  carried  out  by  purely 
local  arrangement,  through  the  manor  courts.  Examples 
of  such  inclosures  occur  in  the  case  of  Poor's  Cottages 
(see  above)  in  the  17th  century  and  again  in  1786.'* 
By  1838  the  common  was  wholly  in  private  ownership, 
though  perhaps  not  physically  inclosed. '^ 

During  the  19th  century  there  was  further  building 
at  the  common.  The  village  school  and  post-office  were 
both  set  up  there.  When  the  railway  from  London 
through  Brentwood  to  Colchester  and  East  Anglia  was 

7  Inf.  from  Hon.  Simon  Rodney. 

8  The  descent  given  by  Morant,  Essex, 
i,  187,  can  be  supplemented  and  corrected 
from  deeds  in  E.R.O.,  D/DRo  Ti. 

9  E.R.O.,  D/DRo  Ti.  Charles  Dolby, 
who  had  succeeded  his  father  Charles 
Dolby  in  1755,  was  an  ensign  in  the  ser- 
vice of  the  East  India  Company. 

>o  E.R.O.,  D/DRo  Pi. 

"  O.S.  6  in.  Map  (ist  edn.),  sheet  lix. 

"  Hist.  Men.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  143. 

built  in  the  1 840's  the  road  between  Ongar  and  Brent- 
wood took  on  a  new  importance  and  this  probably 
increased  the  concentration  at  the  common,  through 
which  the  road  ran.  In  1893  a  new  parish  church  was 
built  in  the  village  and  the  old  church  beside  Kelvedon 
Hall  became  disused.  Other  igth-century  buildings 
were  Mushroom  Hall,  the  Church  House,  and  a  non- 
conformist mission  hall  (now  the  village  hall).' '  Mush- 
room Hall  is  a  single-story  house  in  the  'picturesque' 
style  of  the  early  19th  century.  It  lies  about  100  yds. 
east  of  the  main  road  near  the  mill  house. 

Building  at  the  common  has  continued  in  the  20th 
century.  On  the  east  side  of  the  main  road  opposite 
Brizes  are  two  rows  of  single-story  terrace  houses 
known  as  The  Thorns  and  The  Briars.  These  and 
The  Avenue,  a  similar  block  on  the  road  to  Dodding- 
hurst,  were  built  early  in  the  century.  There  are  ten 
pairs  of  council  houses  on  the  north  side  of  Church 
Lane.  A  red-brick  police  house  was  completed  in  1953. 
Some  new  bungalows  are  now  being  built  to  the  south 
of  School  Lane. 

The  population  of  the  parish  was  297  in  181 1.  It 
rose  steadily  to  502  in  1 851  but  subsequently  declined 
to  361  in  1901."  Since  then  it  has  again  increased,  to 
542  in  1931  and  557  in  1951.^0 

Until  recent  times  communications  between  Kelve- 
don Hatch  and  the  outside  world  were  poor.  In 
particular  there  seems  to  have  been  no  good  road  to 
Brentwood^'  until  the  19th  century.  It  is  now  a  class 
A  road,  although  still  very  narrow  in  places.  In  the 
Ongar  direction  the  present  main  road  was  altered  be- 
tween 1777  and  1800."  This  eliminated  a  right-angle 
turn  to  the  west  of  the  present  road.  Part  of  the  exist- 
ing drive  to  Myles's  follows  the  line  of  the  old  road. 
After  the  opening  of  Brentwood  railway  station  coaches 
running  to  the  station  from  Ongar  passed  through 
Kelvedon  Hatch.  Today  there  is  a  good  bus  service 
to  Brentwood  and  a  choice  of  two  routes  to  Ongar. 

The  most  direct  road  to  Ongar  crosses  the  Roding 
by  Langford  Bridge.  In  1351  it  was  said  that  John 
Pekkebrigge,  lord  of  Kelvedon  Hatch,  and  his  tenants 
in  High  Ongar  were  to  repair  the  bridge. ^3  It  is  not 
clear  who  Pekkebrigge  was  and  what  was  his  manor. 
The  nearest  manor  to  Langford  Bridge  was  Myles's 
and  there  is  no  other  evidence  that  Pekkebrigge  was 
lord  of  this.  He  may,  however,  have  been  a  lessee.  He 
was  probably  identical  with  John  Peghbrigg  (1356) 
whose  park  is  thought  to  have  given  its  name  to  Park 
Wood  in  Kelvedon  Hatch,  which  is  not  far  south  of 
the  bridge.^'t  In  1570  the  owners  of  the  lands  adjoin- 
ing the  bridge,  Mr.  Wood  on  one  side  and  George 
Preston  and  Thomas  .\uger  on  the  other,  were  held  re- 
sponsible for  its  repair. ^5  j^i  1582  the  bridge  was  said  to 
be  in  ruins.  Kelvedon  Hatch  parish  was  to  pay  part  of 
the  cost  of  repair,  but  it  was  not  known  if  Chipping 
Ongar  should  pay  the  other  part.^*  Uncertainty  as  to 
the  responsibility  for  repair  continued  until  about  1673- 
4  when  it  was  said  to  be  a  charge  on  the  county."  In 
1773  the  bridge  was  again  in  need  of  repair.    It  was 

^3  See  Charities,  below. 

'<  Chapman  and  Andre,  Map  of  Essex 
I'jyy,  sheet  xvii. 

>5  Inf.  from  Mr.  J.  P.  Fitch. 

'^  See  Charities. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  197;  cf.  0.5.  6  in. 
Map  (ist  edn.),  sheet  Hx. 

'8  For  Church  House  see  below,  Church, 
and  for  the  mission  hall  see  Protestant 

■»  y.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  350. 

'**  Census,  1911-51. 

"  Chapman  and  Andre,  Map  of  Essex 
1777,  sheet  xvii. 

"  Ibid.;E.R.O.,  D/DFaP6. 

"  Public  fforis  in  Med.  La-w  (Selden 
See),  i,  99. 

2<  P.N.  Essex,  59. 

"  E.R.O.,  Q/SR  32/17. 

»'  Ibid.  81/25. 

"  E.R.O.,  Q/CP3  p.  39,  ii+i  e/SR 




proposed  that  it  should  be  rebuilt  in  brick,  but  it  was 
eventually  decided  to  rebuild  in  timber  at  a  cost  of 
;^i 40.28  In  i8jy  Langford  Bridge  was  described  by 
the  county  surveyor  as  a  timber  structure  of  consider- 
able span.  Its  condition  was  then  good.^'  It  was 
restored  in  1878-9  and  about  191 3  was  replaced  by 
the  present  concrete  bridge.^o 

In  1845  an  official  post-office  was  established  at 
Kelvedon  Common.^'  In  1848  the  office  was  at 
William  Nutt's.^^  A  telegraph  office  was  set  up  in  1885 
and  the  telephone  service  in  1923.23 

Piped  water  has  been  supplied  since  1935  by  the 
Herts,  and  Essex  Waterworks  Co.''*  There  is  no  main 
drainage.35  Kelvedon  Hatch  was  in  the  area  of  the 
original  Romford  Gas  Co.  but  powers  to  supply  the 
parish  were  not  obtained  until  1935.2*  There  is  now  a 
supply  to  part  of  the  parish.^^  There  is  no  electricity 
except  in  a  few  outlying  farms.'* 

Early  in  the  present  century  the  Church  House  was 
used  as  a  Working  Men's  Club  and  coffee  house.39 
In  1953  a  newly  formed  village  hall  committee  bought 
from  the  owner  of  Reed's  Stores  the  building  once  used 
as  a  mission  hall.  The  same  committee  holds  6  acres, 
formerly  part  of  the  charity  lands,  on  the  south  side  of 
School  Lane.  This  has  been  sown  with  grass  for  a  play- 
ing field  and  is  the  intended  site  of  a  new  haU.'*"  A 
branch  of  the  county  library  was  opened  in  l^zS.*' 
A  police  officer  is  stationed  at  Kelvedon  Common.^^ 
The  first  reference  to  a  constable  there  is  in  the  directory 
of  1908." 

The  ownership  of  the  land  in  Kelvedon  Hatch  was 
from  the  i6th  to  the  20th  century  mainly  in  the  hands 
of  two  families,  the  Wrights  of  Kelvedon  Hall  and  the 
Luthers  (and  their  heirs  the  Fanes).  In  1838  John 
Fane  and  J.  F.  Wright  between  them  owned  almost 
1,300  acres,  leaving  less  than  400  acres  for  all  other 
owners.'*^  Two  other  properties  contained  more  than 
50  acres:  Brizes  (76  acres)  and  83  acres  forming  part 
of  the  Waldegrave  estate  (see  Navestock).  Until  the 
death  of  J.  F.  Wright  in  1 868  he  and  his  family  usually 
lived  in  the  parish.  For  long  periods  between  1600  and 
1900  the  Luthers  and  Fanes  were  also  resident  in 
Kelvedon  Hatch,  and  so  were  the  owners  of  Brizes,  the 
third  of  the  big  houses  of  the  parish.  Their  mansions 
with  the  ornamental  gardens  must  have  provided  a 
good  deal  of  employment  during  the  i8th  and  19th 
centuries.  Apart  from  such  domestic  work,  agriculture 
has  been  the  main  occupation  in  the  parish.  In  1838 
it  was  estimated  that  there  was  about  the  same  quantity 
of  arable  land  in  the  parish  as  meadow  and  pasture — 
some  700  acres  in  each  case — while  there  were  193 
acres  woodland.  There  were  some  seven  farms  in  the 
parish,  mostly  small.*'  Other  occupations  have  been 
those  incidental  to  agriculture.  The  existence  of  a 
village  smithy  is  attested  as  far  back  as  1729,  when 
the  effects  of  the  smith,  which  had  been  distrained  upon 

for  arrears  of  rent,  were  bought  by  the  churchwardens 
of  Stanford  Rivers.'**  There  was  still  a  blacksmith  in 
the  parish  in  i9o6.'"  The  mill  at  Kelvedon  Common 
has  been  mentioned  above.  In  1845  the  miller  also 
kept  the  'Eagle' .ts 

Although  Kelvedon  Hatch  had  resident  gentry  in 
the  19th  century  it  is  clear  that  they  did  not  provide 
the  vigorous  leadership  in  parish  affairs  that  might  have 
been  expected.  The  most  important  reason  for  this 
was  that  the  Wrights  were  Roman  Catholics.  Their 
lack  of  interest  in  the  village  school  may  be  inferred 
from  the  early  difficulties  of  the  school  and  from  the 
fact  that  a  compulsory  school  board  had  to  be  estab- 
lished in  order  to  provide  a  permanent  school  building. 

Three  estates  were  listed  under  Kelvedon  Hatch  in 
Domesday  Book.  One  was  held  in  1066 
MANORS  by  Leueva  as  a  manor  and  as  i  hide  and 
45  acres  and  in  1086  by  Ralph  de  Marcy 
of  Hamon  dafifer.'''^  This  estate  may  have  become 
part  of  the  manor  of  Navestock  (q.v.)  held  by  the 
Marcy  family  and  later  formed  part  of  the  manor  of 
Myles's  (see  below).  Another  estate  in  Kelvedon 
Hatch  was  held  in  1066  by  Algar,  a  freeman,  as  \  hide 
and  20  acres  and  in  1086  by  Ivo  nephew  of  Herbert 
as  tenant  of  the  Bishop  of  Bayeux.s"  The  subsequent 
history  of  this  estate  has  not  been  traced.  The  largest 
of  the  three  estates  was  held  in  the  time  of  Edward  the 
Confessor  by  Ailric  as  a  manor  and  as  2  hides.''  This 
estate  was  later  known  as  the  manor  of  KELVEDON 

In  1066  Ailric  'went  to  take  part  in  a  naval  battle' 
against  William  of  Normandy.'^  Probably  he  joined 
the  fleet  asembled  by  King  Harold  off  the  Isle  of  Wight 
during  the  early  summer  of  1066.52  On  his  return 
home  (possibly  in  September  1066)  he  fell  ill  and  then 
gave  his  Kelvedon  Hatch  estate  to  Westminster  Abbey  .5* 
In  1086,  however,  the  Domesday  Commissioners 
reported  that  this  gift  had  not  received  King  William's 
sanction. 55  It  is  not  clear  whether  the  king  ever  con- 
firmed the  gift,  but  it  is  certain  that  the  manor  was  held 
by  Westminster  Abbey  as  tenant  in  chief  until  the  dis- 
solution of  the  abbey  in  1540.5* 

By  1225  the  abbey  had  granted  the  tenancy  in 
demesne  of  the  manor  to  the  Multon  family  of  Egre- 
mont  (Lines.).  In  that  year  Thomas  de  Multon  was 
given  10  does  and  a  buck  for  stocking  his  wood  at 
Kelvedon. 57  In  1232  he  received  licence  to  inclose 
and  impark  the  wood.58  He  died  in  1240  and  his  son 
and  heir  Lambert  in  1246.5'  Lambert  was  succeeded 
by  his  son  Thomas  who  supported  Simon  de  Montfort 
in  the  Barons'  Wars.*"  In  1265  the  manor  of  Kelvedon 
Hatch,  then  worth  £10  os.  6d.,  was  taken  into  the 
king's  hands  with  the  rest  of  Thomas's  lands.*'  Soon 
afterwards,  however,  he  recovered  the  property .*2  In 
1277  he  subinfeudated  Kelvedon  Hatch  to  Henry,  son 
of  Thomas  de  Multon  (possibly  his  own  younger  son), 

28  E.R.O.,  Q/SBb  272,  D/DFa  £5. 

"  E.R.O.,  Q/ABz  3. 

3»  Ibid.;  inf.  from  Capt.  F.  L.  Fane. 

31  P.M.G.  Mins.  1845,  vol.  84,  p.  28. 

32  Whitc'i  Dir.  Essex  (1848). 

33  P.M.G.  Mins.  1885,  vol.  301,  min. 
14357;  ibid.  1923,  min.  3076. 

3-t  Inf.    from    Herts.    &    Essex    Water- 
works Co. 
35  Inf.  from  the  Revd.  W.  Tirrell. 
3*  Inf  from  North  Thames  Gas  Bd. 
3'  Inf.  from  the  Revd.  W.  Tirrell. 
38  Ibid. 

3^  See  below,  Church. 
«>  Inf.  from  Mr.  J.  P.  Fitch. 

*'  Iiif.  from  County  Librarian. 

«2  Inf.  from  Chief  Constable  of  Essex. 

«  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1908). 

■M  E.R.O.,  D/CT  197. 

45   Ibid. 

■♦<>  E.R.O.,  D/P  140/6/2. 
■•'  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1906). 
48  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1845). 
4«  F.C.H.  Essex,  i,  503a. 
50  Ibid,  i,  457A. 
5'  Ibid,  i,  44Sa. 

52  Ibid. 

53  Stenton,  Anglo-Saxon  England,  579- 

54  V.C.H.  Essex,  i,  445a. 

55  Ibid.  A  charter  of  1066  (Kemblc, 
Cod.  Dip!,  iv,  173)  purporting  to  be  a  grant 
of  this  among  other  properties  to  West- 
minster Abbey  by  Edward  the  Confessor, 
is  spurious:  E.A.T.  N.s.  xvii,  16. 
^s'  B.M.  Cott.  MS.  Faust.  A.  iii,  f.  60  j 
Westm.  Abbey  Mun.  2^469;  C142/36/ 
71;  C142/55/61. 

5'  Rot.  Liu.  Claus.  (Rec.  Com.),  ii,  89*. 

58  Cal.  Chart.  R.\,  i;i. 

5»  Complete  Peerage,  ix,  401-2. 

«o  Ibid. 

"  Ibid.;  Cal.  Inq.  Misc.  \,  p.  201. 

'2  Complete  Peerage,  ix,  402. 



to  hold  by  a  rent  of  ;^20  a  year.  After  Thomas's  death 
Henry  was  to  hold  the  manor  of  his  heirs  by  a  nominal 
rent.*-'  Thomas  died  in  1294.  His  heir  was  his  grand- 
son Thomas,  Lord  Multon  (d.  1322)  who  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son  John,  Lord  Multon  (d.  1334)-*'' 
At  his  death  John  was  mesne  lord  of  an  estate  in 
Kelvedon  Hatch  which  consisted  of  a  messuage  and  a 
carucate  of  land,  and  which  was  held  of  him  by  the 
service  of  J  knight's  fee.*5  John's  heirs  were  his  three 
sisters:  Joan  widow  of  Robert  Fitz  Walter,  Elizabeth 
wife  of  Walter  de  Birmingham,  and  Margaret  wife  of 
Thomas,  later  2nd  Lord  Lucy  (d.  1365).**  It  was 
agreed  that  Joan,  Margaret,  and  Elizabeth  should  each 
hold  J  of  the  J  fee.*'  No  further  reference  has  been 
found  to  the  mesne  lordship  of  the  heirs  of  John  de 
Multon.  In  the  i6th  century  the  tenants  in  demesne 
were  said  to  hold  the  manor  directly  of  Westminster 
Abbey. 6  8 

Henry  de  Multon,  tenant  in  demesne  from  1277, 
was  still  living  in  13 14  but  was  dead  by  January  1322.*' 
His  heir  was  his  daughter  Juliane  wife  of  Richard  de 
Welby.'o  In  1333  Richard  and  Juliane  made  a  settle- 
ment by  which  the  manor  was  to  pass,  after  their  deaths, 
to  their  male  issue  with  successive  remainders  to  their 
daughters,  Elizabeth  de  Welby  and  Joan  wife  of  John 
de  Haugh.7'  Juliane  still  held  the  estate  in  1338.'^ 
Afterwards  the  manor  passed  to  the  heirs  of  her 
daughter  Joan  de  Haugh.  John  de  Haugh,  son  of 
Joan,  was  living  in  1347.73  Thomas  de  Haugh,  son  of 
John,  came  into  possession  of  the  manor  during  the 
life-time  of  his  father.'''  In  February  1370  Thomas 
conveyed  it  to  his  father  and  other  trustees  to  hold, 
apparently  during  the  minority  of  his  own  heir  John.'s 
By  1383  the  last  named  John  de  Haugh  had  reached 
his  majority.'*  He  was  lord  of  the  manor  until  after 
1395."  Before  1406  he  was  succeeded  by  Thomas  de 
Haugh,  probably  his  son.'*  Richard  de  Haugh  was 
lord  of  the  manor  before  the  end  of  I4i7.'9  In 
November  1427  he  conveyed  the  manor  to  trustees 
who  were  to  hold  it  first  apparently  for  John  de 
Haugh,  probably  his  son,  and  then  (presumably  if 
John  had  no  issue)  for  Richard's  daughters,  Joan, 
Katherine,  then  or  later  wife  of  John  BoUes,  and  Agnes, 
then  or  later  wife  of  William  Haltoft.*"  John  de 
Haugh  was  described  as  lord  of  the  manor  in  November 
1450  and  afterwards  until  May  1456."  He  presented 
to  the  church  in  April  1457. ^^  He  was  evidently  dead 
by  1459.83  In  1461  John  Hardbene,  the  sole  surviving 
trustee  appointed  by  Richard  de  Haugh  in  1427,  con- 
veyed the  manor  to  Katherine  Bolles,  Agnes  Haltoft, 
and  Joan  Haugh.  84  In  1466  these  sisters  agreed  that 
Katherine  and  her  husband  John  Bolles  should  have 
sole  rights  in  the  manor,  with  remainder  in  default  of 
her  issue  to  Agnes  and  her  issue.  8s  John  Bolles  was 
alive  in  November  1482  but  dead  by  November 
1495.8*    Katherine  survived  him  and  was  succeeded 

by  her  son  Richard,  who  died  in  1 5  2 1  leaving  as  his 
heir  his  son  John. 8'  In  1526  John  mortgaged  the 
manor  for  £200.88  He  redeemed  the  mortgage  and 
died  holding  the  manor  in  1533.8'  His  heir  was  his 
brother  Richard,  who  in  1538  sold  the  manor  to  John 
Wright  of  South  Weald,  yeoman,  for  £493.'° 

The  descendants  of  John  Wright  held  Kelvedon 
Hatch  for  nearly  four  centuries.  There  were  ten  suc- 
cessive John  Wrights."  The  last  of  these  died  in  1826 
and  was  succeeded  by  his  grandson  John  Francis 
Wright,  who  died  without  issue  in  1868.  The  manor 
then  passed  to  J.  F.  Wright's  nephew,  Edward 
Carrington  Wright,  who  died  in  1920,  leaving  it  to 
his  own  nephew  Sir  Henry  J.  Lawson.'^  From  1891 
Kelvedon  Hall  had  been  occupied  by  John  Algernon 
Jones  as  tenant  and  in  1922  it  was  bought  by  his  widow 
from  Sir  Henry  Lawson.  After  her  death  it  was  sold 
in  1932  by  her  son  J.  W.  B.  Jones  to  the  Mother 
Superior  of  St.  Michael's  Roman  Catholic  School. 
Mr.  Jones  bought  and  moved  to  the  old  rectory  (see 
Church). '3  Owing  to  a  succession  of  misfortunes  the 
school  did  not  prosper  and  the  house  acquired  the 
reputation  of  being  haunted.'*  Much  of  the  timber 
in  the  grounds  was  felled  at  this  time. '5  In  1937  the 
property  was  bought  by  Mr.  Henry  and  Lady  Honor 
Channon  who  restored  the  house  and  built  the  entrance 
gateway  and  lodges.'*  From  1941  to  1945  it  was  used 
as  a  Red  Cross  convalescent  home."  It  is  now  again 
the  residence  of  Mr.  Channon. 

In  1838  J.  F.  Wright  owned  880  acres  in  Kelvedon 
Hatch;  the  estate  appears  to  have  remained  sub- 
stantially intact  until  after  the  death  of  Sir  Henry 
Lawson. '8 

The  manor  house  was  entirely  rebuilt  by  the  seventh 
John  Wright  (d.  175 1)."  Later  in  the  i8th  century 
the  garden  front  and  parts  of  the  interior  were  altered, 
but  otherwise  the  building  has  remained  almost  un- 
changed. The  house  as  it  stands  today  remains  a  very 
good  example  of  one  of  the  less  grandiose  country  seats 
of  the  Georgian  period.  The  restoration  of  1937—8 
was  carried  out  to  the  designs  of  Lord  Gerald  Wellesley 
(later  Duke  of  Wellington)  and  Trenwith  Wills'  and 
in  sympathy  with  the  original. 

The  entrance  front  has  a  three-story  central  block 
with  seven  windows  to  each  of  the  upper  floors.  On 
either  side  curved  screen  walls  connect  this  with 
identical  two-story  pavilions.  These  are  set  forward, 
giving  a  three-sided  forecourt.  The  pavilions  have 
hipped  roofs,  surmounted  by  clock  turrets  and  cupolas. 
On  their  front  face  two  round-headed  panels  are  painted 
to  simulate  sash  windows.  Above  oval  panels  are 
similarly  painted.  The  basement  windows  have 
wrought-iron  grilles  and  the  principal  doorway  has  a 
Roman  Doric  order  with  engaged  columns  and  a  pedi- 
ment. The  rainwater  heads  on  this  front  are  dated 
1743.  The  garden  front  of  the  main  block  is  of  similar 

*3  feet  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  14. 

*<  Complete  Peerage,  n,  403-4. 

'5  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  vii,  p.  431. 

*'  Complete  Peerage,  ix,  405. 

"  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  vii,  pp.  435-7;  ibid. 
viii,pp.  i^i-z;  Cal.  Close,  1337-9,366-7, 
476,  486,  494. 

68  Ci42/36/7i;Ci42/55/6i. 

M  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  T33/14;  Cal.  Fine 
R.  1319-27,89. 

'"  Cal.  Fine  R.  1319-27,  89. 

"  Feetof  F.Essex,  ill,  z&. 

'2  Cal.  Close,  1337-9,  366-7,  476,  486, 

'3  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iii,  28 ;  Lines.  Pedi- 

grees (Harl.  Soc.  Iii),  iii,  1055. 
7*  E.R.O.,  D/DKT229. 
'5  Ibid. 

76  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  351. 
"  E.R.O.,  D/DC  2/1. 
'8  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  351. 
"  E.R.O.,  D/DBm  M77. 
8"  E.R.O.,  D/DK.  T229. 
8'  E.R.O.,  D/DBm  M77. 

82  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  351. 

83  E.R.O.,  D/DKT229. 

84  Ibid.  85    Ibid. 

8*  E.R.O.,  D/DBm  M78. 

87  C142/36/71 ;  E.R.O.,  D/DK  T229. 

88  E.R.O.,  D/DKT229. 


8'    C142/55/61. 

»o  E.R.O.,  D/DK  T229. 
"  For   the   pedigree  see   Burke,  Land. 
Gent.  (1894),  2275-6. 

92  Country  Life,  Ixxxix,  no.  23 1 1  (May 
1941),  p.  388. 

93  Inf.  from  Mr.  Jones. 

'4  Country  Life  (May  1941),  p.  386. 
95  Inf.  from  Mr.  Jones. 
9*  Country  Life  (May  1941),  p.  386. 
"  Inf.  from  Mr.  Jones. 

98  E.R.O.,    D/CT     197;    Kelly's    Dir. 
Essex  (1922). 

99  Hist.  Essex  by  Gent,  iv,  56. 

'  Country  Life  (May  1941),  p.  389. 



proportions  but  the  central  bay  projects  slightly  and 
is  surmounted  by  a  pediment.  The  porch,  which  is 
supported  on  columns  with  fluted  capitals,  has  an  en- 
riched entablature  of  about  1780.  The  single-story 
flanking  wings  were  probably  added  or  modified  at  the 
same  period;  the  north  wing  contained  the  kitchens 
and  the  south  wing  a  private  Roman  Catholic  chapel 
dedicated  to  St.  Joseph.* 

Internally  the  best  examples  of  the  original  mid- 
i8th-century  rococo  decoration  occur  in  the  entrance 
and  staircase  halls  and  in  one  of  the  bedrooms.  The 
staircase  has  a  balustrade  of  wrought-iron  scrollwork 
and  the  walls  have  elaborate  plasterwork  panels  in 
which  are  trophies  representing  War,  Music,  and  the 
Chase.  The  drawing-room,  dining-room,  and  music 
room  were  all  redecorated  in  the  'Adam'  style  of  about 
1780.  The  drawing-room  has  an  enriched  ceiling  and 
the  dining-room  a  circular  medallion  above  the 
chimney-piece.  Both  rooms  have  good  fire-places.  The 
former  chapel  is  of  about  the  same  period:  on  the 
curved  end  wall  is  an  arched  recess  for  the  altar, 
flanked  by  Ionic  columns  and  having  a  dove  in  plaster 
relief  above  it.  The  side  walls  are  divided  into  panels 
by  Ionic  pilasters  and  the  segmental  ceiling  has  plaster 
enrichments.  The  chapel  was  restored  by  Sir  John 
Oakley  during  the  occupation  of  the  Hall  by  St. 
Michael's  School. ^  The  red-brick  stable  block  and  the 
orangery  probably  date  from  the  late  i8th  century. 

The  manor  of  GERMAINS  derived  its  name  from 
a  family  which  probably  held  it  in  the  14th  and  15  th 
centuries.  It  is  possibly  to  be  identified  with  the  estate 
which  in  1281  was  held  of  Denise  de  Munchensy  by 
Thomas  son  of  Lambert  de  Multon,  lord  of  the  manor 
of  Kelvedon  Hatch.''  If  this  identification  is  correct  it 
suggests  there  was  a  connexion,  in  1086  or  later,  be- 
tween Germains  and  the  manor  of  Theydon  Garnon 

In  the  15th  century  Germains  was  held  of  the 
manor  of  Kelvedon  Hatch.'  It  is  not  clear  when  the 
Germain  family  became  the  tenants.  A  Roger  Germain 
was  a  witness  to  a  deed  of  1355  relating  to  land  in 
Kelvedon  Hatch  and  other  parishes.*  In  1 368  a  William 
Germain  was  witness  at  a  proof  of  age  taken  at  Nave- 
stock.  He  then  had  a  son  and  heir  Gilljert.'  In  1398 
another  William  Germain  of  Kelvedon  Hatch  had 
royal  letters  of  protection  when  going  on  service  to 
France;  the  letters  were  revoked  because  he  failed  to 
go.*  In  142 1-2  he  was  one  of  the  commissioners 
appointed  to  collect  a  tenth  and  fifteenth  in  Essex.'  It 
was  possibly  this  WiUiam  Germain  who  before  145^ 
made  a  bequest  to  Navestock  church  (q.v.). 

In  1444  Henry  Chaderton  died  holding  the  manor 
of  Germains  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Henry.'" 
The  manor  subsequently  passed  to  Sir  Humphrey 
Starkey,  lord  of  Slades  in  Navestock  (q.v.).  He  died  in 
i486  and  Germains  then  descended  along  with  Slades 
until  1604.  In  1604  Sir  Thomas  Joscelin  sold  Ger- 
mains to  John  Wright,  lord  of  Kelvedon  Hatch,  and 
it  subsequently  descended  with  that  manor."  In  1838 
Germain's  Farm  consisted  of  242  acres  and  the  tenant 

was  John  Thomas.'*    It  now  belongs  to  the  Iveagh 

The  farm-house  is  timber-framed  and  plastered  and 
probably xlates  from  the  early  i6th  century.  It  consists 
of  a  central  block  with  gabled  cross-wings  to  east  and 
west.  The  wings  are  of  two  stories  and  each  has  three 
bays.  On  both  floors  the  stop-chamfered  tie-beams 
dividing  the  bays  are  visible  and  in  several  cases  the 
small  curved  braces  below  them  are  also  in  position.  A 
four-centred  door-head  has  been  exposed  in  an  upper 
room  in  the  west  wing.  The  timbering  is  not  visible  in 
the  central  block  so  that  it  is  not  possible  to  establish 
whether  this  part  of  the  house  has  an  earlier  origin  than 
the  i6th  century.  There  are  indications  that  two  large 
Tudor  fire-places  have  been  bricked  up.  The  doorways 
and  sash  windows  of  the  house  were  probably  inserted 
in  the  i8th  century. 

The  manor  oiMTLES'S  alias  GREAT  MTLES'S 
derived  its  name  from  Miles  de  Munteny  (see  below). 
In  the  1 6th  century  it  was  said  to  be  held  of  the  Dean 
and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  and  later  of  the  Walde- 
graves,  as  of  their  manor  of  Navestock.'^  No  earlier 
statement  of  this  tenure  has  been  found  and  the  16th- 
century  statements  cannot  be  regarded  as  certain 
evidence  of  earlier  tenure,  but  it  is  possible  that  Myles's 
was  identical  with  an  estate  in  Navestock  and  Kelvedon 
Hatch  held  in  the  12th  and  early  13th  century  by  the 
Marcy  family.  Before  1 1 20  the  Marcys  agreed  to  pay 
rent  for  their  Navestock  estate  (q.v.)  to  the  Dean  and 
Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  and  they  still  held  that  estate  of 
St.  Paul's  in  1222.  The  estate  which  Ralph  de  Marcy 
held  in  Kelvedon  Hatch  (see  above)  in  1086  probably 
came  to  be  considered  part  of  the  Navestock  estate  in 
the  1 2th  century,  and  later  of  Myles's. 

In  the  1 3th  century  the  manor  was  held  by  Nicholas 
le  Convers.'s  He  conveyed  it  to  Roger  le  Convers  who 
no  doubt  added  to  it  85  acres  which  he  acquired  in 
1 261  from  Henry  Belret.'*  The  manor  later  passed  to 
Roger  son  of  Roger  le  Convers  who  in  1 3 1 8  released 
his  rights  in  it  to  Miles  de  Munteny  and  his  wife 
Agnes."  Miles  was  still  alive  in  1336.'*  In  1355  the 
estate  was  granted  by  John  Munteny  to  Richard  de 
Salyng  of  London."  The  Muntenys  seem,  however, 
to  have  retained  some  interest,  for  in  1378  Thomas  de 
Munteny  released  all  his  rights  in  the  estate  to  Richard 
de  Salyng.*"  Richard  was  still  alive  in  1398.*' 

In  141 2  Myles's  was  held  by  Edmund  Prior  of  Bois 
Hall  in  Navestock  (q.v.)  and  it  descended  with  that 
manor  until  1 566. 

In  1566  Myles's  was  bought  by  Thomas  Luther 
who  was  still  alive  in  1585.**  Richard  Luther  was  son 
and  heir  of  Thomas.*^  From  about  1 587  to  1627,  how- 
ever, the  manor  was  apparently  shared  between 
Richard  and  his  brother  Anthony  Luther.*''  Accord- 
ing to  an  epitaph  quoted  by  Morant,  Richard  and 
Anthony  were  'so  truely  loveing  brothers  that  they  lived  • 
neare  fortie  years  joynt  housekeepers  together  at  Miles 
without  anie  accompt  between  them'.*'  Anthony  died 
in  1627  leaving  his  share  of  the  estate  to  Richard.** 
Richard  died  in    1638  leaving  as  his  heir  his  son 

*  For    the    chapel   see   below,   Roman 

3  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (ig-^-j). 

'♦  Feet  of  F,  Essex,  ii,  32. 

5  C139/120. 

'  Cal.  Close,  1354-60,  623. 

'  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  xii,  165. 

'  Cal.  Fat.  1396-9,  430. 

«  Cal.    Fine    R.    1413-22, 
1422-30,  8. 


8;    ibid. 

'"  C139/120. 

I"  E.A.S.  Docs.  Kelvedon  Hatch  13. 

12  E.R.O.,  D/CT  197. 

'3  Inf.  from  the  tenant,  Mr.  Cooke. 

■«  C142/20/98;  C142/134/141. 

I!  Cal.  Close,  1313-18,  597. 

«■  Ibid. ;  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  \,  255. 

'^  Cal.  Close,  1 313-18,  597. 

■8  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  T33/31. 

'9  Cal.  Close,   1354-60,  623.    For  the 


Muntenys  and  Salyngs  see  Littlebury  in 
Stanford  Rivers. 

2»  Cal.  Close,  1377-81,  321. 

2'  Cal  Fine  R.  1391-9,258. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  E43/9. 

"  Ibid.;  risit.  of  Essex  1664-8,  63. 

"  E.A.T.  N.s.  xii,  no;  E.R.O.,  D/DFi 

25  Morant,  Essex^  i,  i86. 

26  E.A.T.  N.s.  xii,  no. 


Anthony,  a  barrister  of  the  Middle  Temple  and  J. P. 
for  Essex.^'  Anthony  was  succeeded  on  his  death  in 
1665  by  his  son  Richard.^*  Richard  died  before  1691, 
leaving  Myles's  to  his  son  and  heir  Edward  Luther, 
who  was  Sheriff  of  Essex  in  1701.29  In  1729  Edward 
settled  the  manor  on  his  son  Richard  when  the  latter 
married  Charlotte  Chamberlain.  The  estate  then  con- 
sisted of  250  acres  in  Kelvedon  Hatch,  Stondon 
Massey,  and  High  Ongar.'"  Through  his  mother 
Richard  also  inherited  the  considerable  property  of  the 
Dawtreys  of  Doddinghurst  Place.  He  died  in  1767.3' 
His  son  and  heir  was  John  Luther,  knight  of  the  shire 
for  Essex  1763-84,  who  died  without  issue  in  1786. 
Myles's  then  passed  to  Francis  Fane,  younger  son  of 
Charlotte,  sister  of  John  Luther  and  wife  of  Henry 
Fane  of  Wormsley  (Oxon.).^^  F'rancis  died  in  18 13, 
leaving  as  his  heir  his  elder  brother  John.33  Myles's 
subsequently  descended  in  the  Fane  family .34  In  1838 
the  estate  comprised  417  acres  in  Kelvedon  Hatch  of 
which  some  200  acres  belonged  to  Little  Myles's 
Farm  in  Stondon  Massey,  32  acres  to  Great  Myles's, 
93  acres  to  Clap  Gates,  and  3 1  acres  to  Priors  Farm. '5 
In  1 849  the  Stondon  Massey  part  of  the  Fane  estate 
comprised  128  acres,  of  which  52  acres  belonged  to 
Little  Myles's  and  76  acres  to  Clap  Gates  Farm.^*  The 
mansion  house  of  Myles's  had  by  this  time  been 
demolished  (see  below).  Its  site  was  sold  in  1943  by 
John  Luther  Fane  to  the  present  owner,  Mr.  Parrish.s' 

A  diagrammatic  sketch  of  an  early  house  at  Great 
Myles's  appears  on  an  estate  map  of  about  1700.3*  It 
shows  a  long  red  brick  front  of  two  stories  with  dormers 
in  the  roof  and  projecting  wings  at  either  end.  Shell 
hoods  are  drawn  above  the  doorways  and  the  windows 
have  lattice  panes.  It  was  probably  built  during  the 
second  half  of  the  17th  century. 

Before  he  gave  up  the  estate  to  his  son  in  1762 
Richard  Luther  is  said  to  have  'much  enlarged  and 
beautified  the  house'. 3'  The  result  was  the  imposing 
Georgian  mansion  which  occupied  the  site  until  its 
demolition  in  the  19th  century.  A  sale  notice  of  about 
1830  shows  two  many-windowed  fronts  facing  south- 
west and  south-east.'"'  The  tradition  that  there  was  a 
window  for  each  day  of  the  year'"  is  probably  an 
exaggeration,  but  there  were  at  least  16  rooms  on  the 
bedroom  floor  with  garrets  above  for  the  domestic 
stafF.42  Jn  1 770-1  a  tributary  of  the  Roding  was 
dammed  to  form  a  long  expanse  of  water  in  front  of 
the  house.  The  cost  was  ^(^600  and  the  graceful  brick 
bridge  which  still  spans  the  lake  was  built  for  an  addi- 
tional ^^250.43  These  improvements  were  designed  for 
John  Luther  by  Richard  Woods,  who  later  replanned 
the  gardens  at  Brizes  (see  above,  p.  64).  After  John 
Luther's  death  in  1786  the  house  was  let  furnished  to 
Francis  Ford  and  later  to  a  Dr.  Chandler.''^  Attempts 
to  sell  it  early  in  the  19th  century  were  apparently  un- 

successful and  in  1837  it  was  demolished  at  the  wish 
of  John  Fane's  widow.^s  A  small  red-brick  range, 
probably  part  of  a  service  wing,  remains  standing  and 
has  been  converted  into  a  residence.  The  fine  stable 
block,  advertised  about  1830  as  capable  of  accom- 
modating 22  horses,**  is  also  in  existence. 

The  advowson  of  Kelvedon  Hatch  descended  with 
the  manor  until  the  19th  century.  John 
CHURCH  Wright  presented  to  the  rectory  in  160J.*'' 
His  successors  as  lords  of  the  manor  were 
Roman  Catholics.  As  such  they  were  disqualified  by 
law  from  presenting,  and  their  rights  of  patronage 
vested  in  the  Chancellor  of  Cambridge  University.** 
It  is  not  clear  how  far  the  law  was  observed  in  this  case. 
There  was  at  least  one  presentation  (1760)  by  the 
Chancellor  of  Cambridge.  Other  presentations  in  the 
17th  and  1 8th  centuries  were  made  by  various  persons 
who  had  perhaps  bought  the  right  pro  hac  vice.^'>  By 
1848  the  advowson  was  held  by  W.  H.  Ashpitel.s" 
Owing  to  the  long  incumbency  of  the  then  rector, 
John  Bannister  (1833-70)  he  did  not  live  to  exercise 
it.  It  passed  to  his  son  and  was  sold  in  1864  to  E. 
Slocock.51  From  him  it  descended  to  his  son  the  Revd. 
Samuel  Slocock  who  presented  himself  in  1870  and 
remained  rector  until  1889.'^  The  advowson  was  then 
sold  to  E.  W.  Puxon  of  Croydon  (Surr.).53  After  his 
death  in  1 896  it  remained  in  the  hands  of  his  trustees 
for  some  years. ^^  He  had  presented  his  son-in-law, 
D.  W.  Peregrine,  in  1889,^^  and  the  advowson  had  by 
1912  come  to  Mrs.  C.  M.  Peregrine. ^^  She  gave  it  in 
1928  to  the  Revd.  William  Tirrell  who  has  been  rector 
and  patron  ever  since. ^' 

The  rectory  of  Kelvedon  Hatch  was  valued  at  6 
marks  in  about  1254.  It  was  then  stated  that  the  rector 
of  the  church  of  (Magdalen)  Laver  received  part  of 
the  tithe  from  the  demesne  of  Gilbert  de  Breaute  and 
Ralph  de  The  value  of  the  rectory  was 
stated  to  be  10  marks  in  1291  and  j^i2  in  1535.5"  In 
1838  the  tithes  were  commuted  for  ;£438;  there  were 
then  28  acres  of  glebe.*" 

A  terrier  of  16 10  mentions  a  rectory  house  of  two 
stories,  part  newly  built,  'with  several  rooms  in  it  both 
above  and  below'.*'  The  north  end  of  the  old  rectory 
(now  Kelvedon  Grange),  consisting  of  a  gabled  cross- 
wing  and  part  of  the  central  block,  may  well  be  the 
'newly  built  house'  referred  to  in  the  terrier.  There  is 
a  massive  stop-chamfered  beam  in  the  present  kitchen 
and  the  principal  chimney  has  grouped  diagonal  shafts. 
Early  in  the  i8th  century  the  south  end  of  the  central 
block  was  rebuilt  and  the  roof  level  raised.  The  ground- 
floor  hall  retains  sash  windows  of  this  date  with  wide 
glazing  bars.  Further  alterations  were  probably  made 
about  1800.  During  the  incumbency  of  the  Revd. 
D.  W.  Peregrine  at  the  end  of  the  19th  century  the 
house  was  enlarged  and  altered  at  a  cost  of  about 

"  C142/724/1S. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  E43/9;  ibid.  Q/RTh 


"  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  E43/9;  Newcourt, 
Repert.  ii,  545. 

3»  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  E4.2/2,  D/DFa  F6. 

3'  Reeve,  Stondon  Massey,  '^Si  Gents. 
Mag.  xxxviii,  47. 

31  E.R.O.,  Q/RPl  685-717;  D/DFa 
E45/22-23;  Burlte,  Land.  Gct/.  (1871), 
i,  417.  Henry  was  a  younger  brother  of 
Thomas,  Earl  of  Westmorland. 

33  E.R.O.,    D/DFa    E45/22,    23,    26; 

3«  Burke,  Land.  Gent.  (1855),  366. 
3S  E.R.O.,  D/CT  197. 

36  E.R.O.,  D/CT  337. 

37  Inf.  from  Capt.  F.  L.  Fane. 
'8  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  Pi. 

39  Morant,  Hist.  Essex,  i,  187. 
4°  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  E33. 
♦'  E.A.T.  N.s.  xii,  111-12. 
«  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  E43/1. 
«  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  E43/32. 

44  Ibid.  E43/1,  5. 

45  Inf.  from  Capt.  F.  L.  Fane  of  Priors. 
4'  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  E33. 

47  Newcourt,  Repert,  ii,  351—2. 

48  Popish  Recusants  Act    3  &  4  Jas.  I, 
C.5  {1606). 

49  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  352;  Morant, 
Essex,  i,  187. 


so  White's  Dir.  Essex  (1848),  420. 
5'  Clergy  List  (iMe,),  119. 

52  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1870);  Crockford's 
Cler.Dir.  1870-89. 

53  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1890). 

54  Ibid.  1899,  1906. 

ii  Ibid.  1890;  inf.  from  Mr.  J.  W.  B. 

56  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (19 12). 

57  Inf.  from  the  Revd.  Wm.  Tirrell. 

58  E.A.T.  N.s.  xviii,  18. 

59  Tax.   Eccl.   (Rec.   Com.),  zii;  Val. 
Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  43  7*. 

<">  E.R.O.,  D/CT  197. 

"  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  351. 



jr4,ooo.*2  The  cost  was  borne  by  E.  W.  Puxon, 
father-in-law  of  the  rector,  and  by  his  widow.63  A 
new  wing  was  added  at  the  south  end  and  several 
smaller  additions  were  made  on  the  garden  side. 
Mullioned  and  transomed  windows  were  inserted  and 
the  older  house  was  encased  with  ornamental  timber- 
ing. Much  of  the  interior  detail  is  of  the  same  date. 
In  193 1  the  present  rector  moved  to  a  new  rectory  and 
the  old  house  became  the  property  of  Mr.  J.  W.  B. 

The  present  rectory  was  built  in  193 1  immediately 
to  the  west  of  the  modern  parish  church.  It  is  of  dark 
red  brick.  The  builders  were  Messrs.  Trigg  &  Moore 
of  Chelmsford.*" 

The  former  parish  church  of  ST.  NICHOLAS 
stands  in  the  grounds  of  Kelvedon  Hall.  There  was  a 
medieval  church  on  this  site,  but  a  complete  rebuilding 
took  place  between  1750  and  1753.^5  The  font  and  a 
1 5th-century  bell  were  preserved  from  the  old  church 
and  many  of  the  floor  slabs  appear  to  have  been  left ;'» 
situ.  Four  bells  were  sold  to  help  defray  the  cost  of  re- 
building.** In  1873  the  church  was  restored  at  a  cost 
of  ;^38o,*'  but  twenty  years  later  it  was  decided  to  build 
another  church  on  a  more  convenient  site  near  the 
centre  of  the  parish.  The  new  building,  to  which 
many  of  the  fittings  had  been  removed,  was  con- 
secrated in  1895.*^  The  old  church,  dismantled  and 
derelict,  became  overgrown  with  creeper  and  was 
further  damaged  by  a  German  rocket  bomb  in  1945.*' 

The  building  is  of  red  brick,  plastered  internally, 
and  had  a  tiled  roof,  much  of  which  has  fallen  down. 
It  consists  of  nave  and  chancel  with  a  small  weather- 
boarded  bell  turret  at  the  west  end.  Both  Morant 
(1768)  and  Wright  (1835)  mention  a  south  aisle,  but 
it  is  probable  that  their  information  is  out  of  date  and 
that  they  are  referring  to  the  medieval  church.'"  The 
chancel  arch  is  slightly  pointed  and  the  glazing  of  the 
windows  has  a  gothic  flavour,  but  in  other  respects  the 
details  are  purely  Georgian.  At  the  east  end  is  a  three- 
light  Venetian  window,  the  other  windows  being 
round-headed  or  circular.  The  flat  ceiling  has  a 
modillion  cornice.  Classical  pilasters,  formerly  at  one 
of  the  south  entrances,"  are  now  missing. 

Some  floor  slabs  remain,  many  from  the  medieval 
church.  A  slab  having  indents  for  a  figure  and  for  four 
shields  of  arms  has  no  inscription  but  probably  dates 
from  the  15th  century.'^  An  indented  slab  which 
formerly  held  brasses  of  a  kneeling  man  and  woman 
has  an  inscription  to  Francis  [sic]  Wright,  formerly 
Waldegrave  (d.  1656).  The  inscription  was  probably 
cut  at  this  date  on  an  older  slab:  the  woman's  figure, 
of  which  a  drawing  remains,  is  shown  in  the  dress  of 
about  1 570.73  An  epitaph  mentioned  by  Morant''' 
to  John  Wright  (15  51)  has  now  disappeared.  An 
inscribed  brass  to  another  John  Wright  (1608)  recorded 
in  1920's  is  also  missing.  Other  slabs  to  the  Wrights 
of  Kelvedon  Hall  include  those  of  Ann  (Suliard,  16 17) 
and  two  John  Wrights  (1654  and  1656).  There  are 
many  17th-century  slabs  to  members  of  the  Luther 
family,  some  with  shields  of  arms.  An  inscribed  brass 
plate  to  Richard  Luther  (who  died  1638)'*  and  his 


"  Inf.  from  Mr.  J.  W.B.Jones.    "  Ibid. 

«♦  Inf.  from  Rev.  Wm.  Tirrell. 

"  Essex  Par.  Recs.  139;  a  brief  for 
^1,681  was  applied  for  in  1750—1:  E.R. 
xxvi,  199.    See  plate  facing  p.  270. 

'«  Inf.  from  Revd.  Wm.  Tirrell. 

<•^  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1886). 

"  E.R.  V,  7. 

"  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  142;  inf. 

from  Revd.  Wm.  Tirrell. 

7°  Morant,    Hist.    Essex, 
Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  4.23. 

"  E.R.  xii,  17+. 

'2  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  1+2. 

'3  E.A.T.  N.s.  X,  206. 

'■•  Morant,  Essex,  i,  i8y. 

'5  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  il,  142. 

''  See  Germains,  above. 

brother  Anthony  is  undated.  Other  slabs  are  to  Robert 
Thurkettle  (1679)  and  his  wife  and  to  Elizabeth  Purca 
(1727)  and  Mrs.  Ann  Westwood  (1742). 

No  wall  monuments  survive  from  the  medieval 
church.  In  the  chancel  is  a  handsome  marble  tablet 
to  John  Wright  (175 1)  who  rebuilt  Kelvedon  Hall. 
There  is  also  a  tablet  to  his  son-in-law,  Marrock 
Strickland.  A  white  marble  cartouche  shield  in  the 
nave  commemorates  Charles  Dolby  of  Brizes  (1755) 
and  a  gothic  tablet,  now  fallen,  is  to  William  Dolby 
(1819).  On  the  south  wall  of  the  chancel  are  marble 
tablets  to  John  Luther,  M. P.  (1786),  and  Rebecca  and 
Amy  Luther  (1780  and  1782).  A  painted  board  giving 
a  list  of  the  parish  charities  hangs  in  the  nave.  Among 
the  many  headstones  in  the  churchyard  is  one  carved 
with  an  hour-glass,  skull,  and  crossbones,  inscribed  to 
Jonathan  Wingrue  (1704)." 

The- present  parish  church,  also  dedicated  to  St. 
Nicholas,  was  built  in  1895  at  a  cost  of  £2,000.'* 
The  site  had  previously  been  acquired  for  burials." 
Funds  were  raised  by  appeals  and  subscriptions  and 
John  Thomas  Newman,  F.R.I.B.A.,  of  Kelvedon  Hatch 
gave  his  services  as  architect,  ^o  The  building  is  of  red 
brick,  left  exposed  internally,  and  consists  of  chancel, 
nave,  organ  chamber,  vestry,  and  south  porch.  Above 
the  porch  is  a  small  bell  tower  with  a  louvred  belfry 
and  a  shingled  spire.  The  church  was  thoroughly 
restored  in  1927  when  the  roof  was  partially  renewed 
and  the  pipe  organ,  which  had  been  damaged  by  rain, 
was  taken  away.*' 

The  font,  removed  from  the  earlier  church,  is  octa- 
gonal and  probably  of  the  15th  century.  On  one  face 
is  carved  a  mitre  and  on  the  adjoining  faces  are 
children's  heads.  The  position  of  the  carvings  suggests 
that  the  font  has  been  wrongly  orientated.  The  seat- 
ing, much  of  which  came  from  the  old  church,  is  of  the 
19th  century. 

The  single  bell,  which  also  came  from  the  old  church, 
was  cast  about  1460—80  and  was  probably  by  John 
Kebyll;  it  is  inscribed  'Sancte  Andree  Ora  Pro  Nobis' 
and  has  a  shield  of  arms. *^  The  church  plate  consists 
of  a  silver  cup  and  paten  of  1674,  with  the  arms  of  the 
Luther  family  and  probably  given  by  them.  There  is 
also  a  silvered  copper  paten,  undated  but  fairly  modern. 
At  one  time  there  was  an  electro-plated  flagon,  also 
modern,  but  this  has  been  missing  since  at  least  1926.83 

The  former  Church  Room,  previously  the  non- 
conformist mission  hall  and  now  the  village  hall,  was 
bought  by  the  rector,  D.  W.  Peregrine,*'*  who  sold  it  in 
1905  to  certain  parishioners  who  in  191 2  made  it  over 
to  the  then  rector,  W.  S.  Mavor.  The  consideration  of 
j^ioo  was  to  be  repaid  and  then  the  house  would  be 
handed  over  to  the  church.  By  1930,  however,  the 
money  was  only  partly  repaid  and  the  building  was  in 
disrepair.  It  was  therefore  sold  for  £1 1  5  and  after  the 
repayment  of  Dr.  Mavor  the  balance  was  devoted  to 
church  work.''  The  former  Church  House,  now 
Reed's  Stores,  was  built  late  in  the  19th  century. 
Early  in  the  present  century  the  house  was  used  as  a 
Working  Men's  Club  and  coffee  house.**  From  1906 
to  1909  the  curate  hved  there." 

"  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  142. 
87;    T.  ■>»  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (^i<)Z<)). 

"  Inf.  from  rector.  »<>  Ibid. 

8'  Ibid.  *'  Ch.  Bells  Essex,  309. 

"  Ck.  Plate  Essex,  136;  inf.  from  rector. 
«♦  Inf.  from  the  Revd.  W.  Tirrell. 
»5  Char.  Com.  Recs. 
'8  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  {liq^  1896, 1906). 
»'  Inf.  from  Revd.  W.  Tirrell. 



In  1 854  J.  F.  Wright  of  Kelvedon  Hall  wrote  to  Dr. 

Tavarez,  the  Roman  Catholic 

ROMAN  priest  at  Brentwood,  in  reply  to 

CATHOLICISM  a  request  to  furnish  informa- 
tion concerning  the  history  of 
Roman  Catholic  worship  in  the  Kelvedon  Hatch  area. 
'At  Kelvedon  Hall,  where  my  family  have  resided  for 
upwards  of  300  years  I  have  little  doubt  (though  I  have 
no  positive  proof  of  the  fact)  that  a  priest  was  maintained 
during  the  greater  part  of  that  time,  though  possibly 
only  at  intervals  during  times  of  persecution.  The 
inscription  on  the  ciborium  belonging  to  Kelvedon 
Hall  chapel  (Ora  pro  Eugenia  Wright  17 10)  is  pretty 
good  proof  of  there  having  been  a  priest  and  chapel 
then.'*^  The  family  tradition  here  stated  was  probably 
well  founded.  In  1 60 5 ,  when  William  Byrd  of  Stondon 
Massey  (q.v.)  was  presented  to  the  archdeacon  as  a 
Popish  recusant,  it  was  also  urged  against  him  that  he 
had  led  astray  John  Wright  of  Kelvedon,  the  son  of  the 
then  lord  of  the  manor  and  later  to  become  lord  him- 
self, and  his  sister  Anne,  into  the  same  heresy.  8?  This 
may  be  evidence  that  the  Wrights  were  not  Roman 
Catholics  between  the  time  when  they  acquired  the 
manor  and  the  end  of  the  i6th  century.  It  has  not 
been  definitely  established  that  they  were  Roman 
Catholics  throughout  the  17th  century;  Bishop 
Compton's  census  (1676)  lists  no  Roman  Catholics  in 
Kelvedon  Hatch.'"  But  for  the  i8th  century  there  is 
confirmation  of  J.  F.  Wright's  statements.  John  Wright 
of  Kelvedon  Hall  was  registered  at  quarter  sessions  in 
1 7 17  as  a  papist,  and  so  also  was  his  son  John  Wright 
the  younger."  Eugenia,  widow  of  John  Wright  of 
Kelvedon  Hall,  was  similarly  registered  in  173 1  and 
another  John  Wright  in  1761.W  In  the  17th  and  i8th 
centuries  the  Wrights,  although  they  held  the  advowson 
of  Kelvedon  Hatch,  do  not  appear  to  have  presented 
to  the  rectory  themselves  except  in  1607. '3  Priests 
from  the  Jesuit  College  of  the  Holy  Apostles  also  appear 
to  have  visited  Kelvedon  Hall  regularly  in  the  middle 
of  the  1 8th  century.'*  Continuing  his  letter  to  Dr. 
Tavarez,  J.  F.  Wright  stated  that  his  family  left 
Kelvedon  Hall  in  1788  forafewyears.  'Inconsequence 
a  small  chapel  was  fitted  up  in  a  room  in  a  farm-house 
on  Kelvedon  Common  and  the  Revd.  Richard  Antr«bus, 
then  the  priest  at  Wealdside  (in  South  Weald),  used  to 
attend  there  at  Indulgences,  for  the  accommodation  of 
the  Catholics  about  here.'"  J.  F.  Wright  went  on  to 
describe  the  return  of  his  family  to  Kelvedon  Hall  in 
1799  and  gave  the  names  of  three  Roman  Catholic 
priests  who  lived  there  as  chaplains  between  1 799  and 
1 8 1 3,  when  his  grandfather  again  left  the  hall.'*  There 
was  no  resident  priest  there  after  181 3.  The  few 
Roman  Catholics  in  Kelvedon  Hatch  were  served  by 
the  priest  at  Ingatestone  Hall  and  later  by  the  priest 
in  charge  of  the  church  at  Brentwood,  opened  in  1837. 
In  J.  F.  Wright's  own  time  the  private  chapel  at 
Kelvedon  Hall  was  again  in  use  for  Catholic  worship. 
In  1 8  5  7  he  was  again  corresponding  with  Dr.  Tavarez, 
this  time  about  the  proposal  to  install  a  confessional  in 

the  chapel.  He  told  Tavarez  that  he  considered  that 
the  chapel  was  too  small  for  the  secrecy  of  the  con- 
fessional to  be  maintained — 'and  where  the  confessor 
is  at  all  hard  of  hearing  the  danger  is  still  greater'.  And 
he  was  further  unwilling  to  obey  an  order  by  Arch- 
bishop Errington  to  destroy  some  old  altar  stones  in 
the  chapel. '7  'I  beg  to  say  that  they  will  never  be  used 
and  that  they  take  up  very  little  room.  As  for  saying 
"cui  bono"  do  they  remain,  that,  I  submit  concerns  me 
alone  and  I  do  not  hesitate  to  say  that  .  .  .  they  have 
acquired  an  interest  from  the  fact  of  their  having  been 
here  for  several  generations. ...  It  is  I  think  no  improb- 
able supposition  that  over  some  of  them  mass  has  been 
celebrated  in  times  of  persecution  by  priests  who  sub- 
sequently became  martyrs.'  Wright  concluded  his 
letter  with  a  dignified  reproach:  'Into  these  feelings, 
however,  I  cannot  expect  you  to  enter,  as  you  cannot 
feel  as  we  English  Catholics  do  on  these  subjects,  who 
know  with  how  much  trouble  and  difficulty  our  religion 
was  kept  alive  in  England  in  former  days.''* 

Roman  Catholic  worship  no  doubt  continued  to  be 
held  at  Kelvedon  Hall  during  J.  F.  Wright's  hfe-time 
and  while  his  nephew  and  successor,  E.  C.  Wright, 
lived  at  the  hall.  The  chapel  at  the  hall,  which  was 
dedicated  to  St.  Joseph,  became  disused  during  the 
occupation  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  A.  Jones,  but  was  again 
taken  into  use  and  was  restored  during  the  years  when 
the  hall  was  occupied  by  St.  Michael's  School." 

In  1829  nonconformist  worship  was  being  conducted 

in  a  licensed  house  at  Kelve- 

PROTESTANT  don  Common  by  the  Revd. 

NONCONFORMirr  D.  Smith  an  Independent 
minister  from  Brentwood.' 
It  is  possible  that  there  was  some  continuity  between 
this  congregation  and  that  which  later  in  the  19th 
century  met  in  the  building  now  used  as  the  village  hall. 
Services  were  conducted  there  by  a  visiting  minister 
until  about  1 890.^  The  building  is  timber-framed  and 
weather-boarded  and  was  probably  built  early  in  the 
19th  century.3 

Vestry  minute-books  for  Kelvedon  Hatch  survive 
for  the  periods  1736—60  and 
PARISH  GOVERN-     i835-8i.t 

MENT  AND  Duringtheperiod  1736-60 

POOR  RELIEF  vestry  meetings  usually  seem 
to  have  been  held  only  at 
Easter  in  each  year.  In  only  one  year^  during  this 
period  was  more  than  one  meeting  recorded.  The 
minutes  were  brief  but  were  always  signed.  The  Revd. 
C.  Wragg,  rector  of  the  parish  from  173 1  until  1758, 
seems  never  to  have  attended  the  meetings.  His  suc- 
cessor, the  Revd.  N.  GriffinhoefF (1758-60)  attended 
the  only  Easter  vestry  held  during  his  incumbency  and 
was  the  first  to  sign  the  minutes.  The  number  of 
parishioners  who  attended  the  meetings  varied  between 
3  and  6.  Members  of  the  Wright  family,  lords  of  the 
manor  of  Kelvedon  Hatch,*  always  attended  and 
usually  signed  first. 

The  minutes  rarely  did  more  than  record  the  ap- 

88  R.C.  Parish  of  Brentwood,  MSS. 
Book.   Inf.  supplied  by  Revd.  B.  C.  Foley. 

8»  E.R.O.,  D/AEA  23,  quoted  in  A.  C. 
Edwards,  English  History  from  Essex 
Sources,  JSSo-iy^o,  13. 

«o  See  Table  on  p.  311.     ' 

»'  E.R.O.,  Q/RRp  1/12,21. 

«=  Ibid.  3/4,  4/6. 

»3  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  352.  And  see 
above,  Church. 

'<  E.R.  xxvii,  73-76. 

»5  R.C.  Parish  of  Brentwood,  MSS. 

'>*•  As  to  the  first  chaplain,  John  Clarkson, 
J.  F.  Wright's  statement  is  confirmed  by 
the  Register  of  Papists'  Meeting  Places : 
E.R.O.,  Q/RRw  3. 

"  George  Errington  (1804-86),  Arch- 
bishop of  Trebizond  in  partibus  (1855), 
was  co-adjutor  to  Cardinal  Wiseman, 
1855-62:  AMS. 

98  R.C.    Parish    of    Brentwood,    MSS. 


"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1914  f.  and  1933). 
And  see  Manors. 

■  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  3/2/14. 

»  Inf.  from  Mr.  J.  P.  Fitch. 

3  See  also  above,  p.  69. 

♦  Unless  otherwise  stated  all  the  follow- 
ing information  is  derived  from  these 
minute-books,  which  are  kept  by  the 
rector.  s   1758. 

6  See  above,  Manor  of  Kelvedon  Hatch. 




pointment  of  officers  and  the  balances  remaining  in 
officers'  hands  at  the  end  of  each  year.  In  the  period 
1736—60  there  was  only  one  office  of  churchwarden 
and  one  office  of  overseer.  George  Wright  was  church- 
warden throughout  the  period.  Until  1744  the  over- 
seers served  for  two  years  consecutively,  but  after  that 
date  they  served  for  one  year  only.  As  late  as  1835 
there  was  an  illiterate  overseer.  In  161 4'  there  were 
two  constables,  but  in  the  period  1736-60  there  was 
only  one  office  of  constable.  These  officers  usually 
served  for  several  years  consecutively.  The  appoint- 
ment of  surveyors  was  not  recorded  in  the  minute-book, 
but  there  appears  to  have  been  one  office  of  surveyor. 
The  rateable  value  of  the  parish  was  ^^700  in  1738* 
and  £i,(>7(>  in  1835. 

Until  175 1  the  overseers,  churchwarden,  and  con- 
stables were  each  granted  separate  rates  for  which  they 
were  directly  responsible  to  the  parish.  Occasionally 
one  officer  was  ordered  to  pay  another  officer's  deficit 
out  of  his  surplus.  In  April  175 1  it  was  decided  that 
the  constable's  charges  for  the  ensuing  year  should  be 
paid  by  the  churchwarden.  In  March  1752  the  same 
constable  was  reappointed,  but  on  this  occasion  it  was 
resolved  that  his  charges  should  be  paid  by  the  overseer. 
No  further  resolutions  were  recorded  on  this  matter 
and  it  is  not  clear  how  the  charges  of  either  the  con- 
stable or  the  churchwarden  were  met  in  the  years  after 
1753.  By  1833,  however,  their  expenditure  was 
evidently  met  by  the  overseers  who  included  it  in  their 
account.  It  is  not  clear  what  the  practice  was  in  regard 
to  the  surveyors'  accounts. 

There  was  a  poorhouse'  in  Kelvedon  Hatch,  situated 
on  Kelvedon  Common,  and  in  1835  there  were  at  least 
two  male  paupers  in  it.  In  most  cases,  however,  poor 
relief  was  given  outside  the  poorhouse.  In  each  of  the 
years  181 3— 15  there  were  thirteen  adults  on  'per- 
manent' outdoor  relief'"  Provision  for  the  poor 
included  the  payment  of  weekly  doles. 

In  1776  the  cost  of  poor  relief  was  £()0.'^  In 
1783-;  it  averaged  £104  a  year.'^  It  reached  ,^501 
in  1800-1  and  ;^538  in  1801-2,  but  in  the  next  six 
years  it  was  always  between  £300  and  ^^4°°  ^  year.'^ 
In  the  years  1808-17  the  cost  was  usually  above  ^^400 
and  reached  a  maximum  of  ,^567  in  1812-13.'^  In 
each  of  the  years  1833  and  1834  it  was  ^^275  and  in 
1835  £250. 

In  1836  Kelvedon  Hatch  became  part  of  the  Ongar 
Poor  Law  Union. 

In  1807  there  was  no  day  school  in  Kelvedon  Hatch, 
though  there  were  two  just  outside  the 
SCHOOLS  parish  boundaries.  The  rector  was  teach- 
ing reading  every  Sunday  to  about  30 
'regular  and  orderly'  children. 's  This  Sunday  school 
seems  to  have  led  to  the  establishment  of  a  day  school 
which  in  1816  was  attended  by  13  boys  and  29  girls."* 
For  the  next  20  years  a  parish  school  under  Church 
direction  existed  in  one  form  or  another.'^    In  18 18 

'  E.R.O.,  Q/SBa  3. 

»  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  E44/27. 

9  There  was  a  poorhouse  by  1776,  at 
latest ;  Rep.  Sel.  Cttee.  on  Overseer!  Reins. 
1777,  H.C.  ser.  i,  vol.  ix,  p.  350.  The 
parish  officers  may  have  rented  the  cottages 
which  had  been  given  to  the  parish  for  use 
as  almshouses :  see  below.  Charities. 

■0  E.R.O.,  e/CR  i/io. 

"  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  i/i. 

"  Ibid. 

"  E.R.O.,  e/CR  1/9. 

"  Ibid. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  2/4. 

>«  Nat.  Soc.  Ref>.  \ii6,f.  ^z. 

17  E.R.O.,  D/P  30/28/18. 

■8  Retns.  Educ.  Poor,  H.C.  224,  p.  259 
(1819),  ii  (i). 

">  Educ.  Enquiry  Ahslr.  H.C.  62,  p.  280 
(1835),  xli;  inf.  from  Nat.  Soc. 

20  E.R.O.,  D/P  30/28/18. 

21  Nat.  Soc.  Enquiry  into  Ch.  Schs. 
1846-7,  pp.  lO-II. 

"  Educ.  Cttee.  Rep.  1853-4,  p.  295. 

23  Mins.  of  Educ.  Cttee.  of  Council,  1857 
[2380],  p.  97,  H.C.  (1857-8),  xl"i 
Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1855,  1862,  1870). 

24  Kelly's    Dir.    Essex    (1862,    1874)) 


there  were  40  children  in  two  schools,  one  supported 
by  a  benevolent  lady  and  the  other  by  the  rector's  wife." 
One  of  these  schools  was  later  discontinued  and  the 
attempt  to  provide  week-day  schooling  for  boys  was 
abandoned,  although  they  continued  to  attend  the 
Sunday  school.  In  1833  there  was  only  one  school  in 
the  parish,  attended  .by  about  30  girls  and  maintained 
by  voluntary  subscriptions.  It  was  a  dame  school  under 
the  rector's  control.  Its  mistress  was  in  failing  health 
and  the  rector  was  planning  to  build  a  permanent  school 
with  separate  rooms  for  boys  and  girls.  He  collected 
some  £75  in  subscriptions  and  obtained  the  promise  of 
a  site  from  the  lord  of  the  manor.  The  National  Society 
agreed  to  make  a  grant  but  the  undertaking  was  eventu- 
ally abandoned  and  a  schoolroom  was  rented  in  which 
the  rector  set  up  a  successful  Church  school."  In 
1839,  when  it  was  still  the  only  school  in  the  parish,  20 
boys  and  30  girls  attended  it,  paying  no  fees  except  for 
additional  tuition  in  writing.  The  boys  were  given 
smocks,  stockings,  hats,  and  handkerchiefs  and  the 
girls  complete  sets  of  clothing.  Subscriptions,  including 
one  particularly  large  one,  amounted  to  £37  a  year,  but 
they  were  difficult  to  obtain.  The  rector  also  com- 
plained that  many  children  left  school  for  service  at 
too  early  an  age.^" 

By  1846-7  the  school  had  as  many  as  53  boys  and 
33  girls  in  attendance,  some  of  whom  paid  fees.  There 
were  a  master  and  a  mistress,  earning  £4.2  a  year  be- 
tween them.^'  A  few  years  later  an  inspector  found  it 
'a  very  nice  small  village  country  school  under  an  able 
and  promising  young  master',  but  he  thought  the  class- 
rooms inconvenient  and  the  equipment  inadequate. 
The  monitorial  system  seems  then  to  have  been  in  use. 
The  school  was  situated  on  a  green  which  was  used  as 
the  playground."  In  1856-7  the  school  received  a 
capitation  grant  of  £12  iSs.  Most  of  its  income,  how- 
ever, continued  to  be  derived  from  subscriptions.^^ 

In  i860  a  new  school  was  established,  but  it  appears 
to  have  had  smaller  accommodation  than  the  one  it 
replaced.  The  number  of  children  attending  had 
dropped  by  1871  to  about  20  and  a  master  was  no 
longer  employed.^  The  school  was  still  apparently 
without  permanent  premises^'  and  in  1875  a  school 
board  of  five  members  was  compulsorily  established. 
In  1878  the  board  built  a  school  in  the  village  and  the 
Church  school  was  then  closed.^*  Kelvedon  Hatch 
was  one  of  the  few  rural  parishes  in  the  hundred  where 
a  school  board  had  to  be  formed.  In  this  case  it  is 
significant  that  the  lord  of  the  manor  was  a  Roman 
Catholic;  he  clearly  gave  no  support  to  the  Anglican 

The  board  school,  built  at  a  cost  of  ^^l, 150,  had 
accommodation  for  80  children. ^7  It  was  enlarged  in 
1898.28  The  annual  government  grant  rose  from  £'^<) 
in  1893  to  £82  in  1899.^'  Further  income  was 
derived  from  the  school  rate,  which  in  189 1-2  was 
IS.  \<i.  in  the  £\.^°   In  1902  the  school  passed  under 

Retns.  Elem.  Educ.  H.C.  201,  pp.  I12-13 
(1871),  Iv. 

25  No  school  is  shown  on  O.S.  6  in.  Map 
(ist  edn.),  sheet  lix. 

26  County  Companion,  1880;  Min.  of 
Educ.  File  13/214;  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex 

"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1882);  Min.  of 
Educ.  File  13/214. 

28  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/214. 

"  Retn.  ofScAs.  1893  [C.  7529],  p.  714, 
H.C.  (1894),. Ixv,  ibid.  1899  [Cd.  315], 
p.  71,  H.C.  (1900),  lxv(2). 

3"  Essex  Standard,  12  Sept.  1891. 


the  administration  of  the  Essex  Education  Committee, 
Ongar  District.  There  was  then  an  average  attendance 
of  68.3'  In  1904  there  were  three  teachers,  one  of 
them  certificated.'^  The  average  attendance  remained 
about  70  until  1930,  when  the  school  was  reorganized 
for  mixed  juniors  and  infants,  after  which  it  fell  to  59 
in  1938.33  In  May  1952,  however,  there  were  in 
children  and  4  teachers  at  the  school.34  The  building 
stands  a  short  distance  from  the  parish  church  on  the 
Stondon  Massey  road.  It  has  one  story  and  is  of  yellow 

A  19th-century  transcript  of  a  deed  records  that 
John  Wright  and  his  son  John  gave  to 
CHJRITIES^^  Anthony  Luther  and  others,  parish- 
ioners, part  of  the  lord's  waste  next 
to  Kelvedon  Common,  with  the  cottages  thereon,  to 
be  the  site  of  parish  almshouses.  This  appears  to  be 
the  real  origin  of  the  charity  which  by  1786  was  called 
Jane  Luther's  Charity  in  the  erroneous  belief  that  it 
had  been  established  by  her  will  in  1745  (^^^  below). 
The  original  endowment  may  have  been  supplemented 
by  an  exchange  made  in  1786  by  which  the  parish 
received  a  small  plot  inclosed  from  Kelvedon  Common 
in  place  of  another  plot  on  which  a  cottage  formerly 
stood.  This  was  probably  the  cottage  on  the  road  to 
Beacon  Hill  which  according  to  a  vestry  book  extant 
in  the  19th  century  was  given  to  the  parish  in  1644.3* 
This  exchange  of  1786  may  explain  the  statement 
made  in  1835  that  the  property  of  the  charity  was 
received  about  60  years  before  from  John  Wright  of 
Kelvedon  Hall  in  exchange  for  some  small  pieces  of 
land  formerly  belonging  to  it. 

There  is  no  clear  record  that  the  cottages  were  ever 
used  as  almshouses,  though  it  seems  possible  that  they 
were  rented  by  the  parish  officers  for  use  as  a  poor- 
house. 3'  In  1834  the  property  was  all  let:  it  consisted 
of  four  cottages  on  Kelvedon  Common,  and  land  adjoin- 
ing. The  whole  income  was  ^2 1  10/.,  and  after  deduc- 
tion of  expenses  it  was  distributed  on  the  first  Monday 
in  the  year  to  all  poor  married  parishioners  in  equal 
shares.  Between  then  and  1929  there  was  little  change 
in  administration.  In  195 1  the  field  was  sold  to  the 
village  hall  committee  for  use  as  a  recreation  ground. 
The  proceeds  were  invested  in  stock.  In  the  same  year 
the  rent  due  from  the  cottages  was  ^34  12/.;  but  for 

many  years  there  has  been  no  profit  from  rents  and  a 
demolition  order  was  pending  in  1953.38 

Poor's  Cottages  were  probably  built  in  the  17th 
century  and  consist  of  a  timber-framed  T-shaped  block, 
partly  plastered  and  partly  weather-boarded.  There 
are  gabled  dormers  in  the  tiled  roof.  These  are  un- 
doubtedly the  four  cottages  of  1834  and  earlier. 

At  some  time  in  the  1 8th  century  it  was  believed  that 
40J.  was  due  to  the  parish  by  the  gift  of  Anthony  Luther 
(d.  1627)  but  there  is  no  record  that  this  was  ever  paid. 

By  her  will  proved  in  1745  J^"^  Luther  of  Suttons 
(in  Stapleford  Tawney,  q.v.)  gave  £2  i  js.  6d.  a  year 
issuing  from  a  farm  in  Little  Warley  to  be  distributed 
in  bread  three  times  a  year  to  the  poor  of  the  parish. 
In  1834  bread  was  distributed  twice  a  year  with  pre- 
ference to  widows.  By  1857  the  rent  was  being  paid 
from  the  Suttons  estate.  It  was  redeemed  in  1950  for 
j^ii;  stock. 

In  1786  it  was  stated  that  an  unknown  donor  gave 
a  rent  charge  of  ^l  10/.  to  the  church  and  the  poor  of 
the  parish.  In  1834  Charles  Dolby  of  Brizes  held  a 
lease  from  1789  at  j^2  I  ox.  a  year  of 'the  property  of 
this  charity',  consisting  of  an  acre  of  land  in  his  park. 
In  fact  the  endowment  must  have  been  the  land  itself, 
not  the  rent,  and  the  land  was  certainly  sold  in  i860 
for  j{,'200  which  was  invested  in  stock. 

Louisa  Dolby,  by  will  proved  1868,  left  ;^ioo  duty- 
free in  trust  for  the  benefit  of  the  poor.  The  legacy 
was  paid  in  1876,  together  with  ^^28  arrears  of  interest, 
and  was  invested  in  stock. 

In  the  19th  and  early  20th  centuries  these  charities 
were  in  practice  administered  together.  From  1855 
the  three  earliest  shared  trustees.  By  a  Scheme  made 
in  1929  all  four  were  combined  to  form  the  United 
Charities.  Their  income  is  to  be  spent  for  the  benefit 
of  the  sick  and  poor,  chiefly  in  gifts  in  kind  and  gifts  to 
hospitals  serving  the  parish.  In  195 1,  after  payments 
for  expenses,  the  income  was  spent  on  the  cottages 
belonging  to  Jane  Luther's  Charity,  and  in  gifts  in  cash 
to  six  persons. 

Richard  Thomas  Lagden,  by  will  proved  1866,  left 
£j  a  year  for  the  purchase  of  coal  for  the  poor  families 
of  the  parish.  Lagden's  wish  that  the  money  be  paid 
was  not,  however,  binding,  and  the  bequest  con- 
sequently became  invalid. 


Lambourne  adjoins  the  Urban  District  of  Chigwell 
to  the  north-east.'  With  an  area  of  2,47 1  acres  it  is  one 
of  the  larger  parishes  in  the  hundred.  From  an  early 
date  much  of  the  population  has  been  centred  in  the 
village  of  Abridge,  in  the  extreme  north-west  of  the 
parish.^  The  remoteness  of  the  village  from  the  church 
and  the  manor  houses  has  helped  to  determine  the  his- 
tory of  the  parish.  Abridge  was  in  Lambourne,  but  not 
of  it.  The  population  of  the  parish  in  1801  was  515. 
It  rose  steadily  to  904  in  1841  and  subsequently  re- 
mained at  about  that  figure  until  1921,  when  it  was 
780.  In  193 1  it  was  893.  The  population  in  195 1  was 
1,371,  the  increase  being  due  mainly  to  the  building  of 
council  houses.3 

3'  ScAs.  under  Bd.  of  Educ.  1902  [Cd. 
1490],  p.  71,  H.C.  {1903),  li. 

'^  Essex  Educ.  Citee.  Handhk.  1904, 
p.  185. 

33  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/214. 

3*  Inf.  from  Essex  Educ.  Cttee, 

35  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  H.C.  216, 

p.  229  (1835),  XX  (i);  Char.  Com.  Files. 

3'  This  date  would  be  consistent  with 
the  participation  of  an  Anthony  Luther 
(see  above,  Myles's). 

"  See  above,  Parish  Government  and 
Poor  Relief. 

38  Inf.  from  the  Revd.  W.  Tirrell. 

The  land  rises  from  100  ft.  above  sea-level  in  the 
north  to  325  ft.  in  the  centre,  falling  to  about  200  ft.  in 
the  south.  The  River  Roding  forms  the  northern  boun- 
dary of  the  parish.  There  are  numerous  ponds  and 
springs  in  the  parish.  Lambourne  End,  in  the  south, 
contains  most  of  what  remains  of  Hainault  Forest,  now 
preserved  as  a  recreation  ground  by  the  London  County 
Council.*  There  are  several  other  smaller  patches  of 
woodland.  The  main  road  from  Chipping  Ongar  to 
Chigwell  and  London  passes  through  the  north  of  the 
parish.  Abridge  lies  along  this  road  at  a  distance  of 
about  3  miles  from  Chigwell.  It  derives  its  name  from 
the  bridge  which  crosses  the  river  here,  carrying  the 
road  running  north  to  Theydon  Bois.  A  concentration 

'  O.S.  2\  in.  Map,  sheet  $^1^9- 

^  Although  the  earliest  known  ref.  to 

Abridge  is  in   1203  the  name  is  of  pre- 

conquest  origin :  P.N.  Essex  (E.P.N.S.), 


3  Census;     inf.     from     Essex     County 

Council.  *  See  below. 




of  houses  on  both  sides  of  the  main  road  at  Abridge  is 
shown  on  a  map  of  1695.5  The  oldest  surviving  build- 
ings appear  to  be  the  house  on  the  east  side  of  the  main 
road,  immediately  north  of  the  post-office,  and  Brighty's 
shop  on  the  opposite  side  just  west  of  the  bridge.  Both 
probably  date  from  the  early  i6th  century  and  in  each 
case  there  is  an  oversailing  gable-end  facing  the  road  at 
one  end  of  the  front.  At  Brighty's  shop  the  plaster  was 
stripped  from  the  gable  about  30  years  ago,*  revealing 
rounded  joist  ends,  heavy  closely-spaced  studs,  and 
curved  braces.  The  other  house,  formerly  the  post- 
office,  but  now  a  butcher's  shop,  remains  plastered  but 
is  probably  of  similar  construction.  The  Sycamores,  on 
the  south  side  of  the  road  near  the  east  end  of  the  village, 
was  a  house  possibly  of  similar  date,  but  rebuilding  has 
destroyed  all  its  old  features  except  the  brick  fireplaces 
forming  the  base  of  its  central  chimney.  Other  build- 
ings in  the  village  probably  incorporate  parts  of  timber 
structures  of  the  17th  century  or  earlier. 

The  deeds  of  White  Hall  go  back  to  1729.^  It  has 
a  plastered  two-story  Georgian  front,  considerably 
altered,  with  a  contemporary  doorcase.  The  gabled 
house  east  of  it  may  also  date  from  the  early  i8th  cen- 
tury, and  the  buildings  flanking  Brighty's  shop  are 
probably  of  similar  date.  The  'Maltster's  Arms'  and 
the  two  cottages  adjoining  it  form  an  attractive  18th- 
century  group.  They  have  weather-boarded  fronts  and 
the  inn  has  a  pedimented  doorcase  with  engaged  Tuscan 
columns.  The  slightly  later  house  to  the  east  retains  a 
small  bowed  shop  window.  The  post-office,  which  has 
a  symmetrical  weather-boarded  front,  is  of  the  late 
1 8th  century. 

In  1848  it  was  stated  that  many  good  houses  had 
been  built  in  Abridge  in  the  past  30  years.*  Maryon 
Terrace  is  a  red  brick  row  of  eight  small  cottages  with 
round-headed  doorways.  It  is  dated  28  January  1 841, 
but  the  central  cottages  may  be  older.  Gould's  Cottages 
are  of  gault  brick  and  date  from  about  1840.  They 
form  a  terrace  of  five  houses,  of  which  the  central  has 
a  pedimented  gable.  The  Parish  Room,  formerly  a 
Congregational  chapel,  was  built  in  1833.'  Holy 
Trinity  Church,  built  in  1 836,  is  a  chapel  of  ease  to  the 
parish  church.'"  The  'Blue  Boar'  is  also  of  mid-i9th- 
century  date;  it  has  a  gault  brick  symmetrical  front. 
The  'White  Hart'  was  rebuilt  on  its  ancient  site  in  the 
late  19th  century.  The  school,  at  the  north  end  of  Hoe 
Lane,  dates  from  1878."  On  the  north  side  of  the  main 
road  west  of  Abridge  there  is  considerable  20th-century 
building,  which  includes  thirteen  council  houses.  North 
of  the  school  are  about  twenty  council  houses.  There 
are  also  four  pairs  on  the  north  side  of  the  road  just  east 
of  the  village.  The  Evangelical  Free  Church,  Maryon's 
Chase,  dates  from  I924.'2  Hillman's  Cottages,  six  pairs 
on  the  main  road  i  mile  east  of  the  village,  were  built 
about  1935  for  employees  at  the  neighbouring  airfield. '3 
The  Pancroft  estate,  east  Abridge,  includes  a  group  of 
prefabricated  houses  and  fifty  post-1945  council  houses. 

Hoe  Lane  runs  from  Abridge  south-east  to  Lam- 
bourne  End,  passing  to  the  east  of  St.  John's  Farm  (see 
below,  manor  of  St.  John's)  and  to  the  west  of  Bishops 
Hall  (see  below).  In  this  lane  are  some  larger  houses 
with  good  gardens,  built  after  the  break-up  in  1929  of 
the  Bishops  Hall  estate.   On  the  road  J  mile  south  of 

5  Camden's   Britamia   (ed.  Gibson),  p.  "  See  below.  Schools. 

340  (Map  by  Rbt.  Morden). 
'  Inf.  from  Mr.  Bayles,  owner. 
'  Ibid.        8  H^hite's  Dir.  Essex  (184.8). 
'  See  below,  Nonconformity. 
'<>  See  below,  Church. 

"  See  below.  "  See  below. 

'*  Inf.  from  Mr.  D.  W.  Hutchings. 
'S  Inf.  from  the  caretaker. 
■6  See  below,  Manor. 
"  See  below,  Church. 

Bishops  Hall  are  Augusta  Cottages  and  Emmanuel 
Chapel.  At  Lambourne  End  Hoe  Lane  is  joined  by 
Manor  Road,  which  leads  to  Chigwell  Row,  and  also 
by  the  road  running  east  to  Knolls  Hill  in  Stapleford 
Abbots.  Near  Blue  House  Farm  the  latter  road  is 
joined  by  Hook  Lane,  which  runs  north-east  to  Staple- 
ford  Abbots  church.  Three  farm-houses  at  Lambourne 
End  are  timber-framed  and  probably  date  from  the 
17th  century.  Harmes  Farm  has  a  gabled  cross-wing  at 
the  south-west  end.  Forest  Lodge  Farm  has  two  massive 
external  chimneys  with  diagonal  shafts.  Blue  House 
Farm  also  has  diagonal  shafts  to  its  central  chimney. 
Church  House,  opposite  Forest  Lodge,  dates  from 
about  1 67 1,  with  an  extension  of  about  1 8 1  o  (see  below. 
Charities).  Lambourne  Square,  consisting  of  two  rows 
of  cottages,  one  of  mid-i9th-century  date  and  one 
earlier,  was  built  for  workers  at  the  neighbouring  Banks 
Farm.'*  Young's  Farm  was  demolished  about  1935 
and  some  of  the  buildings  converted  into  recreation 
rooms  for  the  Fairbairn  and  Mansfield  House  Boys' 
Clubs.'s  In  the  grounds  are  a  camping  site  and  an  open- 
air  swimming-pool.  The  East  End  Mission  playing- 
fields  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  road  have  a  cement- 
rendered  pavilion  with  a  flat  roof,  also  dating  from  the 
1930's.  There  is  some  scattered  modern  development 
on  the  north  side  of  Manor  Road,  opposite  Hainault 
Forest.  Park  Square  is  a  three-sided  court  consisting  of 
ten  council  houses.  There  are  also  four  pairs  of  council 
houses  on  the  north  side  of  the  road  east  of  Forest  Lodge. 
The  Parish  Room  at  Lambourne  End  is  a  small  wooden 
building  probably  of  mid-l9th-century  date. 

New  Farm  is  J  mile  south-east  of  Abridge.  It  is  a 
red-brick  house  dated  1744.  Although  considerably 
altered  it  has  brickwork  detail  similar  to  the  Old  Rectory 
(see  below)  on  a  much  smaller  scale.  Lambourne  Hall"* 
and  the  parish  church  are  J  mile  south-east  of  New 
Farm.  The  site  of  the  former  Dews  Hall  (see  below) 
adjoins  Bishops  Hall  to  the  east.  Bishops  Moat,  the 
original  site  of  Bishops  Hall,  is  i  mile  east  of  Dews 
Hall.  A  mile  east  of  Abridge  is  Lambourne  Place,  for- 
merly the  rectory.'^  Pryors  and  Patch  Park  (formerly 
Hunts)  are  near  Lambourne  Place  to  the  east.'* 
Arnolds,  formerly  Arneways  (see  below)  is  on  the  main 
road  in  the  extreme  north-west  corner  of  the  parish. 
Opposite  it  is  a  civil  airfield. 

The  road  system  in  this  parish  has  never  been  very 
satisfactory.   There  has  never  been  a  direct  road  from 
Abridge  to  the  parish  church.   Until  about  1800  ther 
was  no  road  from  Lambourne  End  to  Chigwell  Row. 
In  the  north  and  centre  of  the  parish  the  roads  were 
often  flooded  in  wet  weather."  The  most  serious  flood- 
ing occurred  on  the  main  London  road,  between  Arnolds 
and  Abridge.  About  i  mile  west  of  Arnolds  the  Roding 
flows  beside  the  road  and  is  joined  by  a  stream  which 
rises  near  Lambourne  Hall.    It  was  at  this  junction 
between  the  river  and  the  stream  that  flooding  was 
worst.    In  1575-6  the  road  from  Arnolds  to  London 
was  'in  decay',  and  the  parish  was  distrained  for  the 
condition  of 'Arnesway'  Bridge.^o  This  was  no  doubt 
a  bridge  over  the  stream  at  the  junction.   The  same 
road  was  the  subject  of  discussion  in  the  parish  vestry 
in  1727.2'   The  lord  of  the  manor  of  Lambourne  had 
apparently  been  obliged  to  keep  a  horse-  and  foot- 
's See  below,  Pryors,  Hunts. 
"  In    1738,    for    example,    the    parish 
suffered  from  severe  floods:  E.R.O.,  D/P 
"  E.R.O.,  Q'/SR  60/57,  cf.  62/53,  54. 
"  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/1. 



bridge  'wharfed  and  planked  over  a  certain  brook' 
towards  Ongar.  This  was  probably  the  same  bridge 
as  that  of  1 575-6.  John  Barfoot,  lord  of  the  manor  in 
1727,  offered  to  seek  the  support  of  the  neighbouring 
gentry  for  a  scheme  to  build  a  brick  bridge. 

At  the  other  end  of  the  London  road  was  the  impor- 
tant Abridge  Bridge.  In  the  late  1 6th  century  there  was 
uncertainty  as  to  who  was  responsible  for  it.  One  entry 
in  the  rolls  of  Quarter  Sessions  for  1570  attributes  re- 
sponsibility to  Sir  Anthony  Coke,  who  owned  land  at 
the  Lambourne  side  of  the  bridge,  and  Sir  Thomas 
Wroth,  who  owned  land  on  the  Theydon  Bois  side.^* 
Another  entry  of  the  same  year  leaves  the  matter  un- 
decided.23  In  and  after  1594  the  bridge  seems  to  have 
been  accepted  for  repair  by  the  county.^*  In  1657  it  was 
said  to  be  in  a  dangerous  state.^5  In  1707  a  carpenter 
was  paid  the  large  sum  of  ^^178  for  rebuilding  it.^* 

In  1855  the  inhabitants  of  Abridge  complained  to 
the  justices  of  the  peace  of  the  dangerous  state  of  the 
road  to  Theydon  Bois  and  of  the  foot-bridge  at  Abridge. 
During  floods  it  was  impossible  to  use  the  bridges  and 
a  circuit  of  6  miles  was  necessary.  A  committee  was 
formed  in  1 8  56  to  investigate  the  matter  and  the  county 
surveyor  produced  plans  for  an  embankment  with  cul- 
verts. He  reported  that  a  plank  and  rail  foot-bridge  to 
serve  pedestrians  in  time  of  flood  had  for  30  years  been 
repaired  by  the  county.^'  Thomas  Savill,  of  Barley 
near  Royston,  was  willing  to  undertake  the  work  on  the 
bridges  and  the  final  estimate  was  ^^380,  of  which  the 
parish  was  to  pay  ;^200  and  the  county  the  remain- 
der.^' In  the  following  year  the  surveyor  described 
the  bridge  as  a  substantial  brick  structure  in  excellent 

Abridge  is  a  mile  from  the  parish  church,  and  until 
1833  there  was  no  other  place  of  worship  in  the  parish. 
It  is  therefore  remarkable  that  there  has  never  been  a 
direct  road  to  the  church  from  Abridge.  The  inhabi- 
tants of  Abridge  had  an  ancient  right  of  way  by  a  foot- 
path to  the  church.  In  1589  Henry  Palmer  of  Dews 
Hall  was  presented  at  Quarter  Sessions  for  having  'en- 
closed abowte  with  a  great  pale  a  chace  waye  which  is 
our  church  waye  and  hath  been  time  out  of  mind'. 3°  In 
1624  this  path  was  'by  discontinuance  overgrown,  and 
overworn  by  the  current  of  the  brook  which  ran  by  it'. 3' 
In  that  year  Edward  Palmer  of  Dews  Hall  granted  the 
parish  vestry  a  new  right  of  way  in  exchange  for  the  old. 
The  course  of  the  new  way,  which  is  described  in  the 
vestry  book,  appears  to  be  the  same  as  the  present  foot- 
path from  east  Abridge  to  the  church,  via  New  Farm 
and  the  north-east  corner  of  Soapleys  Wood.'^  The 
parish  was  to  erect  three  gates,  one  at  the  entrance  to 
'Pencroft'  (near  the  main  road  at  the  Abridge  end  of 
the  path),33  one  at  the  upper  end  of  'Goody  Land' 
entering  into  Maple's  land,  and  the  third  over  the  brook 
entering  lower  'Soap  place'.  At  the  third  point  they 
were  also  to  provide  a  bridge.  They  were  to  provide 
locks  for  the  gates  and  give  Edward  Palmer  a  key,  and 
they  were  responsible  for  the  upkeep  of  the  gates  and 
the  bridge.    In  1727  the  vestry  accepted  the  offer  of 

Catlyn  Thorogood  of  Dews  Hall  to  provide  a  brick 
arch  over  the  brook  in  place  of  the  old  wooden  one. 
The  parish  was  to  maintain  the  foot-path  as  before. '♦  In 
spite  of  these  arrangements  the  moral  condition  of 
Abridge  seems  to  have  been  bad  at  the  beginning  of  the 
19th  century.35  The  foot-path  was  hardly  a  satisfactory 
substitute  for  a  church  in  Abridge  itself  Perhaps  more 
important  was  the  fact  that  the  rectory  was  just  as  far 
from  the  village  as  was  the  church.  In  1734  the  vestry 
had  resolved  to  make  a  new  road  from  the  church  to  the 
rectory  through  the  glebe  land.3*  This  would  have 
helped  the  rector  to  get  to  church.  For  access  to  Abridge 
he  probably  had  to  use  foot-paths. 

Communications  between  Lambourne  End  and  the 
parish  church  have  been  little  better  than  those  between 
the  church  and  Abridge.  Church  Lane,  which  ran 
from  the  church  past  Dews  Hall  to  Lambourne  End, 
is  marked  on  Chapman  and  Andre's  map  of  1 777  (sheet 
xvi),  but  by  1841  it  had  become  impassable.  In  the 
latter  year  the  vestry  decided  that  it  should  be  repaired,^' 
but  the  north  end  of  the  road  is  now  overgrown  and 

Manor  Road,  between  Lambourne  End  and  Chig- 
well  Row,  was  constructed  about  1790,  mainly  at  the 
expense  of  Admiral  Sir  Edward  Hughes,  of  Bishops 
Hall  (see  below)  and  Luxborough  in  Chigwell  (q.v.).^' 

Hook  Lane,  which  joins  Lambourne  End  and  Staple- 
ford  Abbots,  was  maintained  by  the  two  parishes  jointly. 
In  1832  the  Lambourne  vestry  agreed  to  an  alteration 
in  its  course  'when  a  sufficient  subscription  can  be 
caused  to  carry  the  same  into  effect,  the  parish  of  Staple- 
ford  having  agreed  to  repair  the  same  distance  in  pro- 
portion as  prior  to  the  exchange'.^' 

There  was  a  regular  service  of  coaches  from  Abridge 
to  London  and  Ongar  at  the  beginning  of  the  19th  cen- 
tury. In  1 8 17  a  coach  went  daily  to  the  'Three  Nuns' 
and  the  'Bull',  Whitechapel,  while  a  wagon  went  on 
Tuesday  and  Friday  to  the  'Blue  Boar',  Whitechapel.^" 
In  1826—7  and  1832  the  Ongar  coach  called  at 
Abridge.*'  In  1832  also  a  wagon  run  by  Joseph  Wilson 
ran  to  the  'Saracen's  Head',  Aldgate,  and  the  'Flower 
Pot',  Bishopsgate,  on  Tuesday,  Thursday,  and  Satur- 
day; a  wagon  run  by  one  Clements  went  on  Wednesday 
and  Saturday  to  the  'Blue  Boar',  Aldgate,  and  another, 
under  the  name  of  Willey,  went  on  Tuesday,  Thursday, 
and  Saturday  to  the  'Three  Nuns',  Aldgate.t^  In  1848 
a  coach  left  for  London  every  morning  except  Sunday 
and  for  Dunmow  every  evening,  starting  from  the 
'White  Hart'.  William  Hanchett  was  carrier  to  London 
every  Tuesday  and  Friday .■♦^  In  1862  the  Fyfield 
coach  called  daily  at  Abridge  and  a  carrier  went  to 
London  daily.''*  By  this  time  the  railway  from  London 
had  been  extended  as  far  as  Loughton,  about  4  miles  by 
road  from  Abridge,  and  the  further  extension  in  1865 
to  Epping  and  Ongar  included  a  station  at  Theydon 
Bois,  li^  mile  from  Abridge.  Since  1949  Theydon 
Bois  has  been  on  the  Central  London  (underground) 

There  was  a  postal  receiving  house  at  Abridge  in 

"  E.R.O.,  e/SR  32/17. 

"  Ibid.  34/6. 

"  Ibid.  129/17,  314/59-  Cf.  Q/AB« 
1,  2. 

"  Ibid.  Q/CP  3,  pp.  185,  ,88:cf.  pp. 
197  (1659),  213  (i66o). 

"  Ibid.  p.  704. 

"  E.R.O.,  e/ABp  36,  Q/ABb  1 1. 

*8  This  foot-bridge  had  previously  been 
the  responsibility  of  the  parish  of  Theydon 
Bois,  q.v.  "  E.R.O.,  g/ABi  3. 

3»  E.R.O.,  Q/SR  107/53. 

31  E.R.O.,D/P  181/8/1  (11  May  1727). 

32  Soapleys  appears  in  the  description  as 
'Soap  place'. 

35  Pencroft  is  probably  the  Ban-croft  of 
the  Tithe  Map:  E.R.O.,  D/CT  202  No. 
393,  and  the  modern  Pancroft. 

3t  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/1. 

35  See  below.  Nonconformity. 

3«  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/2. 

37  Ibid.  181/8/4. 

38  T.  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  408.  The 
road  was  presumably  built  after  Hughes 
acquired  Bishops  Hall  in  1785.  He  died 
in   1798.  39  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/4. 

*"  Johnstone's  DIr.  (1817),  pt.  iv,  2. 

■»'  Pigot's  Dir.  (1826-7),  S'i  Robson's 
London  Dir.  pt.  iv,  22.  See  Chipping 
Ongar,  p.  157. 

♦^  Robson's  Dir,  pt.  iv,  22. 

••3  py kite's  Dir.  Essex  {1848),  422. 

«  Ibid.  (1863),  729. 




I793.*5  In  1 839  a  Mr.  Mead  was  appointed  receiver/* 
By  1856  a  sub-post-office  had  been  established.''''  A 
telegraph  service  was  set  up  in  1 89 1**  and  the  telephone 
by  192 1.'" 

The  Herts,  and  Essex  Waterworks  Co.  extended  its 
mains  to  Abridge  and  some  other  parts  of  the  parish  in 
19 1 7,  and  a  further  extension  took  place  in  1937.50 
There  is  a  sewerage  system,  chiefly  at  Abridge. 5'  Gas 
was  first  supplied  by  the  Chigwell,  Loughton,  and 
Woodford  Gas  Co.s^  Electricity  was  supplied  to  parts 
of  Abridge  and  Lambourne  in  1929.53  At  Abridge 
there  is  a  parish  room  (formerly  the  Congregational 
chapel),  and  a  village  hall  called  the  Gymnasium.  There 
is  another  parish  room  at  Lambourne  End.  A  branch 
of  the  county  library  was  opened  in  1929.5*  The 
Abridge  Coffee  Rooms  and  Club  existed  in  1886  and 
later.55  There  was  a  cricket  club  at  Abridge  in  1 895.56 
There  was  a  police  sergeant  at  Abridge  in  1898.5' 
There  is  now  a  policeman  at  Abridge  and  another  at 
Lambourne  End.'^ 

A  writer  of  about  1770  noted  that  'husbandry  alone 
seems  to  be  the  employ  of  the  inhabitants'  of  Lam- 
bourne.5'  This  was  not  entirely  true;  as  is  shown  below 
there  were  some  inns  and  shops  at  Abridge,  which  must 
have  employed  a  few  people  in  the  i8th  century.  But 
agriculture  was  certainly  the  main  occupation.  During 
the  Middle  Ages  the  ownership  of  the  land  in  the  parish 
was  shared  among  some  eight  chief  lords.  From  the 
middle  of  the  i6th  century  onwards  the  estates  tended 
to  coalesce.  In  the  i8th  century  three  large  estates, 
attached  to  Lambourne  Hall,  Bishops  Hall,  and  Dews 
Hall,  accounted  for  much  of  the  parish.  By  1850  the 
greater  part  of  the  parish  was  owned  by  a  single  family, 
that  of  Lockwood,  of  Bishops  Hall.  Their  estate  was 
broken  up  in  1 929.60  Until  the  i6th  century  it  is  prob- 
able that  few  of  the  chief  landowners  were  resident  in 
the  parish:  this  may  partly  explain  the  unsatisfactory 
relationship  between  Abridge  and  the  rest  of  the  parish.*' 
In  and  after  the  i6th  century  there  was  some  improve- 
ment. The  Taverners  of  Arneways  and  the  Palmers  of 
Dews  Hall  lived  in  the  parish.  In  the  1 8  th  century  this 
area  became  remarkably  fashionable  for  the  gentry. 
Lord  Fortescue,  the  Walkers,  the  Lockwoods,  the 
Thorogoods,  and  Sir  Edward  Hughes  all  lived  in  Lam- 
bourne or  in  neighbouring  parishes.*^  All  contributed 
in  various  ways  to  the  improvement  of  the  parish,  and 
their  paternal  interest  in  it  was  maintained  in  the  19th 
and  20th  centuries  by  the  Lockwoods.  They  must  have 
been  large  employers  of  domestic  as  well  as  agricultural 

The  landowners  do  not  seem  to  have  attempted  direct 
large-scale  farming.  In  184 1  there  were  three  farms 
over  200  acres  in  extent,  of  which  the  largest  was  235 
acres.  There  were  five  farms  of  100-200  acres  and  six 
of  40-100  acres.*3  All  these  farms  were  let  to  tenant 
farmers.  In  1929  most  of  Lord  Lambourne's  estate  was 

occupied  by  tenants,  although  the  home  farm  of  Lam- 
bourne Hall  was  in  hand.** 

In  this  parish,  as  elsewhere  in  this  area,  mixed  farm- 
ing is  carried  on.  In  1841  there  were  some  750  acres 
of  arable,  1,300  acres  of  meadow  and  pasture,  and  350 
acres  of  woodland  and  forest.*5  At  that  date  there  was 
also  a  small  amount  of  ozier-growing.**  Of  greater 
interest  is  the  persistence  of  hop-growing.  In  184 1 
there  was  ij  acre  of  land  under  hops.  As  is  noted 
below,  brewing  was  carried  on  in  Abridge  at  this 

There  is  little  evidence  concerning  inclosure  in  the 
parish,  which  so  far  as  it  concerned  common  field  and 
meadow  had  evidently  been  completed  before  the  1 8th 
century.  A  small  exception  is  shown  on  a  map  of  1 740: 
strips  in  Rye  meadow,  north  of  Arneways  in  the  north- 
east corner  of  the  parish.**  Inclosure  of  woodland  was 
much  slower,  for  royal  rights  were  involved.  About 
200  acres  in  the  south  of  the  parish  formed  part  of 
Hainault  Forest.  In  1305  William  de  Sutton,  lord  of 
Battles  Hall  in  Stapleford  Abbots,  who  also  held  land 
in  Lambourne,  was  granted  licence  to  fell  and  sell  the 
great  trees  and  underwood  of  7  acres  in  his  wood  of 
Lambourne,  which  was  within  the  Forest  of  Essex,  as 
it  appeared  that  there  was  not  a  frequent  resort  of  the 
deer  there.*'  This  grant  was  made  to  enable  him  to  pay 
his  debts  at  the  Exchequer.  In  1630  six  unauthorized 
inclosures  of  the  forest  were  said  to  have  recently  been 
made  in  Lambourne;  one  of  these  was  on  the  waste,  the 
others  on  old  inclosures.'o 

In  1 8  5 1  Hainault  Forest  was  disafforested.  The  part 
of  the  forest  in  Lambourne  was,  however,  not  affected." 
In  1858  the  Hainault  Forest  Allotment  of  Commons 
Act  (21  &  22  Vict.  c.  37)  provided  that  314  acres  in 
Lambourne,  Chigwell,  and  Dagenham  should  be 
allotted  as  common  to  the  parish  of  Lambourne.  The 
map  attached  to  the  act  shows  a  small  existing  inclosure 
at  Lambourne  End.  It  is  possible  that  this  was  the  area 
inclosed  in  1832—3  by  the  parish  vestry  with  the  con- 
sent of  E.  L.  Percival,  the  lord  of  the  manor.'^  By  an 
award  of  1861,  under  the  act  of  1858,  186  acres  in 
Lambourne  became  common  for  the  parish;  more 
specifically  it  was  waste  of  the  manor  of  Lambourne." 
In  1903,  by  the  Hainault  (Lambourne  Burrows  and 
Grange  Hill)  Act'*  the  then  lord  of  the  manor,  A.  R.  M. 
Lockwood,  was  authorized  to  sell  Lambourne  Common 
for  £2,830  to  the  London  County  Council,  so  that  it 
might  become  a  public  park.'s  This  is  now  all  that 
remains  of  Hainault  Forest. 

Abridge  fair,  on  2  June,  was  abolished  in  1878.'*  It 
had  existed  in  1780."  In  1848  it  was  stated  to  be  for 
cattle.'*  Its  origin  has  not  been  traced.  No  lord  or 
owner  of  tolls  was  known  in  1878. 

The  existence  of  the  fair  suggests  that  Abridge  was 
an  important  viUage in  the  i8th century.  Alistof  1723 
names  three  inns,  the  'Crown',  the  'Blue  Boar',  and  the 

*'  Gary's  Eng.  Alia!,  1793. 

■»'  P.M.G.  Mins.  1839,  vol.  46,  p.  462. 

"  Brit.  Post.  Guide,  1856.  Cf.  P.M.G. 
Mins.  1865,  vol.  43,  min.  4070. 

♦8  P.M.G.  Mins.  1891,  vol.  448,  min. 

*'  Brit.  Post.  Guide,  1 92 1. 

s»  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1917,  1937)- 

"  Inf.  from  the  rector. 

52  Inf.  from  the  North  Thames  Gas  Bd. 

53  Inf.  from  Eastn.  Elec.  Bd. 
'♦  Inf.  from  County  Librarian. 

55  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1886  f.). 

56  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1895). 
5'  Ibid.  1898. 

58  Inf.  from  Chief  Constable  of  Essex. 

5'  Hist.  Essex  by  Gent,  iv,  20. 

«»  For  details  see  below,  Manors. 

«'  See  above;  and  below,  Parish  Govern- 

'»  Fortescue  lived  at  Stapleford  Abbots, 
Hughes  in  Chigwell. 

'3  For  these  figures  see  E.R.O.,  D/CT 
202.  "  See  below.  Manor. 

6s  E.R.O.,  D/CT  202.  "  Ibid. 

6'  Ibid.  For  a  reference  to  a  hop-garden 
ini727seeE.R.O.,  D/P181/8/1. 

68  Map  in  poss.  of  Mr.  H.  E.  Clarke  nf 

M  Cal.  Pat.  1301-7,  315-16. 


'»  W.  R.  Fisher,  Forest  of  Essex,  327. 

"  Ibid.  349. 

'2  See  below.  Parish  Govt,  and  Poor 

'3  Details  of  the  award  are  given  in  the 
act  of  1903  (see  below). 

^*  3  Edw.  VII,  c.257  (priv.  act.). 

'5  The  purchase  included  the  186  acres 
in  Lambourne  and  54  acres  in  Chigwell 
and  Dagenham,  which  were  included  in 
the  price. 

'6  Lond.  Gax.  26  July  1878,  p.  4318. 

"  Essex,  Herts.  &  Camhi.  Almanack 

'8  fVhite's  Dir.  Essex  (i%\%). 


'White  Hart'."  In  1772  two  chandlers,  a  victualler, 
and  a  baker  are  named. *°  In  1 845  there  were,  in  addi- 
tion to  the  tradesmen  normally  found  in  a  growing 
village,  an  auctioneer  and  surveyor,  a  surgeon,  a  plumber 
and  glazier,  a  brick-maker,  and  a  brewer. 8'  The  brick- 
maker  was  still  there  in  1851.*^  There  had  been  a 
brewery  in  Abridge  in  1729,  when  its  owner  is  said  to 
have  been  the  owner  of  While  Hall.*3  Abraham  Oliver, 
brewer  of  Lambourne,  occurs  in  1808.**  During  the 
later  19th  century  the  brewery  became  the  Abridge 
Brewery  Co.*'  This  was  later  acquired  by  Whitbread 
&  Co.  and  by  19 14  was  being  used  by  them  as  a  store.** 
The  private  airfield  was  opened  about  1935.*'  During 
the  Second  World  War  it  was  taken  over  by  the  R.A.F.** 
It  has  recently  been  reopened  as  a  private  airfield.  Part 
of  its  site  is  occupied  by  branches  of  Thorn  Electrical 
Industries,  Ekco  Electric  Ltd.,  and  Ferguson  Radio  Ltd. 
There  is  a  small  printing  works  at  Abridge. 

Thomas  Winniffe,  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  and  his  nephew 
Peter  Mews,  Bishop  of  Winchester,  are  mentioned 
below  (see  Church).  Thomas  Day  (1748-89), 
eccentric  author  of  Sandford  and  Merton,  bought  a 
house  at  Abridge  in  1779,  shortly  after  his  marriage, 
and  lived  there  for  two  years.  'He  studied  architec- 
ture and  astonished  the  builder  by  having  a  wall  made 
first  and  the  windows  knocked  out  afterwards.'*' 

Only  one  entry  in  Domesday  Book  relates  specifically 
to  LAMBOURNE.  The  manor  of  that 
MANORS  name  had  been  held  in  1066  by  Lefsi  as 
2  hides  and  80  acres. 90  In  1086  this  manor 
formed  part  of  the  honor  of  Eustace,  Count  of  Boulogne, 
and  was  held  of  him  by  David."  It  is  likely,  however, 
that  the  part  of  the  parish  of  Lambourne  later  known 
as  the  manor  of  Arneways  (see  below)  originally  formed 
part  of  the  manor  of  Battles  Hall  in  Stapleford  Abbots. 
The  tenancy  in  chief  of  the  manor  of  Lambourne 
passed  with  the  honor  of  Boulogne  to  the  Crown  after 
the  death  in  11 59  of  William,  Count  of  Boulogne. 
Lambourne  was  still  considered  to  be  part  of  the  honor 
early  in  the  13th  century,'^  but  not,  apparently,  after 

In  the  1 2th  century  the  tenancy  of  the  manor  came 
to  Pharamus  of  Boulogne,  the  grandson  of  Geoffrey, 
which  last  was  probably  a  bastard  son  of  Eustace  of 
Boulogne. '3  It  descended  to  Pharamus's  daughter 
Sybil,  wife  of  Ingram  de  Fiennes,  and  subsequently  to 
her  son  William  de  Fiennes."'*  In  about  1220  the 
manor  was  held  of  the  honor  of  Boulogne  by  Sybil."' 
In  1282  it  was  conveyed  to  Robert  Burnell,  Bishop  of 
Bath  and  Wells  and  Chancellor  of  England  (d.  1292), 
by  William  de  Fiennes,  probably  grandson  of  the  last- 
named  William."*  In  1300  the  manor  was  among  the 
lands  left  at  his  death  by  William  de  Lambourne.    It 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/1. 

8"  E.R.O.,  Q/SBb  269. 

8'  Kelly' i  Dir.  Etsex  (184.5). 

82  Ibid.  (1851). 

83  Inf.  from  Mr.  Bayles,  owner  of  White 

84  E.R.O.,  D/DU  45/28-32. 

85  Kelly'!  Dir.  Essex  {1886,  1890). 
8'  Ibid.  (1902,  19 14). 

8'  Inf.  from  Mr.  H.  E.  Clarke. 

88  Ibid. 

8«  D.N.B. 

oo  F.C.H.  Essex,  i,  467*.  This  does  not 
suggest  a  large  manor,  which  is  surprising 
in  view  of  the  present  size  of  the  parish. 
Some  parts  of  Lambourne  may  have  been 
included  in  1086  in  entries  for  other 
places :  and  see  below. 

»'  y.C.H.  Essex,  i,  467*. 

92  RedBk.  of  Exch.  (Rolls  Ser.),  $76;  Bk. 
of  Fees,  236. 

»s  For  Pharamus  see  J.  H.  Round's 
article.  Genealogist,  n.s.  xii,  145-51.  See 
also  Magdalen  Laver,  Blake  Hall  in 
Bobbingworth.   Pharamus  died  in  11 83-4. 

M  Bk.  of  Fees,  236,  240,  1  ^2S ;  Red  Bk. 
ofExck.  576. 

95  Bk.  of  Fees,  236,  240,  1428;  Red  Bk. 
of  Exch.  576. 

9'  Feel  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  36.  Another 
Ingram  de  Fiennes  was  probably  father  of 
the  William  of  1282:  cf.  W.  Farrer, 
Feudal  Camhs.  248-9, 

9'  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  m,  p.  440. 

98  D.N.B.  Robt.  Burnell. 

99  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  VU,  \,  p.  86; 
C142/84/55.  For  the  wardstaff  see  the 
Hundred  of  Ongar,  above. 

was  then  said  to  be  held  of  the  heirs  of  Philip  Burnell 
for  2  knights'  fees."'  Philip,  who  had  died  in  1 294,  was 
the  nephew  and  heir  of  the  bishop."*  There  is  no 
further  mention  of  the  Burnells  in  connexion  with 
Lambourne.  In  1485  the  manor  was  said  to  be  held  as 
of  the  hundred  of  Ongar,  and  in  the  i6th  century  it 
was  held  of  the  hundred  by  service  of  the  ward-staff."" 

The  manor  had  been  subinfeudated  to  the  Lam- 
bourne family  long  before  1 300.  That  family  held  land 
in  the  parish  in  1203,  when  Robert  of  Lambourne  is 
mentioned,"  and  this  Robert,  or  a  namesake,  was  the 
owner  of  the  advowson  before  1218.^  A  John  de  Lam- 
bourne occurs  in  1240.3  In  1261  it  was  stated  that 
Christopher  of  Lambourne,  lately  hanged  for  felony, 
had  held  \  knight's  fee  in  Lambourne  of  William  of 
Lambourne.  This  tenement  had  been  in  the  king's 
hand  since  December  1259;  the  king  had  given  his 
year,  day,  and  waste  to  Elizabeth  widow  of  Christopher 
who  was  said  to  have  wholly  spoiled  the  land.-*  A  Wil- 
liam of  Lambourne  was  among  those  who  did  fealty  to 
Bishop  Burnell  for  their  lands  in  Lambourne  in  1282.' 
He  was  probably  identical  with  the  man  of  that  name 
who  held  the  manor  at  his  death  in  1 300.* 

William  de  Lambourne  was  succeeded  by  his  son 
James.  The  manor  was  then  said  to  include  140  acres 
of  arable,  worth  £,z  13/.  \d.,  7  acres  of  meadow,  worth 
14^.,  8  acres  of  pasture  worth  8/.,  and  2  acres  of  wood, 
wasted  and  valueless.  There  were  19  free  tenants  ren- 
dering j^2  10/.  \\d.  in  rents  of  assize  and  3  capons, 
valued  at  zd.  each,  at  Christmas.  Nine  customary 
tenants  rendered  2  hens,  valued  at  2d.  each,  at  Easter. 
Their  services  were  valued  at  i  id.  The  total  value  of 
the  manor  was  £(1  \<^s.  ()d.'' 

James  de  Lambourne  (knighted  1 306)  made  a  settle- 
ment of  the  manor  in  1307.*  He  was  still  alive  in  1325.' 
Thomas  de  Lambourne  held  the  manor  in  1351."°  He 
died  in  1361  and  his  son  and  heir  William  died  in  the 
same  year."  William  was  succeeded  by  his  sister  Joan, 
wife  of  William  de  Chene.  Before  1376  Lambourne 
had  been  conveyed  to  Sir  John  de  Sutton,  William  de 
Chene  retaining  a  life  interest.'^  Chene  was  evidently 
still  alive  in  1386,  when  he  held  the  manor  of  Polstead 
(SufF.).'3  By  141 1  the  manor  had  passed  to  Thomas 
Lampet,  whose  widow  Elizabeth  was  then  holding  it 
for  life."''  In  that  year  it  was  settled  upon  William 
Lampet,  'kinsman'  of  Thomas. '5  In  141 2  it  was  said 
to  be  held  by  Isabel  Lampet.'*  She  was  probably  iden- 
tical with  the  Elizabeth  of  141 1.  The  manor  subse- 
quently passed  to  John  Lampet,  who  was  succeeded 
before  1456—60  by  his  daughter  Cecily  wife  of  William 
Curzon."  A  William  Curzon  died  holding  Lambourne 
in  1485.  It  was  then  stated  that  Robert  Curzon  had 
enfeoffed   certain   persons  with  the   manor.'*    This 

■  Cur.  Reg.  R.  ii,  206. 

2  See  below,  Church. 

'  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  i,  123. 

*  Cal.  Inq.  Misc.  i,  p.  181. 

5  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  36. 

^  This  Wm.  of  Lambourne  was  an 
active  local  official  under  Edward  I :  see 
C.  Moor,  Knights  of  Ediu.  I,  iii,  7. 

'  C133/93/10. 

8  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  1 1 5. 

9  C.  Moor,  Knights  of  Edw.  I,  iii,  7. 
'"  Cal.  Inq.  Misc.  iii,  p.  24. 
' '  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  xi,  p.  81. 
"  Feet  ofF.  Essex,  iii,  182. 
*3  W.  A.  Coppinger,  Manors  of  Suffolk, 

i,  180.  '■•  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iii,  256. 

'5  Ibid.  >'  Feud.  Aids,  vi,  439. 

"  Ci/26/472. 
'8  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  hen.  VII,  i,  pp.  85-86. 




implies  that  Robert  was  the  predecessor  of  the  last- 
named  William.  That  the  William  Curzon  who  died 
in  1485  was  a  young  man  and  not  identical  with  the 
William  Curzon  of  1456-60  is  also  suggested  by  the 
fact  that  he  left  an  infant  daughter,  Mary,  as  his  heir." 
Mary  apparently  married  a  member  of  the  Tey  family, 
of  Ardleigh,  probably  Sir  Thomas  Tey  (d.  1 540).^° 
Sir  Thomas  made  a  conveyance  of  the  manor  in  1 520.^' 
Lambourne  was  apparently  not  among  his  possessions 
at  his  death.  By  1 547  it  had  passed  to  Robert  Barfoot, 
who  died  in  that  year.^^ 

Robert's  successor  was  his  son  Thomas.  The  manor 
descended  in  the  Barfoot  family  until  1733,  when  John 
Barfoot,  probably  great-great-grandson  of  Thomas,  sold 
it  to  Sir  John  Fortescue-Aland.^3  Sir  John  was  a  dis- 
tinguished lawyer  and  for  many  years  a  judge.  In  1 746 
he  became  Baron  Fortescue  of  Credan.^'^  He  died  in 
the  same  year  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Dormer, 
2nd  Baron  Fortescue.^s  The  latter  died  childless  in 
1780.  He  left  his  Essex  property  to  his  cousin  Mary, 
widow  of  Richard  Barford,  D.D.,  of  Titchmarsh 

In  1782  Mary  Barford  sold  Lambourne  to  the  Revd. 
Edward  Lockwood,  Rector  of  St.  Peter's,  Northamp- 
ton.^' He  died  in  1802  and  the  manor  of  Lambourne 
passed  to  his  second  son  Edward  Lockwood,  who 
assumed  the  additional  surname  of  Percival.^*  Edward 
Lockwood  Percival  died  in  1 804,  leaving  a  son  and  heir 
with  the  same  names.^' 

Edward  Lockwood  Percival  the  younger  died  in 
1 842  and  was  succeeded  by  his  cousin  William  J.  Lock- 
wood,  owner  of  Dews  Hall  (see  below). 3°  In  1841 
Lambourne  Hall  farm  consisted  of  208  acres.^'  It  was 
occupied  by  Charles  Blewett.  The  manor  subsequently 
descended  to  Lt.-Gen.  William  M.  Wood,  son  of  W.  J. 
Lockwood  who  had  assumed  the  surname  of  Wood  in 
1 8  3  8  on  inheriting  the  property  of  an  uncle.^^  Lt.-Gen. 
Wood  died  in  1883  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son 
Amelius  R.  M.  Lockwood,  who  had  reassumed  the 
original  family  name  in  i876.-'3  The  latter  was  Con- 
servative M.P.  for  Epping  for  many  years  and  achieved 
distinction  as  chairman  of  the  kitchen  committee  of  the 
House  of  Commons.  He  became  ist  Baron  Lambourne 
in  1917  and  Lord-Lieutenant  of  Essex  in  1919.  He 
died  in  1928.34 

The  Lockwood  estate  in  Lambourne  was  latterly 
known  as  that  of  Bishops  Hall,  from  the  family  seat.  In 
addition  to  the  manors  of  Lambourne  and  Bishops  Hall 
(see  below)  it  included  those  of  St.  John's  and  Dews 
Hall  (see  below).  The  estate  was  put  up  for  sale  in 
1929.  It  then  consisted  of  1,61 5  acres.  Some  500  acres 
were  in  hand,  including  Lambourne  Hall  farm,  whose 
extent  was  371  acres. 35 

Lambourne  Hall  is  said  to  have  been  built  by  Thomas 
Barfoot  in  1571.36  This  date  and  the  initials  t.b.  are 
carved  on  oak  panelling  formerly  in  the  house  and  now 
in  the  Lever  Art  Gallery,  Port  Sunlight.3'  The  central 
hall  and  the  Oak  Room  adjoining  it  to  the  east  are  part 
of  the  original  timber-framed  building.  Oak  paneUing 
now  at  the  west  end  of  the  hall  was  originally  incor- 
porated in  a  partition  across  it  and  may  represent  the 
16th-century  screens.  The  Oak  Room  has  original 
finely  moulded  ceiling  beams,  a  fire-place  with  a  four- 
centred  arch,  and  three  doorways  with  four-centred 
heads.  The  house  was  reroofed  and  much  altered  in  the 
1 8th  century.  In  1937  a  new  east  wing  was  built,  the 
dated  weathercock  above  it  being  brought  from  else- 
where.38  PaneUing  in  the  dining-room  and  the  over- 
mantel in  the  Oak  Room  came  from  Marks  Hall,  near 
Coggeshall,  which  was  demolished  about  1950.39 

later  known  as  ST.  JOHNS,  originated  in  an  estate  in 
the  north  and  west  of  the  parish  acquired  by  the  Knights 
Hospitallers  from  various  donors  in  the  13th  century 
and  perhaps  earlier.'")  The  estate  remained  in  the  hands 
of  the  Hospitallers  until  the  Dissolution.  In  155311  was 
granted,  as  the  'manors'  of  Lambourne  and  Abridge,  to 
Richard  Morgan  and  Thomas  Carpenter.*'  Soon  after 
this  it  was  acquired  by  Robert  Taverner,  who  died 
holding  it  in  1556.*^  Thomas  Taverner  his  son  and 
heir  was  an  infant  and  became  a  royal  ward.  In  1557 
the  manor  was  valued  at  ^^23  15/.,  and  Elizabeth 
Taverner,  widow  of  Robert,  was  granted  dower  in  it.*' 

Thomas  Taverner  sold  the  manor  in  1 597-8  to  Sir 
Robert  Wroth,  Kt.**  Sir  Robert  died  in  1606  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  eldest  son,  another  Sir  Robert.*'  In 
1608  the  manor  was  said  to  include  4  messuages,  2  gar- 
dens, 100  acres  of  land,  20  acres  of  meadow,  100  acres 
of  pasture,  80  acres  of  wood,  and  8/.  rent.**  Sir  Robert 
Wroth  the  younger  died  in  1614.*'  James,  infant  son 
of  Sir  Robert,  died  two  years  later  and  was  succeeded 
by  John  Wroth  his  uncle.**  John  Wroth  still  held  the 
manor  in  162 1  .*'  He  apparently  sold  it  before  Septem- 
ber 1630,  when  Richard  Peacock  received  the  royal 
confirmation  of  all  rights  and  privileges  connected  with 
the  manor. 50  Peacock  died  in  1634,  leaving  the  manor 
to  his  son  Edward. si  In  1641  Edward  Peacock  con- 
veyed it  to  John  Charles. 52  This  was  probably  a  lease, 
for  in  1645  Charles  was  occupying  St.  John's  Wood, 
which  was  part  of  the  manor.53  In  1647  Charles 
Peacock,  John  Charles,  and  others  conveyed  the  manor 
to  George  Bagstar.s*  In  1648  Bagstar  sold  St.  John's 
farm,  which  formed  the  southern  portion  of  the  manor, 
to  William  Browne  the  younger  of  Abridge. 5'  The 
northern  portion,  together  with  the  manorial  rights,  did 
not  go  to  Browne  but  was  sold  by  Bagstar  in  1649  to 

''  It  is  perhaps  significant  that  William 
Curzon  died  on  the  day  of  the  battle  of 

*"  W.  A.  Coppinger,  Manors  of  Suffolk, 
iii,  II  i  Morant,  Essex,  \,  432;  Visits,  of 
Essex  (Harl.  Soc),  207. 

"  CP25(2)/i  1/54  East.  i2Hen.  Vni. 

"  C142/84/55.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  Mercers'  Co. 

"  E.R.O.,D/DLoT56.  For  the  Barfoot 
pedigree  see  Morant,  Essex,  i,  172,  and 
E.R.O.,  T/G  30/5. 

^  Complete  Peerage,  v,  562, 

"  Ibid.  563. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  T2. 

"  Ibid.  T56;  T.  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii, 

i*  Burke,  Commoners  (1833-8),  iv,  82. 

29  Ibid.;E.R.O.,  D/DL0T54. 

30  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  E2. 
3>  E.R.O.,  D/CT  202. 

32  E.R.  xxxviii,  34;  Burke,  Land.  Gent. 
(1906),  ii,  1035. 

33  J.  Grant,  Essex  Historical,  Bio- 
graphical and  Pictorial,  Lockwood. 

3*  E.R.  xxxviii,  34—36. 

35  E.R.O.  Sale  Cat.  A.  1046. 

36  T.  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  396. 

37  Inf.  from  Mrs.  S.  Padfield,  present 
occupier,  and  from  Mr.  R.  B.  Pugh. 

38  Ibid. 

39  Ibid.;  For  a  photo,  of  Lambourne 
Hall,  1929,  see  E.R.O.,  Sale  Cat.  1046. 
For  the  demolition  of  Marks  Hall  see 
E.R.  lix,  164. 

40  Morant,  Essex,   i,    173;   Feet  of  F. 


Essex,  i,  21$;  P.N.  Essex  (E.P.N.S.),  60. 

■•'  Cal.  Pat.  1550-3,  309. 

«  C142/109/54. 

"  Cal.  Pat.  1555-7,466. 

■M  CP25(2)/i38/i750.  FortheWroths 
see  also  Loughton. 

"  C142/294/87. 

••'  CP43/103  rot.  34. 

47  See  Manor  of  Loughton,  in  that 
parish.  -**  Ibid. 

49  CP25(2)/296  East.  19  Jas.  I. 

50  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  Ml  (copy  from 
Forest  Roll).  "  C142/590/15. 

52  CP25(2)/4i8  Trin.  17  Chas.  I. 

53  Hist.  MSS.  Com.  6M  Rep.  App.  61*. 
5*  CP25(2)/4I9     East.     23     Chas.     I5 

E.R.O.,  D/DLo  Ti. 
55  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  T56. 


Edward  Palmer,  owner  of  Dews  Hall  (see  below).'*  It 
subsequently  descended  along  with  that  manor. 

St.  John's  Farm  was  mortgaged  by  William  Browne 
in  1658  to  John  Eyver  of  Tilty.s'  Browne  died  in 
1665  and  was  succeeded  by  William  Browne,  probably 
his  son. 5  8  In  1678  the  latter  sold  the  farm  to  William 
Scott  of  Chigwell.5'  In  1699  it  was  settled  upon  Scott's 
daughter  Anne  on  her  marriage  to  William  Derham, 
Rector  of  Upminster.*"  Derham  (1657-1735)  became 
a  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society  and  published  many 
books  and  articles  on  science  and  theology.  In  1 7 14  he 
became  chaplain  to  the  Prince  of  Wales  and  in  1716a 
canon  of  Windsor.*'  In  1733  he  sold  St.  John's  farm 
to  Sir  John  Fortescue-Aland.  The  farm  was  thus 
merged  in  the  main  manor  of  Lambourne  and  subse- 
quently descended  along  with  it  (see  above).*^ 

In  1723  the  court  of  the  manor  was  being  held  at  a 
house  called  Tobys  'near  Clay  Grove'.*^ 

In  1 84 1  St.  John's  farm  consisted  of  88  acres  in  the 
occupation  of  James  Clark.*''  In  1929  the  area  of  the 
farm  was  1 60  acres.*5 

The  manor  o{  ARNEWAYS,  whose  name  has  been 
corrupted  to  the  modern  ARNOLDS,  probably  took 
its  name  from  Adam  Arneway,  who  is  said  to  have  held 
land  in  Lambourne  'about  the  reign  of  Henry  VI' 
under  the  Earl  of  Oxford,  who  held  the  neighbouring 
manor  of  Battles  in  Stapleford  Abbots  (q.v.).**  This 
tenure  suggests  that  Arneways  was  originally  part  of 

In  1525  Arneways  was  among  the  possessions  of  Sir 
William  Fitzwilliam  of  Milton  (Northants.)  and  was 
settled  in  that  year  to  the  uses  of  his  will.*'  He  also 
owned  the  manor  of  Hunts  (see  below),  and  his  pro- 
perty descended  on  his  death  in  1534  to  his  son  and 
heir  Sir  William.**  In  a  list  of  owners  drawn  up  about 
1 543-6  Anthony  Browne  is  given  under  Arneways.*' 
By  1556,  however,  Arneways  and  Hunts  had  come  to 
Robert  Taverner,  lord  of  the  manors  of  Pryors  (see 
below)  and  Lambourne-and-Abridge  (see  above)  who 
died  in  that  year.''"  Arneways  remained  in  the  posses- 
sion of  Thomas,  son  of  Robert  Taverner,  after  Lam- 
bourne-and-Abridge had  been  sold,  and  descended  on 
Thomas's  death  in  1610  to  his  son  Robert."  In  1625 
Robert  Taverner  sold  Arneways  and  Pryors  to  Robert 
Draper,  merchant  tailor  of  London.'^  Taverner  evi- 
dently remained  tenant  of  the  estate.  Draper  died  in 
1635  and  was  succeeded  by  his  younger  son  William.'-' 
At  its  fullest  extent  the  Taverner  estate  probably  com- 
prised about  500  acres. 

In  1 64 1  William  Draper  of  Oxford  sold  Arneways 
to  Robert  Broomfield  of  Stratford.''*  The  estate  de- 
scended to  John  Broomfield,  son  of  John,  son  of  Robert, 
who  in  168 1  assigned  the  lease  of  Arneways  'heretofore 
in  the  occupation  of  Robert  Taverner',  to  John  Todd 
of  Walthamstow."  In  1687  this  estate  'once  in  the 
occupation  of  Robert  Taverner  and  afterwards  of  Lance 
Nash'  was  sold  to  John  Todd.'*  Todd  is  said  to  have 

5*  CP25(2)/550B  Trin.  1649. 

57  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  T56. 

58  Ibid.  59  Ibid. 
">  Ibid.                              "  D.N.B. 
'2  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  T56. 
'3  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/1. 
««  E.R.O.,  D/CT  202. 
«!  E.R.O.,  Sale  Cat.  A.  1046. 
"  Morant,  Essex,  i,  173. 
"  Earl     Fitzwilliam     (Milton)     Deeds, 

1725,  1726.  This  reference  has  been  pro- 
vided by  Mr.  A.  A.  Dibben.  For  Fitz- 
william see  also  Gaynes  Park  in  Theydon 
Garnon  and  Marshalls  in  North  Weald. 

'8    CH2/57/20. 

69  E.A.T.,ti.s.  ix,  217;  E.R.O.,  D/DRg 

■">  C142/109/54.. 

'■  C60/456,  No.  44.  For  the  Taverner 
pedigree  see  Visits,  of  Essex  (Harl.  Soc), 

'2  E.R.O.,T/A44,p.  319. 

"  C142/52S/130. 

"t  E.R.O.,T/A44,  p.  319. 

75  Ibid.  ■"•  Ibid. 

"  Morant,  Essex,  i,  173,  169.  It  is  not 
clear  whether  the  estate  remained  per- 
manently divided.    A  Mr.  Church  owned 

given  half  the  estate  to  William  Church,  who  married 
his  daughter;  their  daughter  and  heir  married  Peter 
Searle  who  sold  Arneways  to  Thomas  Scott  (d.  1733) 
of  Woolston  in  Chigwell  (q.v.)."  The  estate  passed,  to 
Thomas's  son  George  Scott  who  was  holding  it  in  1746. 
A  map  of  the  farm  was  drawn  for  George  Scott  in  that 
year  by  Josiah  Taylor.'*  Arnolds  then  consisted  of  2 1 5 
acres  in  Lambourne,  most  of  which  lay  opposite  the 
farm-house  to  the  south  of  the  main  road.  There  were 
also  a  few  acres  in  Stapleford  Abbots.  George  Scott 
still  held  the  farm  in  1771,"  but  by  1782  it  was  owned 
by  Edward  Sewell.*"  He  was  returned  as  the  owner 
until  1788  when  the  farm  belonged  to  Mrs.  Sarah 
Sewell,  probably  his  widow.*'  After  Mrs.  Sewell's 
death  about  1801  Arneways  came  to  Samuel  Sewell 
who  still  held  it  in  1841.*^  In  the  latter  year  the  farm 
consisted  of  203  acres  in  Lambourne.  It  was  occupied 
by  Mrs.  Kitty  Collyer  and  Philip  B.  The 
Collyer  family  had  been  tenants  since  1788.*^ 

Arnolds  Farm  was  advertised  for  sale  in  1843.  It 
was  then  stated  to  contain  203  acres  freehold  in  Lam- 
bourne and  a  further  10  acres  copyhold  of  the  manor 
of  Stapleford  Abbots.  *s  It  was  bought  by  Samuel 
Crane,  whose  family  continued  to  farm  it  until  about 
19 16  when  it  was  sold  to  Mr.  Jacob  Saward.  In  1925 
the  farm  was  bought  by  Mr.  A.  Clarke,  whose  son, 
Mr.  H.  E.  Clarke,  is  the  present  owner.** 

The  manor  house,  now  a  farm,  is  a  timber-framed 
and  weather-boarded  structure  with  three  gables  to  the 
front.  Its  present  plan,  which  is  approximately  square, 
is  the  result  of  additions  and  alterations  at  various  dates. 
The  centre  part  of  the  front  was  once  a  15th-century 
open  hall,  divided  into  two  bays  by  a  massive  arch- 
braced  roof  truss  with  a  rebated  king-post.  Smoke- 
blackened  roof  timbers  indicate  that  there  was  an  open 
hearth,  probably  in  the  eastern  bay.  Flanking  the  hall 
to  east  and  west  are  two-story  cross-wings,  each  with  a 
front  gable.  These  are  probably  of  the  same  date  or 
a  little  later.  A  ceiling  has  now  been  inserted  in  the  hall 
and  the  central  gable  constructed  to  give  light  and  head- 
room on  the  upper  floor.  The  original  truss  has  been 
incorporated  in  a  bedroom  partition.  These  alterations 
were  probably  made  early  in  the  i6th  century.  At 
about  the  same  time  a  central  chimney  was  inserted  and 
a  new  two-story  wing  built  out  behind  the  hall.  This 
would  give  a  somewhat  unusual  T-shaped  plan,  the 
chimney  providing  fire-place  openings  both  in  the  hall 
and  the  new  wing.  The  ground-floor  room  of  the  added 
wing  has  fine  moulded  ceiling  beams  and  joists  of  typical 
early-i6th-century  character  and  there  is  said  to  be  a 
carved  external  bressummer,  now  covered  over,  at  the 
north  end.*'  The  next  addition  was  probably  the  north 
extension  of  the  east  cross-wing,  which  incorporates  a 
17th-century  staircase.  On  the  first  floor  of  the  west 
cross-wing  there  is  panelling  of  the  late  i6th  or  early 
17th  century,  and  later  still  this  wing  was  also  extended 
northwards,  giving  the  house  its  present  square  plan. 

Arnolds  In  1723:  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/1. 

78  Map  in  possession  of  Mr.  H.  E. 
Clarke  of  Arnold's  Farm  and  kindly  lent 
to  the  editor.  A  photo,  of  this :  E.R.O., 
T/M  227. 

'9  Hist.  Essex  by  Gent,  iv,  24. 

80  E.R.O.,  Q/RPl  687. 

81  Ibid.  688-93. 

82  Ibid.  694-737;  D/CT  202. 

83  Ibid.  D/CT  202. 

84  Ibid.  Q/RPl  693  f. 

85  E.R.O.,  Sale  Cat.  B.  168. 
ss  Inf.  from  Mr.  H.  E.  Clarke. 
87  Ibid. 




There  are  said  to  be  two  earlier  windows  to  the  hall, 
now  blocked.**  The  whole  house  has  been  reroofed. 

The  manor  of  BISHOPS  HALL  originated  in  an 
estate  in  Lambourne  held  by  the  Bishop  of  Norwich. 
It  is  probable  that  this  estate  extended  into  Stapleford 
Abbots.  In  1250  Walter  le  Blunt  and  Maud  his  wife 
granted  to  Walter  de  Suffield,  Bishop  of  Norwich,  a 
messuage,  60  acres  of  land,  6  acres  of  meadow,  and 
I  acre  of  wood  in  Lambourne,  which  tenement  had 
formerly  been  held  by  Andrew  le  Draper.*'  In  1252 
the  bishop  received  a  royal  grant  of  free  warren  in  his 
demesnes  at  Lambourne.'"  In  1260  Roger  le  Hunt 
and  Estrilda  his  wife  gave  Simon  de  Wauton,  Bishop  of 
Norwich,  14  acres  of  land  in  the  parish  to  hold  in  free 
alms."  Early  in  1384  the  temporalities  of  Henry 
Despenser,  Bishop  of  Norwich,  were  taken  into  the 
king's  hands  as  a  result  of  the  disastrous  expedition  to 
Flanders  which  the  bishop  had  led.'^  At  a  subsequent 
inquisition  it  was  found  that  the  manor  called  'La 
Bisshoppeshall  of  Norwich'  was  held  of  the  Knights 
Hospitallers  and  of  Sir  John  Sutton  by  the  service  of 
6s.  a  year,  of  the  king  in  chief  as  of  the  manor  of  Haver- 
ing, by  service  of  making  60  perches  of  the  park  pale 
with  his  own  timber,  and  of  the  Earl  of  Oxford  by  suit 
at  his  three  weeken  court.'^  The  manor  contained  80 
acres  of  arable  worth  ly.  44'.  a  year,  12  acres  of  wood 
which  could  be  cut  every  20  years  and  was  worth  2S.  an 
acre,  13/.  %d.  rents  of  assize,  and  1 7( .')  acres  (of  meadow 
or  pasture .')  each  of  which  was  worth  is.  6d. 

The  manor  was  restored  to  the  bishop  with  his  other 
property  in  1385  and  remained  appurtenant  to  the  see 
of  Norwich  until  1 534,  when  the  then  bishop,  Richard 
Nix,  was  deprived  of  his  property  on  the  charge  of 
infringing  the  Statute  of  Praemunire.'*  Nix  was  later 
pardoned,  but  in  1536,  immediately  after  his  death,  the 
temporalities  of  the  see  were  vested  in  the  king  by  Act 
of  Parliament  in  exchange  for  the  former  estates  of  the 
abbey  of  St.  Benet's  Hulme  and  of  the  priory  of  Hick- 
hng.'s  In  October  1536  the  bishop's  manor  in  Lam- 
bourne was  conveyed  to  the  chancellor.  Sir  Thomas 
Audley.'*  Audley  transferred  it  in  1538  to  William 
Hale. '7  In  1556  Hale  settled  the  manor  on  himself  for 
life  with  remainder  tu  Thomas  Hale.'*  This  may  have 
been  the  Thomas  Hale  of  Codicote  (Herts.)  from  whom 
descended  the  Hales  of  King's  Walden  (Herts.)." 
How  long  Bishops  Hall  was  held  by  the  Hales  is  not 
certain.  It  appears  to  have  passed  about  1606  to  the 
family  of  Stoner  of  Loughton  (q.v.)  and  together  with 
land  in  Stapleford  Abbots  (q.v.)  formed  the  estate  of 
Knoll's  Hill.'  In  1606  the  'manor  or  messuage  of 
Bishops  Motte'  was  in  the  possession  of  Clement  Stoner. 
The  site  was  then  'wasted  and  overgrown'.  The  fields 
belonging  to  the  manor  were  Nether  Barnfield,  Upper 
Barnfield,  Wheelers  Ridden,  Great  Perryfield,  Little 
Perryfield,   Sedwins,  Blackcroft,   Stanes,  and   Sagars. 

The  total  extent  was  about  100  acres.^  Stoner  died  in 
1612,  leaving  Francis  his  son  and  heir.J 

Bishops  Hall  seems  subsequently  to  have  been  sepa- 
rated from  the  Knoll's  Hill  estate.  Later  in  the  I7tli 
century  the  manor  came  into  the  possession  of  Edmund 
Colvill,  Salter  of  Maidstone  (Kent).  He  was  evidently 
a  Parliamentarian,  for  in  1662  he  was  removed  from  the 
common  council  of  Maidstone  for  refusing  the  oaths  of 
Supremacy  and  Allegiance.*  He  died  in  1675.'  In 
1 686  his  widow  Katherine  sold  Bishops  Hall  to  William 
Walker,  citizen  and  ironmonger  of  London.* 

William  Walker  died  in  1708  and  was  succeeded  by 
his  eldest  son  Thomas  (d.  1748).^  Thomas  Walker  was 
surveyor-general  to  George  II  and  M.P.  for  West  Looe 
(1733),  Plympton  (1734),  and  Helston  (1741).*  He 
left  all  his  Essex  estates  to  his  nephew  Stephen  Skinner.' 
Skinner  died  in  1762  and  his  widow  Mary  in  1769. 
The  will  of  Thomas  Walker  had  provided  that  his 
estates  should  pass  after  Skinner's  death  to  Skinner's 
three  daughters  and  their  heirs.'" 

In  1772  a  private  Act  of  Parliament  was  passed  for 
dividing  the  estates."  Bishops  Hall  was  included  in 
Lot  C  of  the  subsequent  partition  and  became  the  pro- 
perty of  Mary  wife  of  Sir  Thomas  Aubrey,  6th  Bt.  of 
Boarstall  (Bucks.),  and  daughter  of  Sir  James  Cole- 
brooke,  ist  Bt.,  by  Mary,  eldest  daughter  of  Stephen 
Skinner.'*  In  1774  Sir  Thomas  and  Lady  Aubrey  sold 
the  manor  to  William  Waylett  of  Lambourne.'^  Way- 
lett  sold  it  in  1785  to  Admiral  Sir  Edward  Hughes, 
who  had  recently  returned  to  England  from  service 
against  the  French  as  Commander-in-Chief,  East 

On  Sir  Edward  Hughes's  death  in  1 798  the  manor 
passed  to  his  stepson  Edward  Hughes  Ball  (d.  1863), 
who  later  assumed  the  additional  surname  of  Hughes 
and  became  a  social  celebrity  and  dandy,  familiarly 
known  as  'Golden  Ball'."  In  i8i8  Ball  Hughes  leased 
Bishops  Hall  to  W.  J.  Lockwood  of  Dews  Hall  (see 
below)  for  fourteen  years.'*  The  unexpired  portion  of 
the  lease  was  surrendered  in  1827."  The  manor  is  said 
to  have  been  sold  about  this  time  to  Edward  Dowdes- 
well.  Rector  of  Stanford  Rivers,  who  gave  it  to  Miss 
Lockwood  Percival  (presumably  Louisa  Elizabeth, 
sister  of  Edward  Lockwood  Percival  the  younger,  for 
whom  see  above.  Manor).'*  After  Miss  Percival's 
death  (before  c.  1838)  Bishops  Hall  apparently  de- 
scended along  with  the  main  manor  of  Lambourne. 

The  original  manor  house  of  Bishops  Hall  was  no 
doubt  that  which  in  1606  was  described  as  Bishops 
Motte,  and  was  then  wasted  and  overgrown  (see  above) . 
This  moated  site  can  still  be  identified.  Buried  tiles  and 
debris  at  the  south-west  corner  may  be  the  remains  of 
former  buildings. 

The  second  Bishops  Hall  was  built  f  mile  west  of  the 
first,  probably  by  William  Walker  (d.  1708)  or  his  son 

88  Ibid. 

89  FeetofF.  Essex,  \,  183. 

»o  Cal.  Chart.  R.  1226-57,  404. 

"  Feel  ofF.  Essex,  i,  237. 

M  Cal.  Close,  1385-9,  3-4.  For  the 
career  of  Despenser  see  D.N.B. 

"  C145/229.  The  document  is  badly 
stained  but  the  name  of  the  manor  seems 
to  be  as  given  above.  This  makes  it 
reasonably  certain  that  the  manor  was 
named  after  the  Bishop  of  Norwich,  and 
not,  as  suggested  by  Dr.  Reaney  {P.N. 
Essex,  60—61)  after  a  family  named 

«■•  For  Nix  see  D.N.B. 

95  27  Hen.  VIII,  C.45  (priv.  act.). 

96  L.  &  P.  Hen.  ml,  xi,  p.  377. 

97  Ibid,  xiii  (i),  p.  325. 

98  Cal.  Pat.  1555-7,  90. 

99  Burke,   Land.    Gent.    {1906),    746- 


'  Morant,  Essex,  i,  178. 

2  E.R.O.,  D/DFa  Ei :  this  includes  a 
sketch  map  of  the  estate.  Francis  Stoner 
(d.  1604),  father  of  Clement,  does  not 
appear  to  have  owned  Bishops  Hall: 

3  Morant,  Essex,  i,  178. 
*  Recs.  of  Maidstone  (i^ib),  146. 

5  P.C.C.    Wills,    1671-S    (Brit. 
Soc),  49. 

6  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  T14. 



1  Ibid. 

8  T.  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  398-9. 

9  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  T14. 
'0  Ibid. 

"  Skinner's  Estate  Act,  12  Geo.  Ill, 
C.96  (priv.  act.).  Cf.  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  T14. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  T14. 

■3  Ibid. 

i«  Ibid.;  for  Hughes  see  D.A^.B.  He  had 
fought  5  battles  in  about  a  year. 

'5  D.N.B.  %,  174. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  T14. 

"  Ibid. 

>8  T.  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  399; 
Burke,  Commoners  (1833-8),  iv,  82. 


Thomas  (d.  1748)."  This  became  the  seat  of  the  Lock- 
wood  family  and  gave  its  name  to  their  estate  in  the  19th 
century.  It  was  much  enlarged  by  Lord  Lambourne 
about  1900.  After  the  break-up  of  the  estate  (1929) 
the  house  was  demolished  (1936)^"  and  the  present 
Bishops  Hall,  the  third  of  the  name,  was  built  in  the 
grounds  about  1 50  yds.  south-east.  This  is  a  two-story 
gabled  building,  partly  half-timbered.  Various  features 
from  the  earlier  house  are  incorporated,  including  the 
carved  stone  Lockwood  arms  on  the  south  front  and  the 
17th-century  Dutch  panelling  in  the  library. 

The  manor  oi DEIVS  HALL  took  its  name  from  the 
family  of  Deu  or  Dew.  Thomas  Deu  held  land  in  Lam- 
bourne in  1248.^'  He  and  John  Deu  made  a  convey- 
ance of  9  acres  of  land  and  i  acre  of  meadow  in  1 262.^^ 
A  Richard  Deu  of  Lambourne  occurs  in  1280-1.^2  A 
John  Deu  was  verderer  for  the  regards  of  Chelmsford 
and  Ongar  in  1285.  He  was  probably  identical  with 
the  man  of  the  same  name  who  was  a  juror  at  the  peram- 
bulation of  the  forest  of  Essex  in  i30i.2'»  In  1304-5 
Hamon  de  Deu  conveyed  to  Richard  of  Chigwell  and 
Joan  his  wife  a  messuage,  120  acres  of  land,  24  acres  of 
pasture,  and  9  acres  of  meadow  in  Lambourne  and 
Theydon  Bois.^s 

In  1305  Juliane,  widow  of  John  de  Deu,  conveyed 
to  Henry  de  Multon  and  Agnes  his  wife  a  messuage, 
200  acres  of  land,  6  acres  of  meadow,  1 5  acres  of  wood, 
and  20  acres  of  pasture  in  Lambourne.^*  It  was  pro- 
vided in  this  conveyance  that  the  property  should  de- 
scend to  the  heirs  of  Agnes;  probably  therefore  she  was 
the  daughter  of  John  Deu.  In  or  about  1322  the  estate 
passed  to  Juliane,  daughter  of  Agnes  and  Henry  and 
wife  of  Richard  de  Welby  of  Multon  (Moulton, 
Lines .?)."  In  1333  it  was  said  to  consist  of  a  messuage, 
220  acres  of  land,  7  acres  of  meadow,  20  acres  of  pas- 
ture, 20  acres  of  wood,  24/.  rent  and  \  messuage  all  in 
Lambourne.  A  settlement  in  that  year  provided  that 
the  estate  should  descend  to  the  male  heirs  of  Juliane 
and  Richard,  with  successive  remainders  to  their  daugh- 
ters Margaret,  Elizabeth,  Joan,  and  Ada.^*  No  sons  are 
mentioned  by  name  and  it  is  probable  that  Dews  Hall 
descended  through  one  of  the  daughters. 

In  14 1 9  John  de  Leventhorpe  held  an  estate  in 
Lambourne,  described  as  I  messuage,  220  acres  of  land, 
100  acres  of  meadow,  20  acres  of  pasture,  20  acres  of 
wood,  24-f.  rent  and  J  messuage.^'  A  Thomas  de  Leven- 
thorpe had  connexions  with  the  parish  in  1469.3°  The 
Leventhorpe  estate  was  probably  Dews  Hall.  Reynold 
Bismere  (d.  1 506)  held  Dews  Hall  of  the  Duke  of 
Buckingham  as  of  Ongar  castle  by  doing  what  are  called 
'white  services'  at  the  wardstaff  of  the   hundred  of 

Ongar.3'  Two  other  Essex  manors  held  by  Bismere  in 
1 506  had  formerly  belonged  to  the  Leventhorpes.'^ 

By  1 540  Dews  Hall  had  passed  to  Sir  William  Sul- 
yard  who  died  in  that  year.^J  He  was  succeeded  by  his 
half-brother  Eustace  Sulyard  (d.  1547).  Eustace's  heir 
was  his  eldest  son  Edward,  but  Dews  Hall,  then  in  the 
occupation  of  James  Haydon,  was  left  to  a  younger  son 
John. 34  There  is  no  further  mention  of  John.  In  1580 
Edward  Sulyard  and  Anne  his  wife  conveyed  Dews 
Hall  to  Henry  Palmer.^' 

The  manor  descended  in  the  direct  male  line  of 
Palmer  to  Henry  Billingsley  Palmer,  son  of  Edward 
Palmer.36  Between  1668  and  1697  a  number  of  mort- 
gages were  taken  out  on  Dews  Hall.37  Among  the 
mortgagees  was  Richard  Lockwood.  In  1709  Henry 
Billingsley  Palmer  sold  the  manor  to  Catlyn  Thorogood, 
an  official  of  the  South  Sea  Company.'*  Thorogood 
died  in  1732.3'  His  son  Pate  Thorogood  sold  Dews 
Hall  in  1735  to  Richard  Lockwood,  'an  eminent 
Turkey  merchant',  the  son  of  the  above-mentioned 
Richard  Lockwood.'"' 

Lockwood  settled  at  Dews  Hall  and  the  manor  de- 
scended to  his  eldest  son  Richard  (d.  1794).'"  The 
latter  left  no  children  and  was  succeeded  by  his  brother 
the  Revd.  Edward  Lockwood,  owner  of  the  main  manor 
of  Lambourne  (see  above).  In  1802,  after  the  death  of 
the  Revd.  Edward  Lockwood,  Dews  Hall  passed  to 
William  Joseph  Lockwood,  son  of  his  elder  son.  It  was 
thus  separated  from  the  manor  of  Lambourne,  but  the 
two  manors  were  reunited  in  1842  and  Dews  Hall 
subsequently  descended  along  with  Lambourne. 

In  1 841  Dews  Hall  farm  consisted  of  40  acres  occu- 
pied by  William  Wootton.^^  In  1929  it  consisted  of 
87  acres,  in  hand.*' 

When  Richard  Lockwood  acquired  Dews  Hall  in 
1735  the  manor  house  was  'an  old  brick  building'.*^ 
He  enlarged  and  refronted  it  in  the  classical  style.*'  A 
print  of  1824  shows  a  fine  three-story  Georgian  man- 
sion with  seven  windows  across  the  front.**  The  central 
bay  had  a  pediment  and  a  first-floor  balcony.  The 
arcaded  side  wings  were  of  one  story.  The  house  was 
demolished  shortly  before  i84i.'»'  The  site  is  now 
occupied  by  a  red-brick  stable  court  belonging  to 
Bishops  Hall  and  dating  from  about  1900. 

The  estate  or  farm  known  as  HUNTS  and  later  as 
PATCH  PARK  never  seems  to  have  been  styled  a 
manor.  It  derived  its  original  name  from  the  family  of 
Richard  le  Hunte  who  with  Cecily  his  wife  held  land  in 
Lambourne  in  1306.''*  In  1360  John  Hunte  and  his 
'parceners'  held  \  knight's  fee  in  Lambourne  of  the 
Earl  of  Oxford.*'  The  name  Patch  Park  probably  came 

'9  William  Walker  was  resident  in  the 
parish  (cf.  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/1).  Before 
him  the  owners  of  Bishops  Hall  manor  in 
the  17th  cent,  were  probably  non- 
resident. The  house  existed  by  the  time 
of  Morant  (cf.  Morant,  Essex^  i,  173). 

20  Inf.  from  Col.  J.  C.  Lockwood,  present 
owner  of  Bishops  Hall.  For  the  building 
demolished  in  1936  see  E.R.O.,  Sale  Cat. 
1046  (includes  photo.).  For  the  contents 
of  that  great  house  in  1929  see  E.R.O., 
Sale  Cat.  A.  623.  They  included  a  'magni- 
ficent French  state  bedstead'  upon  which 
Edward  VII  had  slept  during  his  visit  to 
Bishops  Halt. 

"  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  i,  161. 

"  Ibid.  2+5. 

"  E.A.T.,  N.s.  xviii,  139. 

^  Ibid,  xvi,  93-94. 

^5  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  98. 

*'  Ibid.  100. 

2'  Cal.  Fine  R.  1 3 19-27,  89. 

28  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iii,  28. 

^'  Feet  ofF.  Essex,  iii,  270. 

3i>  Cal.  Pat.  1467-77,  173. 

"  C142/20/56.  This  is  the  first 
reference  to  the  estate  as  a  manor.  For  the 
wardstaff  see  above,  Hundred  of  Ongar. 

32  Leventhorpes  in  Wennington  and 
Launders  in  Rainham :  see  Morant,  Essex, 
i,  86,  89. 

"  C 142/64/89.  For  the  Sulyards  see 
Morant,  Essex,  ii,  42  and  also  Manor  of 
Otes  in  High  Laver.  34  C 142/86/63. 

35  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  T5.  An  Edward 
Palmer  probably  occupied  Dews  Hall 
before  1547;  E.A.T.  N.s.  ix,  217. 

3'  For  the  descent  see  Visits,  of  Essex 
(Harl.  Soc),  463. 

37  E.R.O.,  D/DLoTs,  6. 

3'  Ibid.  T7;  Morant,  Essex,  i,  174. 

3'  Morant,  Essex,  i,  174.    For  his  part 


in  renovating  the  church  and  the  sub- 
sequent dispute  between  the  parish  and 
his  executors  see  below,  Church. 

40  Ibid.  J  E.R.O.,  D/DL0T9. 

41  For  the  Lockwood  pedigree  see 
Burke,  Commoners  (1833-8),  iv,  81. 

42  E.R.O.,  D/CT  202. 

43  E.R.O.,  Sale  Cat.  A.  1046. 

44  Morant,  Essex^  i,  174.  45  Ibid. 

46  See  plate  facing  p.  30.  A  view 
in  Gents.  Mag.  Oct.  1821  is  less  good: 
here  the  apparent  position  of  the  house  to 
the  south-east  of  the  church  is  probably 
due  to  faulty  perspective. 

47  E.R.O.,  D/CT  202.  The  Tithe  Map 
and  Award  show  the  'scite  of  old  mansion' 
at  the  position  of  Dews  Hall.  T.  Wright, 
Hist.  Essex  (1835),  ii,  401-2  speaks  of  the 
house  as  still  standing. 

48  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  ii,  107. 

49  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  x,  p.  522. 



from  the  family  of  John  Patche  of  Lambourne,  a  wood- 
ward of  the  bailiwick  of  Ongar  in  Waltham  forest  in 
1498.50  The  estate  or  at  least  the  farm-house  was  still 
known  as  Hunts  as  late  as  1714.S' 

In  1525  Hunts  was  held  along  with  Arneways  (see 
above)  by  Sir  William  Fitzwilliam.s^  It  passed  with 
Arneways  to  Robert  Taverner,  who  was  holding  it  in 
1556.53  In  1716  'a  parcel  of  pasture  or  marsh  known 
as  Patch  Park',  comprising  about  60  acres,  belonged  to 
Thomas  Luther,  lord  of  Suttons  in  Stapleford  Tawney 
(q.v.)  and  the  farm  subsequently  descended  along  with 
Suttons.S't  After  Pryors  (see  below)  had  been  added  to 
the  Suttons  estate  Patch  Park  and  Pryors  were  worked 
as  a  single  farm. 

The  present  farm-house  of  Patch  Park  was  originally 
timber-framed  and  may  be  of  17th-century  date  or 
earlier.  It  probably  consisted  of  a  central  block  with 
cross-wings  projecting  to  the  south  and  oversailing  at 
first  floor  level.  The  house  has  been  much  altered,  par- 
ticularly in  the  mid-igth  century  when  most  of  the 
lower  story  was  faced  with  gault  brick. 

The  manor  of  PRT'ORS  took  its  name  from  the 
priory  of  Dunmow,  to  which  it  belonged  in  the  Middle 
Ages.  In  1273  Roger  Bishop  and  Alice  his  wife  and 
Geoffrey  Sleybrond  and  Rose  his  wife  conveyed  to 
Hugh,  Prior  of  Dunmow,  43  acres  of  land  and  2  acres 
of  meadow  in  Lambourne. 55  In  1291  the  property  of 
the  prior  in  Lambourne  was  valued  at  18/.  21^.5*  In 
1 3 1 1  the  priory  was  granted  licence  to  acquire  a  further 
small  property  in  the  parish.s' 

In  1536,  after  the  dissolution  of  the  priory,  the  lands 
in  Lambourne  formerly  belonging  to  it  were  granted  to 
Robert,  Earl  of  Sussex  (d.  i542).58  In  1554  Henry, 
Earl  of  Sussex  (d.  1557),  sold  Pryors  to  Robert  Taver- 
ner.5'  The  manor  subsequently  descended  with  Arne- 
ways (see  above)  until  1681.  In  that  year  Arneways 
was  sold  by  John  Broomfield  to  John  Todd,  but  Pryors 
remained  in  the  possession  of  Broomfield,  who  left  it  by 
his  will  (1687)  to  his  sister  Elizabeth,  wife  of  Nicholas 
Staphurst,  M.D.*"  Nicholas  Staphurst,  son  of  Eliza- 
beth, sold  the  estate  in  17 13  to  Dr.  Thomas  Tooke, 
Rector  of  Lambourne.*"  A  sketch  map  of  Pryors  and 
the  glebe  land  made  in  1714  is  a  little  difficult  to  follow 
but  appears  to  show  that  Pryors  proper  consisted  of  3  5 
acres  and  that  an  additional  1 1  acres  belonging  to  the 
glebe  were  farmed  as  part  of  Pryors. '^  Tooke  died  in 
1 72 1,  leaving  Pryors  to  his  wife  for  life  with  remainder 
to  his  brother  John  Tooke  (d.  1764)  who  also  suc- 
ceeded him  as  rector.*^  John  Tooke  was  succeeded  as 
rector  and  owner  of  Pryors  by  his  son  Robert  Tooke 
(d.  1776).*'*  Robert  left  Pryors  to  his  sister  Mrs.  Cal- 
vert, who  held  it  until  her  death  about  I794.*5  She 
was  succeeded  by  her  daughter  Mary,  wife  of  John 
Martin,  who  sold  the  farm  about  1798  to  Charles  Smith 
of  Suttons  in  Stapleford  Tawney  (q.v.).    Pryors  was 

thus  merged  in  the  Suttons  estate.**  In  1841  Pryors 
and  Patch  Park  (see  above)  together  contained  136 

A  small  timber-framed  and  weather-boarded  house, 
now  known  as  Patch  Park  Cottage,  is  thought  to  repre- 
sent the  former  manor  house  of  Priors.  Until  recently 
it  was  divided  into  two  tenements.  Externally  it  appears 
to  be  of  the  i8th  or  early  19th  century,  but  two  ground- 
floor  rooms  have  stop-chamfered  beams,  probably  of 
the  17th  century  and  it  is  possible  that  at  one  time  the 
building  was  of  greater  extent. 

The  priory  of  Stratford  Bow  (Mdx.)  owned  6  acres 
of  land  in  Lambourne  called  MrNCHTNL^NDS, 
which  were  granted  after  the  Dissolution  to  Sir  Ralph 
Sadler,  who  in  1 546  received  licence  to  grant  the  pro- 
perty to  John  Lowe.**  It  may  have  been  in  connexion 
with  these  lands  that  the  Abbot  of  Waltham  was  paying 
I  mark  a  year  to  Stratford  priory  in  about  i254.*9 

The  advowson  of  the  church  of  Lambourne  was 
originally  appurtenant  to  the  manor  of 
CHURCH  Lambourne.  It  was  given  by  Robert  of 
Lambourne  to  Waltham  Abbey.  This 
grant  was  confirmed  by  the  Bishop  of  London  in  1 2 1 8." 
The  confirmation  appears  to  have  included  the  per- 
mission required  for  the  ordination  of  a  vicarage,  but 
there  is  no  evidence  that  this  ever  took  place.'" 

The  first  presentation  to  the  rectory  after  the  Dissolu- 
tion was  made  in  1546  by  Sir  Anthony  Cook.'^  In 
1553  the  king  granted  the  advowson  to  Lord  Francis 
Russell  and  James  Bridges.'^  Robert  Taverner  of 
Arneways  (see  above)  who  died  in  1556  was  said  to 
own  the  advowson.'''  In  1557,  however.  Sir  Nicholas 
Bacon  and  George  Medley  presented.'s  Katherine 
Barfoot,  widow  of  Robert  Barfoot  (see  above.  Manor), 
presented  in  1569.'*  She  is  stated  to  have  done  so  by 
reason  of  a  grant  of  the  advowson  for  one  turn,  made  by 
Waltham  Abbey.  It  is  not  unlikely  that  the  presenta- 
tions of  1 546  and  1557  also  derived  from  grants  made 
before  the  dissolution  of  the  abbey. 

The  advowson  appears  to  have  been  held  for  some 
time  by  the  Taverners,  although  the  presentation  was 
made  by  a  member  of  the  family  on  one  occasion  only 
(1608)."  The  advowson  was  sold  with  Arneways  to 
Robert  Draper  in  1625.'*  In  1641  William  Draper 
conveyed  it  to  William  and  Thomas  Overman."  The 
presentation  of  1642  was  made  by  the  king;  it  had  pre- 
viously been  granted  for  this  turn  by  Robert  Taverner 
to  Thomas  Winnifl^e,  Rector  of  Lambourne.  80  Winniffe 
was  Dean  of  Gloucester  (1624)  and  later  of  St.  Paul's 
(163 1 ).  He  was  chaplain  to  Charles  I  and  became 
Bishop  of  Lincoln  in  1642.*'  No  doubt  the  king  pre- 
sented on  his  behalf  In  1646,  after  the  revenues  of  his 
see  had  been  confiscated  by  Parliament,  Winniife  re- 
tired to  Lambourne  where  he  died  in  1654.  He  bought 
the  next  presentation  and  evidently  intended  to  give  the 

5°  E.R.  XIV,  200. 

5'  E.R.O.,  D/DSd  Pi;  Chapman  and 
Andre,  Map  of  Essex,  7777,  sheet  xvi,  give 
Hunts  as  name  of  present  Great  Downs 
farm.  This  was  probably  an  error. 

52  Earl  Fitzwilliam  (Milton)  Deeds, 
1725,  1726. 

53  C142/109/54. 

54  E.R.O.,  D/DSd  T2. 

55  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  \\,  I. 

5<>  Tax  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  25*. 
5'  Cal.  Pat.  R.  1307-13,  395. 

58  L.  &■  P.  Hen.  f^HI,  xi,  p.  87. 

59  CP25(2)/7o/579  Mich,  i  &  2  Ph.  & 

'o  Morant,     Essex,     i,     174;     E.R.O., 

ES.  IV 

D/DSd  T42. 
6'  Ibid. 

62  E.R.O.,  D/DSd  Pi. 

63  Morant,  Essex,  i,  174-5. 
<>*  Ibid. 

65  T.  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  402; 
E.R.O.,  Q/RPl  686-99;  ibid.  D/DSd 
T42.  ''  I'''''- 

"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  202.  The  name  of  this 
Pryors  is  not  now  used  locally.  Priors 
near  Bishops  Hall  is  a  modern  house  with 
no  known  connexion  with  the  Dunmow 
priory  estate. 

68  L.  &  P.  Hen.  nil,  xiv  (i),  p.  161; 
ibid,  xxi  (2),  p.  348. 

'9  E.A.T.  N.s.  xviii,  18. 


'"  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  691. 

"  There  was  a  rector  in  1297  :  Cal.  Pal. 
1292-1301,  296. 

"  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  360. 

'3  Cal.  Pat.  1553,  76.  Russell  was  the 
eldest  son  of  the  3rd  Earl  of  Bedford, 
whom  he  succeeded  in  1555. 

'4  C142/109/S4. 

'S  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  360. 

'6  Ibid. 

"  Ibid.;  CP25(2)/i35/i72i;  C60/457. 
The  king  presented  in  1606. 

'8  CP25(2)/4i5  Mich.  I  Chas.  I.     . 

"  CP2S(2)/4i8  Mich.  17  Chas.  I. 

80  C142/S2S/130. 

8'  D.N.B. 


living  to  his  nephew  Peter  Mews  (1619-1706).*^ 
Mews,  who  served  in  the  royalist  forces  during  the  Civil 
War,  presented  to  the  rectory  in  1660.83  He  later  be- 
came Bishop  of  Winchester. 

The  advowson  appears  to  have  descended  subse- 
quently along  with  Pryors  (see  above)  but  to  have  been 
granted  for  single  turns  to  persons  not  connected  with 
that  manor.  In  17 1 2  it  was  sold  by  Nicholas  Staphurst 
to  Dr.  Thomas  Tooke,  then  rector.  Tooke  provided  in 
his  will  that  his  heirs  should  have  the  advowson  for  50 
years  after  his  death  and  that  it  should  then  pass  to 
Corpus  Christi  College,  Cambridge.  *<  The  college  pre- 
sented for  the  first  time  in  1778  and  has  continued  to 
do  so  ever  since.*' 

The  rectory  was  valued  at  £fi  1 3^.  \ti.  in  about  1254, 
1291,  and  14288*  and  at  ^14  in  1535. *'  The  tithes 
were  commuted  in  1841  for  ;£6ro;  there  were  then 
35  acres  of  glebe.  8* 

The  Old  Rectory,  now  called  Lambourne  Place,  was 
originally  a  timber-framed  house,  probably  of  the  17th 
century.89  It  was  largely  faced  with  red  brick  about 
1 740.  The  fine  symmetrical  front  has  rusticated  brick- 
work to  the  lower  story,  while  above  there  are  rusticated 
quoins,  a  moulded  brick  cornice,  and  a  central  pedi- 
ment. A  high  parapet  conceals  the  dormer  windows. 
The  pedimented  doorcase  of  wood  is  said  to  have  come 
from  Dews  Hall  (see  above)."*  It  formerly  had  a  shield 
of  arms  in  the  tympanum.  Inside  there  are  panelled 
rooms  and  a  staircase  with  turned  balusters  of  about 
1740.  Some  of  the  chimney  pieces  are  of  this  date  and 
some  later.  There  are  later  additions  at  the  back  of  the 
house.  It  is  now  the  home  of  the  Rt.  Hon.  John 
Strachey,  P.C,  M.P.,  Minister  of  Food  1946-50  and 
Secretary  of  State  for  War  19 50-1. 

The  present  rectory  was  built  in  1925  on  a  site  pre- 
sented by  Lord  Lambourne."  It  is  a  two-story  house 
of  dark-red  brick. 

The  church  of  ST.  MART  AND  ALL  SAINTS 
consists  of  nave,  chancel,  and  west  bell  turret.  It  for- 
merly had  north  and  south  porches.  The  walls  are  of 
flint  rubble  with  stone  and  brick  dressings  and  are 
covered  externally  with  cement.  The  bell  turret  is 
timber-framed  and  weather-boarded  and  has  a  lead 

The  nave  dates  from  the  middle  of  the  12th  century. 
It  has  north  and  south  doorways  which  were  blocked 
and  reset  in  the  1 8th  century.  The  south  door  has  some 
of  the  original  voussoirs  to  the  semicircular  arch.  The 
north  doorway  has  original  scalloped  capitals  externally 
but  the  shafts  are  missing.  The  outer  order  of  the  open- 
ing is  semicircular,  enriched  with  chevron  ornament. 
Below  is  a  tympanum  now  resting  on  a  wood  lintel. 
Some  of  the  reset  stones  of  the  tympanum  are  decorated 
with  axe-cut  formy  crosses  and  similar  designs.  At  a 
high  level  and  partly  behind  the  timber-work  of  the  bell 
turret  on  both  north  and  south  sides  are  round-headed 
single-light  12th-century  windows.  Part  of  the  internal 
jamb  and  arch  of  a  similar  window  was  uncovered 
farther  east  on  the  north  side  in  195  i. 

An  original  chancel,  built  at  the  same  time  as  the 
nave,  was  largely  rebuilt  in  the  13th  century.    The 

thicker  walls  adjoining  the  nave  may  be  the  remains  of 
the  12th-century  chancel.  A  13th-century  blocked 
lancet  window  is  visible  externally  on  the  south  side. 

In  the  14th  century  new  windows  may  have  been 
inserted  in  the  nave  and  chancel. 

The  nave  roof,  with  its  tie-beam  and  king-post  with 
four-way  struts,  probably  dates  from  the  1 5th  century. 
Timber  porches,  later  removed,  may  have  been  added 
in  this  or  the  following  century. 

The  bell-turret  was  probably  added  early  in  the  i6th 
century.  The  timber-framing,  reaching  to  the  floor  of 
the  nave,  has  angle-posts,  tie-beams,  and  curved  braces. 

In  1704-5  the  west  gallery  was  built  at  the  expense 
of  William  Walker  of  Bishops  Hall.  It  is  supported  on 
moulded  columns  and  is  ornamented  with  foliage  carv- 
ing incorporating  Walker's  monogram.  The  panels  are 
inscribed  with  a  list  of  benefactions  to  the  parish.  A 
new  chancel  screen  may  have  been  inserted  soon  after- 
wards. The  panels,  which  now  form  a  dado  at  the  back 
of  the  choir  stalls,  have  similar  foliage  carving  and  the 
monogram  T.T.  (possibly  Thomas  Tooke,  rector 

The  church  was  restored  and  altered  between  1723 
and  1727.  In  1726—7  about  ^220  was  spent  on  this 
work. 9^  The  renovations  were  inspired  by  Catlyn 
Thorogood  of  Dews  Hall,  a  churchwarden.  After  his 
death  in  1732  there  was  a  dispute  between  the  parish 
and  his  executors  concerning  his  accounts  for  the  period 
of  renovation. '3  The  work  included  the  removal  of  the 
timber  porches  to  north  and  south  and  probably  the 
blocking  and  resetting  of  the  12th-century  doorways. 
A  new  west  door  was  inserted,  having  a  moulded  hood 
on  foliated  brackets  (dated  1726)  and  an  oval  window 
above  it.  New  or  altered  windows  were  provided  in  the 
chancel  and  nave.  At  the  same  time  the  interior  was 
decorated.  The  chancel  arch  is  now  three-centred,  rest- 
ing on  voluted  brackets  and  enriched  with  1 8th-century 
plasterwork.  The  tie-beams  across  the  nave  and  chancel 
are  covered  with  moulded  and  enriched  plaster,  the 
mouldings  being  carried  round  the  walls  to  form  a 
cornice.  The  king-post  of  the  nave  roof  has  been 
clothed  in  ornamental  plaster  and  acanthus  leaves.  It 
was  probably  at  this  time,  also,  that  the  oak  reredos  with 
its  fluted  Corinthian  pilasters  was  installed,  and  also  a 
three-decker  pulpit  and  box  pews.  The  renovation  was 
so  thorough  that  the  interior  gives  the  impression  of  a 
Georgian  church,  an  effect  heightened  by  the  large 
number  of  painted  hatchments  and  of  i8th-  and  early 
19th-century  monuments.  A  print  dated  1824  gives  a 
good  general  view  of  the  interior  at  this  time,  including 
the  three-decker  pulpit  with  an  enriched  sounding- 
board  and  the  box  pews.  It  also  shows  a  late-i  8th-cen- 
tury  monument  above  the  altar,  blocking  the  east  win- 
dow."* An  upper  tier  was  added  to  the  gallery  in 

In  1889  a  new  organ  was  installed  and  a  new  brick 
organ  chamber  was  built  for  it  on  the  north  of  the 
chancel.  At  the  same  time  the  church  was  reseated,  the 
pulpit  probably  lowered,  and  a  new  heating  system 
installed.  These  alterations  were  the  gift  of  Col.  Lock- 
wood  of  Bishops  Hall. 9*    In  1933  a  new  vestry  and 

82  D.N.B. 

83  Ibid.;  Newcourt,  Repert,  ii,  360. 
8*  Morant,  Essex^  i,  175. 

*'  Michael  Tyson  (174.0—80)  was  insti- 
tuted in  1778  after  a  long  legal  struggle 
concerning  the  advowson.  He  was  a 
former  scholar  of  Corpus  Christi,  anti- 
quary, and  artist :  D.N.B. 

^  E.A.T.   N.s.    xviii,    18;    Tax.    Fed. 
(Rec.  Com.),  zih;  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  204. 
8'  Fahr  Fed.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  437. 

88  E.R.O.,  D/CT  202. 

89  Possibly  the  house  mentioned  in  the 
glebe  terrier  of  16 10:  Newcourt,  Repert. 
ii,  360. 

9"  Hist.  Mort.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  144. 


9'  Inf.  from  the  present  rector. 

92  E.R.O.,  D/P    181/8/1.    This  vestry 
book  contains  details  of  the  renovation. 

93  Ibid.  181/8/1,2. 

9''  E.R.O.,  Prints,  Lambourne.  See  plate 
facing  p.  53. 
95  T.  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  403. 
»'  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1890). 

Kelvedon  Hall 
Built  c.  1743 

Copyright  Country  Life 

Lambourne  Place,  formerly  the  Rectory 
Built  c.  1740 



entry  were  constructed  under  the  gallery,  the  partitions 
being  of  oak  from  Bishops  Hall."  There  is  a  two-light 
window  in  the  vestry,  on  the  north  wall  of  the  church. 

There  are  three  bells,  of  1640  by  John  Clifton,  of 
1684  by  James  Bartlet,  and  of  1784  by  William  Mears. 
In  1552  there  were  three  bells,  breadth  24  in.,  20  in., 
and  21  in.,  and  also  two  little  handbells  and  a  sacring 
bell.'*  The  Bartlet  bell  was  installed  in  obedience  to 
the  direction  of  the  archdeacon  at  his  visitation  of 

The  glass  in  the  south  windows  of  the  chancel  was 
installed  in  18 17,  having  been  brought  from  Basle.' 
The  subjects  are  as  follows:  the  Choice  between  Good 
and  Evil,  dated  1 630;  the  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  dated 
1637;  the  Incredulity  of  St.  Thomas  (with  the  Annun- 
ciation in  the  spandrels)  dated  1623;  Christ  and  St. 
Peter  on  the  sea  (with  the  Apocalyptic  Vision  in  the 
spandrels)  dated  163 1 ;  the  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds, 
the  Virgin  and  Child  and  St.  Anne  and  the  Virgin  and 
Child  (with  St.  Christopher  and  a  female  saint  in  the 
spandrels)  dated  163 1.  The  inscriptions  are  in  Ger- 
man.^ The  glass  in  the  east  window,  representing  the 
Adoration  of  the  Shepherds,  was  presented  in  memory 
of  Lord  Lambourne  (d.  1928). 

During  repairs  in  195 1  part  of  a  wall-painting  of  St. 
Christopher  was  uncovered  between  the  windows  on 
the  south  side  of  the  nave.  It  is  thought  by  Mr.  Clive 
Rouse  to  be  of  the  15th  or  early  i6th  century  and  to 
show  traces  below  of  an  earlier  painting  of  the  same 
subject.  At  the  same  time  painted  red  and  yellow  strap- 
work  was  uncovered  farther  west.  This  formed  a  frame 
for  texts  and  is  of  post-Reformation  date.^ 

The  pulpit  in  oak  is  four  sides  of  an  octagon.  The 
panels  are  enriched  with  carved  arcading  dating  from 
the  1 6th  or  early  17th  century.  This  was  probably  in- 
corporated in  the  18th-century  three-decker  pulpit  and 
retained  when  the  pulpit  was  lowered  in  the  19th  cen- 
tury. The  base  is  probably  part  of  one  of  the  lower  tiers 
of  the  three-decker.  The  font  has  an  18th-century 
marble  bowl  on  a  tall  moulded  stone  base. 

The  plate  consists  of  a  communion  cup  of  I559>  ^ 
plain  silver  paten  of  1703  presented  by  John  Wroth, 
a  silver  flagon  of  1736  presented  by  Richard  Lockwood, 
and  a  silver  alms  dish  of  1 8 17.  In  1552  the  com- 
missioners found  at  Lambourne  a  chalice  weighing  1 7  oz. 
They  delivered  for  divine  service  an  8  oz.  chalice,  of 
silver  parcel  gilt.* 

At  his  visitation  of  1683  the  archdeacon  directed  that 
a  bible  of  the  new  translation  should  be  provided. 5  This 
suggests  that  the  Great  Bible  was  still  in  use  at  Lam- 
bourne more  than  70  years  after  the  publication  of  the 
Authorized  Version. 

In  the  chancel  is  a  brass  to  Robert  Barfott  (1546) 
and  Katheryn  his  wife.*  It  has  figures  of  a  man  and 
woman  together  with  a  group  of  five  sons  and  another 
of  four  sons  and  ten  daughters,  also  the  arms  of  the 
Mercers'  Company  and  a  merchant's  mark.  Also  in  the 
chancel  is  a  black  and  white  marble  tablet  with  a  broken 
pediment  and  three  shields  of  arms  to  Thomas  Wynnyff 
(1654)  (see  above).   On  the  south  wall  of  the  chancel 

is  a  tablet  with  shield  of  arms  and  Latin  inscription  to 
Thomas  Tooke,  rector  (172 1).  There  are  also  other 
tablets  to  later  members  of  the  Tooke  family  who  were 
rectors.  Both  in  the  chancel  and  nave  are  many  memo- 
rials to  members  of  the  Lockwood  family.  Richard 
Lockwood,  the  Turkey  merchant  who  bought  Dews 
Hall,  is  commemorated  by  a  white  marble  tablet  with 
an  urn,  broken  pediment,  garlands,  and  shield  of  arms. 
On  the  wall  of  the  nave  is  a  tablet  in  memory  of  Capt. 
George  Lockwood,  killed  at  Balaclava  in  1854.  There 
are  floor  slabs  in  the  chancel  to  John  Wynnyff  (1630), 
father  of  Thomas,  to  Robert  Bromfield  (1647),  and 
members  of  his  family.  In  the  churchyard  are  the 
tombs  of  Admiral  Sir  Edward  Hughes  (1794),  his  wife, 
and  his  two  stepsons.^ 

The  church  of  THE  HOLT  TRINITY,  Abridge, 
was  built  in  1836  as  a  chapel  of  ease  to  the  parish 
church. 8  It  was  then  a  plain  rectangular  building  with 
lancet  windows  along  the  sides  and  was  of  gault  brick 
with  red  brick  dressings.  The  gabled  street  front  dates 
from  1877.  A  new  chancel  and  vestries  were  added  in 

For  the  Church  House  see  below.  Charities. 

On  2  July  1833  a  Wesleyan  chapel  was  opened 
at  Abridge.  Sermons  were 
NONCONFORMITY  preached  at  the  first  services 
by  the  Revd.  J.  T.  Yeates  of 
Romford  and  the  Revd.  T.  R.  Fisher  of  Hammersmith. 
The  chapel  was  estimated  to  accommodate  1 50.  The 
original  cost  was  ^^270  with  ground  freehold;  (jo  was 
raised  by  private  subscriptions  and  collections  at  the 
opening.  The  chapel  was  in  the  North  East  London 
Circuit.'"  An  account  of  the  opening  made  bold  claims 
as  to  the  beneficial  results  already  achieved  by  Metho- 
dist preaching  in  Abridge.  'This  village,  from  its  ex- 
ceeding wretchedness  and  open  profanity,  was  usually 
called  the  Little  Sodom;  but  by  the  introduction  of 
Methodist  preaching  its  moral  character  is  entirely 
changed.'"  The  chapel  did  not  remain  Wesleyan  for 
long.  There  were  no  other  Wesleyan  churches  near 
and  pulpit  supply  must  have  been  difficult.  About 
1 844  the  chapel  was  taken  over  for  Congregational  use.'^ 

In  1 844  the  Essex  Congregational  Union  helped  the 
Revd.  T.  Hill  of  Chigwell  Row  to  establish  a  church  at 
Abridge,  using  the  building  previously  erected  for  the 
Wesleyans.'-s  By  1847  the  church  was  self-supporting.'* 
In  1850  it  was  superintended  by  a  Mr.  Hanley  of  Lon- 
don; there  were  28  members  and  many  adherents:  'the 
little  church  is  well  filled.''5  Soon  after  this  a  Mr. 
Knight  worked  at  Abridge  as  the  agent  of  the  Country 
Towns  Mission.  In  1858  he  reported  that  the  village 
was  still  known  as  Little  Sodom.'*  In  that  year  the 
Essex  Congregational  Union  made  a  grant  to  Knight, 
who  was  also  preaching  at  Lambourne  End  and  Bourne 
Bridge  in  Stapleford  Abbots. '^  The  deeds  of  the 
Abridge  church  had  been  acquired  by  one  of  the  trea- 
surers of  the  E.C.U."*  Knight  remained  until  i860, 
when  he  left,  apparently  in  unhappy  circumstances." 
The  church  was  placed  under  the  superintendence  of 
that  at  Epping,  and  there  was  confidence  that  it  would 

97  Inf.  from  the  rector. 
«*  E.A.T.  N.s.  ii,  235-6. 
M  Ibid,  xix,  266. 

'  T.  Wright,  Hisl.  Essex,  ii,  403. 

'  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  1+3-4- 

3  Lambourne  Parish  Mag.  Aug.  igS'' 

♦  E.A.T.  N.s.  ii,  235-6. 

5  E.A.T.  N.s.  xix,  266. 

'  For  Barfoot  see  above.  Manor.    He 

died  in  Jan.  154.6/7. 

7  T.  Wright,  Hisl.  Essex,  ii,  407-8. 

8  White's  Dir.  Essex  (1848).    It  cost 

9  Inf.  from  the  rector. 

'0  Wesleyan   Methodist  Mag.    1833,   p. 
II  Ibid. 
"  fVhite's  Dir.  Essex  (1848);  E.R.O., 


D/CT  202 ;  see  below.  - 

"  Essex  Cong.  Union  Rep.  1 847. 

■♦  Ibid. 

IS  Ibid.  1850. 

I'  Ibid.  1858. 

"  Ibid. 

"  Ibid.  The  treasurers  were  Isaac  Perry 
and  W.  C.  Wells. 

I'  Essex  Congr.  Union  Rep.  1 860. 


revive.*"  The  E.C.U.  was  making  an  annual  grant 
amounting  to  ^^40  in  1859-60  and  ^■^j  los.  in 
1 860-1." 

The  church  remained  attached  to  Epping  until 
1881."  In  1861  new  pews  were  installed;  the  Sunday 
school  numbered  about  30.^3  A  room  had  been  rented 
at  Lambourne  End  and  a  Sunday  evening  congregation 
of  30-40  met  there.^  In  1 869  it  was  reported  that 
'a  Spanish  Protestant'  was  holding  a  bible  class  in  con- 
nexion with  the  church.^s  In  1870  the  cottage  service 
at  Lambourne  End  was  transferred  to  the  care  of  the 
church  at  Chigwell  Row;  about  80  now  attended  the 
service.**  A.  M.  Kemsley,  a  missioner  who  worked  at 
Moreton,  took  the  Sunday  school  at  Abridge  in  1876." 
The  church  was  flourishing  at  this  time:  in  1877  new 
classrooms  were  built  at  a  cost  of  ;(^25,  all  of  which  had 
been  paid  oiFduring  the  year.**  In  1 879,  however,  the 
E.C.U.  considered  withdrawing  its  annual  grant  of 
;^2  5  because  there  was  an  evangelical  ministry  at  the 
anglican  chapel  in  Abridge.*'  This  was  not  done,  but 
the  grant  was  reduced  to  ;{^20.3o  Jn  1880  the  church 
had  1 1  members,  an  average  congregation  of  90,  and 
a  Sunday  school  of  100  with  6  teachers."  The  expenses 
in  connexion  with  it  amounted  to  about  ;^40.3* 

In  1 88 1  the  church  was  removed  from  association 
with  Epping  and  placed  under  the  charge  of  Chigwell 
Row.33  By  this  time  the  cottage  service  at  Lambourne 
End  appears  to  have  ceased  ;3*  it  had  been  thriving  in 
1873,  when  it  had  become  financially  self-supporting.^s 
From  1886  the  Abridge  church  was  included  in  the 
London  Congregational  Union. 3*  It  was  apparently 
given  up  by  the  Congregationalists  about  1905.37  It  is 
now  used  as  a  parish  room.  It  is  a  plain  building  of 
gault  brick. 

The  Evangelical  Free  Church  was  started  about 
1923  when  a  Mr.  White  from  Woodford  held  services 
first  in  the  Parish  Room  (former  Congregational 
Chapel)  and  later  with  a  tent  and  caravan.  In  1924 
the  church  was  built.38  It  is  a  wooden  building  with  a 
cement-rendered  front  and  it  stands  set  back  on  the 
south  side  of  the  London  road. 

At  Augusta  Cottages,  near  Lambourne  End,  there 
is  a  small  wooden  hut  called  Emmanuel  Chapel,  prob- 
ably not  more  than  50  years  old. 

Vestry  minute-books  for  Lambourne  survive  for  the 

periods  1 67 1— 1 764  and 

PARISH  GOVERNMENT    1 8 1 0-4  5 .3 «  Before  1733 

AND  POOR  RELIEF  the  vestry  usually  met 

only  at  the  two  appointed 
times  for  the  election  of  oificers,  but  these  meetings 
were  well  attended,  there  being  often  ten  and  some- 
times as  many  as  fourteen  present.  In  November  1733 
it  was  resolved  to  hold  a  vestry  on  the  first  Sunday  in 
every  month.  This  resolution  was  not  fully  carried  out, 
but  for  the  next  fifteen  years  meetings  were  frequent 
and  well  attended  and  a  strict  control  was  maintained 
by  the  vestry  over  all  sides  of  parish  government.   Be- 

tween 1810  and  1826  four  or  five  meetings  were  held 
each  year.  John  Tooke,  rector  172 1-64,  often  attended 
after  1733.  Richard  Lockwood  of  Dews  Hall  often 
attended  between  1736  and  1747  and  he  or  the  rector 
presided  over  the  vestry  when  present.  A  dinner  was 
usually  held  in  conjunction  with  the  Easter  vestry  at 
one  of  the  pubhc  houses  in  Abridge;  the  expenses  were 
charged  to  the  churchwarden's  accounts.  A  vestry 
clerk  was  appointed  in  1745  ^'  ^^  annual  salary  of  ij 
guinea;  the  person  then  appointed  signed  the  minutes 
as  clerk. 

In  1826  a  public  vestry  resolved  unanimously  to 
adopt  the  second  Sturges  Bourne  Act  (59  Geo.  Ill, 
c.  1 2)  and  set  up  a  select  vestry.  Fifteen  members  were 
elected  with  the  addition  of  the  rector,  Robert  Sutcliffe, 
as  chairman,  and  the  parish  officers.  The  select  vestry 
functioned  until  May  1836,  fortnightly  meetings  being 
held  in  the  workhouse  during  the  whole  period.  Poor 
relief  and  the  management  of  the  workhouse  were  its 
main  concern.  Public  vestries  were  still  held  occasion- 
ally to  deal  with  general  matters  and  to  appoint  fresh 
select  vestries  at  intervals  of  one  or  two  years.  The  lord 
of  the  manor,  Edward  Lockwood  Percival,  and  the 
curate,  Morgan  Lewis,  were  usually  among  those  ap- 
pointed to  the  select  vestry,  and  either  one  of  them  or 
of  the  churchwardens  presided. 

In  1723  a  rate  of  is.  in  the  ^^i  produced  almost  £6g. 
This  was  a  general  rate  levied  by  the  overseers,  out  of 
which  they  paid  the  accounts  of  the  other  parish  officers. 
In  17 16  deficiencies  in  the  surveyors'  and  constable's 
accounts  were  met  out  of  the  churchwardens'  and  over- 
seers' accounts  and  the  final  balance  of  8/.  yj.  was  spent 
at  the  vestry.  In  1807  a  rate  of  is.  in  the  £1  produced 
over  £<)0.*''  The  parish  was  surveyed  in  1 8  27  by  James 
Thompson  and  a  new  valuation  made.  The  rateable 
value  was  then  over  ^£3,200.^'  A  public  vestry  fixed  the 
scale  of  rates  per  acre  and  according  to  different  quali- 
ties of  arable,  pasture,  and  woodland.**  In  1837,  under 
direction  from  the  Poor  Law  Commissioners,  the  rate- 
able values  were  raised  by  2  5  per  cent. 

Relations  between  the  vestry  and  its  officers  were  not 
always  harmonious.  The  dispute  with  the  executors  of 
a  former  churchwarden  is  mentioned  above.''3  In  1737 
the  constable's  absence  from  the  vestry  was  the  subject 
of  complaint,  and  there  were  other  occasions  when 
officers  were  censured.  It  is  possible  that  this  dishar- 
mony was  caused  by  a  conflict  of  interests  between  the 
shopkeepers  of  Abridge  and  the  farmers  of  the  parish.** 

The  normal  parish  officers  were  appointed  until 
1 83 1,  when  a  salaried  assistant  overseer  was  appointed 
at  j^5  a  year.  Women  were  chosen  as  overseers  in  1730 
and  1737  and  both  served.  The  son  of  the  earlier  over- 
seer, however,  attended  the  vestry  and  signed  on  her 
behalf.  The  constables  elected  in  1676  were  described 
as  being  for  the  'townside  or  kite  and  for  the  end'  (i.e. 
Abridge  and  Lambourne  End).  In  1678  the  former 
was  succeeded  by  the  constable  for  the  manor  of  St. 

*"  Essex  Cmgr.  Union  Report,  i860. 

"  Ibid.  1861,1862.  The  grant  was  kept 
up  for  many  years  after  1861.  It  was 
£z$  p. a.  in  1866-79. 

2^  Essex  Congr.  Union  Rep.  1881. 

"  Ibid.  1861.  2*  Ibid. 

25  Ibid.  1869.  There  is  no  later  mention 
of  this  man. 

2'  Essex  Congr.  Union  Rep.  1870. 

"  Ibid.  1876.  28  Ibid. 

«  Ibid.  1879. 

3»  Ibid.  1879-81. 

"  Ibid.  1881. 

32  Ibid.  33  Ibid. 

3<  Ibid.  1%%1-z;  Congr.  Tear  Bk.  1879, 
1880.  It  is  possible  that  the  service  con- 
tinued outside  the  Congregational  Union. 

35  Essex  Congr.  Union  Rep.  1873. 

3«  Ibid.  1885. 

3'  Congr.  Tear  Bk.  1 905,  1906.  A 
Congregational  chapel  is  listed  in  KeIIy*s 
Dir.  as  late  as  19 14,  but  this  is  perhaps  an 

38  Inf.  from  Mrs.  Brewster  of  Abridge. 

39  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/ 1,  2,  4.  Unless 
otherwise  stated  all  information  is  derived 

from  these  sources. 

♦»  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/11/1  (Overseers 
Rate  Bk.). 

4'  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/11/2. 

♦2  1 2 J.- 1 8 J.  per  acre  for  arable,  15^.— 
iSs.  for  pasture,  izs.  for  woodland,  and 
10s.  for  forest  underwood,  with  a  deduc- 
tion of  one  third  for  waste  in  the  measure- 

43  See  above,  Church. 

+*  For  the  position  of  Abridge  in  rela- 
tion to  the  rest  of  the  parish  see  above, 
PP-  73-74- 




John's  with  a  colleague  for  the  'Countess  of  Warwick's 
leet'-^s  An  ale-conner  was  appointed  in  1685,  an 
assessor  of  land-tax  in  1752,  and  a  reeve  in  1826  and 
1828,  all  by  the  parish  vestry. 

There  were  stocks  at  Abridge  in  1585,  when  a 
vagrant  was  reported  to  have  escaped  from  them/*  In 
1728  it  was  decided  to  build  a  parish  cage  at  Abridge 
with  the  timber  recently  removed  from  the  church 
porches.'"  In  1841  the  parish  pound  stood  about  I  mile 
south  of  Abridge  to  the  west  of  Hoe  Lane.^*  In  1832 
some  labourers  were  paid  3/.  for  working  the  fire-engine. 

In  1589  the  parishioners  subscribed  towards  the 
building  of  a  cottage  for  the  poor  and  petitioned  Quarter 
Sessions  for  permission  to  erect  it  without  the  statutory 
4  acres  of  land.'"  During  the  early  i8th  century  the 
parish  cottages  at  Abridge  were  sometimes  used  to 
accommodate  the  poor,'"  but  they  were  not  very  satis- 
factory for  this  purpose.  Plans  to  convert  them  into  a 
workhouse  were  rejected  in  1738  and  again  in  1828.5' 

In  1742  three  houses  in  'the  Alley'  at  Abridge  were 
leased  by  the  parish  at  ;^4  10/.  a  year,  and  in  1748  a 
house  called  'The  Old  Crown'  was  leased  for  use  as  a 
poorhouse  at  ^^lo  a  year.  The  repair  and  extension  of 
Church  House  at  Lambourne  End,  about  18 10,  were 
for  the  purpose  of  housing  the  parish  poor,  and  this 
house  remained  in  use  as  a  workhouse  until  the  forma- 
tion of  the  Ongar  Union. 

An  Epping  surgeon  and  an  apothecary  were  paid  for 
attending  the  poor  and  supplying  medicine  in  1748, 
and  a  midwife  received  5 J.  in  1723  for  delivering  a 
bastard  child,  but  it  was  only  from  1 8 10  that  regular 
medical  contracts  were  made  for  the  treatment  of  the 
poor.  In  that  year  a  parish  doctor  was  employed  at  a 
salary  of  14  guineas.  This  included  all  inoculations  and 
attendance  at  two  childbirths,  but  other  childbirths  and 
surgical  treatment  were  excluded,  as  well  as  travelling 
expenses  outside  the  parish.  Between  1824  and  1834 
further  agreements  on  similar  lines  were  recorded,  the 
appointments  usually  being  reviewed  each  year. 

The  annual  amounts  raised  by  the  poor  rates  in  the 
1 8th  century  were  only  irregularly  recorded,  but  by  the 
middle  of  that  century  the  overseers'  expenditure  was 
usually  over  ^100  a  year.  The  vestry  was  fairly  strict 
with  its  poor.  On  several  occasions  individuals  and 
families  were  moved  around,  presumably  to  make  the 
best  use  of  existing  accommodation.  Orders  for  badging 
the  poor  were  issued,  chiefly  between  1729  and  I745» 
but  once  as  late  as  1 8  2  5 .  In  1 8  3 1  a  woman  was  ordered 
to  wean  her  child.  The  policy  of  the  vestry  was  not, 
however,  merely  repressive.  In  1743  a  silk  thrower  was 
brought  down  from  London  to  instruct  the  poor  in 
winding  silk,  and  others  who  were  not  receiving  relief 
were  encouraged  by  financial  assistance  to  be  similarly 
employed.  In  1832  and  1833  several  pieces  of  land, 
some  given  by  E.  Lockwood  Percival,  the  lord  of  the 
manor,  were  acquired  for  giving  employment  to  the 

As  elsewhere  the  cost  of  poor  relief  mounted  steeply 
after  1780.  Over  £840  was  raised  by  rates  in  1 800-1, 
and  this  rose  tOj^923  in  1806-7.5^  Between  1810  and 
1826  a  number  of  agreements  with  workhouse  masters 

were  recorded.  The  first  of  these  was  for  a  lump  sum, 
but  all  the  others  were  on  a  capitation  basis,  the  tenders 
varying  from  2/.  ^J.  to  5/.  6J.  a  head  a  week.  The 
terms  always  included  an  allowance  for  fuel  and  an 
additional  allowance  for  material  and  the  master  was 
allowed  to  retain  all  profits.  After  1 826  the  select  vestry 
brought  the  management  of  the  workhouse  more  closely 
under  parish  control  by  ensuring  that  all  profits  went  to 
the  parish.  The  master's  subsequent  ofl^er  to  revert  to 
the  old  system  was  rejected.  Contracts  for  the  supply 
of  food  and  other  goods  for  the  workhouse  were  re- 
viewed every  six  months  and  a  high  standard  of  quality 
was  always  required.  In  1 83  3  the  cheese  and  soap  were 
sent  back  to  a  new  contractor  as  unfit  for  use  and  a 
sample  was  sent  to  show  the  quality  required. 

In  1836  Lambourne  became  part  of  the  Ongar  Poor 
Law  Union. 

The  foundation  statutes  of  Harsnett's  schools  at 
Chigwell  (1629)  provided  that  two  boys 
SCHOOLS  from  Lambourne  should  be  taught  at  the 
English  school  at  Chigwell  and  two  at  the 
Latin  school.53  In  1734  Sir  John  Fortescue-Aland,  lord 
of  the  manor  of  Lambourne  and  owner  of  Knolls  Hill 
in  Stapleford  Abbots,  founded  a  free  school  in  Staple- 
ford  Abbots,  at  which  twenty  boys  from  Lambourne 
were  to  be  given  places.S'* 

There  was  no  school  in  Lambourne  in  1 807  except 
a  Sunday  school  with  twenty  pupils.''  Twenty  places 
were  still  available  at  the  Stapleford  Abbots  school,  but 
not  all  of  these  were  filled.'*  In  1 8 1 8  there  was  still  no 
day  school  at  Lambourne,  but  by  1833  much  progress 
had  been  made.  AH  the  available  places  in  the  free 
school  were  taken  and  a  day  school  had  been  founded 
at  Abridge.  In  1833  there  were  64  pupils  at  this  school, 
of  whom  50  paid  fees  and  14  were  paid  for  by  bene- 
factors.'' The  school  was  probably  then  under  church 
guidance,  and  in  about  1835  it  seems  to  have  passed 
under  more  direct  church  control.  The  chapel  of  ease 
at  Abridge  was  used  as  a  schoolroom  for  girls  and  the 
Wesleyan  chapel  hired  for  the  teaching  of  boys.  In 
1838  the  annual  expenses  were  about  ;^70,  towards 
which  subscribers  gave  ^^40.  About  £7  was  collected 
at  the  annual  sermon  and  further  income  was  derived 
from  the  weekly  fee  of  2^/.  for  each  child.  About  80 
children  were  on  the  roll,  but  the  average  attendance 
was  low.' 8 

The  population  of  Lambourne  was  increasing  steadily 
at  this  time  and  in  1839  there  were  still  some  50  children 
not  attending  a  school  of  any  kind.  In  1838  local 
churchmen  set  up  a  committee,  with  the  rector  as  secre- 
tary, to  build  a  new  school  at  Abridge.  Subscriptions 
were  collected,  chiefly  from  local  landowners,  and  the 
rector  approached  the  government  and  the  National 
Society  for  grants.  After  a  delay  due  to  difficulties  over 
a  site  and  to  the  National  Society's  dispute  with  the 
government  in  1839,  building  started  in  1 841-2  on  a 
site  given  by  W.  J.  Lockwood  of  Dews  Hall  and  his  son 
W.  M.  Wood.  The  National  Society  gave  ^40,  the 
government  ^^54,  and  the  Diocesan  Board  ;^20.  A 
further  £199  was  given  by  35  subscribers,  including 
Lady  Mildmay,  owner  of  Battles  Hall  in  Stapleford 

■»5  The  Countess  was  the  widow  of 
Charles  Rich,  Earl  of  Warwick.  Her  leet 
was  presumably  that  of  the  hundred  of 
Ongar,  which  had  been  granted  to  Sir 
Richard  Rich  in  1 547. 

*<>  E.R.O.,  Q/SR  95/66. 

♦'  See  above,  Church. 

48  E.R.O.,  D/CT  20Z. 

«  E.R.O.,  Q/SR  1 10/41.  The  site 
chosen  was  'near  unto  barackes  abouttinge 
uppon  Chigewell  upon  the  wast  soule'. 

50  See  below.  Charities. 

51  Ibid. 

»  E.R.O.,  e/CR  1/9. 
S3  r.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  544- 
>*  See  Stapleford  Abbots. 


"  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  2/4:  Lambourne 

5'  Ibid.  Stapleford  Abbots  Retns. 

5'  Reins.  Educ.  Poor,  H.C.  224,  p.  260 
(1819),  ix  (i);  Educ.  Enquiry  Ahstr.  H.C. 
62,  pp.  280-1  (1835),  ili. 

5«  E.R.O.,  D/P  30/28/18;  ex  inf.  Nat. 


Abbots,  Archer  Houblon,  owner  of  Bobbingworth 
Hall,  the  rector  and  Corpus  Christi  College,  Cambridge, 
the  patron  of  the  living.''  The  school  was  situated  on 
the  west  side  of  Hoe  Lane  at  Abridge.*"  It  seems  to 
have  been  a  National  School  and  for  some  years  to  have 
remained  closely  connected  with  the  Sunday  school.  In 
1846-7  there  were  68  pupils  under  a  master  and  two 
mistresses  who  between  them  received  j^6o  a  year  and 
had  the  use  of  a  house  rent-free.*'  Attendance  declined 
slightly  in  subsequent  years.  In  185 1-2  there  were  62 
children  present  when  the  inspector  visited  the  'neat 
schoolrooms'.  He  found  the  equipment  poor,  the 
master  untrained,  the  educational  standard  low,  but  the 
children  'nice  and  well-behaved'.*^  In  1859  an  in- 
spector found  a  slight  improvement  in  standard  but 
only  52  children  in  attendance.*-!  In  1871,  when  there 
was  said  to  be  accommodation  for  62  children,  the 
attendance  was  still  about  52.*''  At  this  time  the  school 
was  in  financial  difficulty  and  soon  after  (probably  in 
1878)  it  was  discontinued  as  the  result  of  the  building 
of  a  Board  School. 

In  1874  a  school  board  of  five  members  was  set  up 
for  Lambourne  and  Stapleford  Abbots  (q.v.)  which  had 
been  united  into  a  single  school  district  according  to  the 
recommendation  of  the  Education  Department. *5  The 
first  plans  submitted  by  the  board  were  rejected  by  the 
Education  Department  as  too  expensive,  but  after  this 
delay  the  board  school  was  opened  in  September  1878, 
on  or  near  the  site  of  the  former  National  School.**  It 
had  accommodation  for  about  1 50  pupils  and  a  teacher's 
house  was  attached.*'  Within  a  few  years  it  was  re- 
ceiving an  annual  grant,  amounting  to  ^^72  in  1886, 
£10^  in  1893,  and  ;^I30  in  1902.  The  average  atten- 
dance rose  from  104  in  1886  to  120  in  1893  and  125 
in  1902.**  By  1904,  when  the  accommodation  was 
said  to  be  for  178,  there  were  141  children  under  4 
teachers  and  a  monitress.*' 

By  the  Education  Act  of  1902  the  school  passed 
under  the  administration  of  the  Essex  Education  Com- 
mittee, Ongar  District.  Its  average  attendance  was  1 27 
in  191 5  and  130  in  1938.  In  19 14  it  was  enlarged  to 
accommodate  196  and  in  1936  2  acres  were  added  to 
the  site.  In  1947  it  was  reorganized  for  mixed  juniors 
and  infants.'"  In  May  1952  there  were  ^  teachers  and 
106  children."  The  school  is  a  single-storied  building 
of  brown  and  red  brick,  with  teacher's  house  attached. 

There  was  a  private  school  at  Abridge  in  1845,  kept 
by  Mrs.  Sarah  Giles.'^ 

Thomas  Barfoot  of  Lambourne  Hall,  by  will  proved 
1592,  left  6s.  SJ.  a  year  charged  on 
CHARITIES  Sym's  Croft  for  the  relief  of  the  poor 
of  the  parish.'^  The  charge  was  paid 
regularly  until  1661,  and  after  1664  payment  was  re- 
sumed.7''  In  173 1  the  money  was  being  distributed  to 
those  of  the  poor  who  were  not  receiving  any  weekly 
allowance.''  In  1834  it  was  believed  that  the  charge 
should  be  spent  on  bell-ropes,  although  in  fact  it  was 
paid  into  the  churchwardens'  general  account.'*  In 
1947-9  it  was  distributed  in  money  to  buy 

John  Broomfield,  by  will  dated  1687,  left  los.  issuing 
from  his  farm  of  Pryors  for  the  poor  of  the  parish.'* 
The  rent  charge  was  redeemed  in  1950  for  ;^20  which 
was  invested.  The  rent  was  being  paid  from  1689  on- 
wards" and  was  distributed  to  the  poor  on  i  January.*" 
In  1834  it  was  carried  to  the  churchwardens'  general 
account,  although  it  was  said  to  be  spent  on  bread  for 
the  poor.*'  It  was  spent  on  general  church  purposes  in 
the  mid-l9th  century  and  for  some  years  before  1950, 
but  from  1950  it  has  been  distributed  in  money  to  buy 

The  parish  owned  two  pieces  of  land  in  the  common 
meadow  of  Theydon  Bois  (q.v.).  The  income  from 
them  rose  from  35/.  in  1673  to  £^  in  1 834.83  It  was 
spent  on  the  church  and  the  poor  in  the  1 8th  century** 
and  was  carried  to  the  churchwardens'  account  in 
1834.*'  In  1950  it  was  distributed  in  money  to  buy 

The  parish  also  owmed  property  at  Lambourne  End, 
on  which  a  house  was  built  by  the  parish  in  about 
167 1.*'  The  house  was  enlarged  in  about  18 10.** 
Until  then  it  had  been  rented,  sometimes  to  the  parish 
clerk,*'  but  from  then  until  1 836  it  was  used  as  a  poor- 
house.'"  From  1838  it  was  once  again  rented  and  the 
income  was  applied  to  general  church  purposes,"  as  the 
rent  of  the  land  had  been  in  1834.'^  In  1950  the  total 
rents  were  ,^34  2S.  61^.  which  were  spent  on  church  re- 
pairs and  improvement.'^  Church  House  has  a  tall 
front  with  a  mansard  roof  and  dormer  windows.  The 
lower  cottage  attached  to  it  at  the  rear  is  probably  the 
Old  Church  House  of  about  1671. 

The  parish  formerly  owned  cottages  near  the  river 
next  to  Hull  Mead  at  Abridge.  In  173 1  they  were  said 
to  be  for  the  use  of  the  poor.''*  They,  were  sold  in  1830 
to  clear  the  debt  incurred  in  rebuilding  the  Church 
House  in  18 10. 

59  Ex.  Inf.  Nat.  Soc;  E.R.O.,  D/DLo  z 
i;  ibid.  D/P  181/8/4.;  Lady  Mildmay 
owned  about  zoo  acres  of  land  in  the  east 
of  the  parish:  E.R.O.,  D/CT  202. 

'"  O.S.  6  in.  Map  (ist  edn.),  sheet  Iviii 

^'  Nat.  Soc.  Enquiry  inio  Church  Schs. 
1846-7,  pp.  lO-II. 

'2  Mins.  Educ.  Cttee.  of  Council,  1851, 
vol.  ii  [1480],  p.  286,  H.C.  (1852),  xli. 

*3  Educ.  Cttee.  of  Council,  Reps,  on  Schs. 
in  Norfolk,  Suffolk  and  Essex,  1858-9, 
p.  44.  (in  Min.  of  Educ.  Libr,). 

'*  Retns.  Elem.  Educ,  H.C.  201,  pp. 
I12-13  [1871],  Iv;  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  2/8. 

^5  Chelmsford  Chronicle,  9  Aug.  1872. 

"  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/219. 

"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1899). 

"  Rep.  of  Educ.  Cttee.  of  Council,  1SS6 
[C.  5123-1],  p.  519,  H.C.  (1887),  xxviii; 
Retn.  of  Schs.  1893  [C.  7529],  p.  714, 
H.C.  (1894),  Ixv;  Schs.  under  Bd.  of  Educ. 
igo2  [Cd.  1490],  p.  71,  H.C.  (1903),  li. 

<">  Essex  Educ.  Cttee.  Handbk.  1904, 
p.  .85. 

'"  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/219. 

71  Ex.  Inf.  Essex  Educ.  Cttee. 

'2  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1845). 

'3  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/1;  Rep.  Com. 
Char.  (Essex),  H.C.  216,  p.  230  (1835), 
xxi  (i). 

74  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/1. 

'5    Ibid.   18  1/8/2. 

'*  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  p.  230. 

"  Char.  Com.  files. 

78  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/1,  2.    See  above. 

'9  Ibid. 
(Essex),    p. 


80  Rep.    Com.    Char. 
E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/1. 

8'  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  p.  230. 

82  Char.  Com.  files. 

83  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/1. 
8«  Ibid.  181/8/2. 
8s  Rep.  Com.  Char.  (Essex),  p. 

86  Char.  Com.  files. 

87  E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/1-2. 

88  Ibid.  181/8/4(1810). 

89  Ibid.  181/8/1. 
9»  Ibid.  181/8/4. 
9'  Ibid.  181/8/3. 

92  Rep.    Com.    Char. 
E.R.O.,  D/P  181/8/3. 

93  Char.  Com.  files. 
9<  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 8 1/8/2. 



(Essex),    p.    230; 





High  Laver  is  a  parish  about  4  miles  north-west  of 
Chipping  Ongar  and  5  miles  south-east  of  Harlow.'  It 
has  an  area  of  1,895  acres.^  From  the  i8th  century  or 
earlier  much  of  the  population  has  been  concentrated 
in  the  village  of  Matching  Green  and  in  the  two 
hamlets  of  Thrushesbush,  alias  Threshers  Bush,  and 
Tilegate  Green,  all  of  which  are  situated  on  the 
borders  of  the  parish.^  There  were  74  inhabited  houses 
in  1 801,  77  in  181 1,  and  80  in  1821.'*  In  1801  the 
population  was  346.5  B7  1 851  it  had  grown  to  534.* 
It  was  a  little  below  this  level  until  the  last  decade  of 
the  century  when  there  was  a  sharp  decline  to  386.^ 
In  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century  it  rose  gradually  to 
463  in  1951.* 

The  land  is  nearly  300  ft.  above  sea-level  in  the 
south-west,  about  250  ft.  in  the  north  and  230  ft.  in 
the  east.  The  Cripsey  Brook  runs  eastward  across  the 
northern  part  of  the  parish  and  then  southward  near 
the  eastern  boundary  of  the  parish  towards  Moreton. 
The  road  from  Ongar  to  Harlow  enters  the  parish  at 
High  Laver  Bridge.  The  former  rectory'  is  on  the 
north  side  of  the  road  about  \  mile  from  the  bridge. 
The  road  then  turns  northward  for  about  \  mile  to  its 
junction  with  the  roads  leading  eastward  to  Little 
Laver  and  northward  to  Matching  Green.  Along  the 
road  to  Little  Laver  is  the  church'"  and  to  the  north  of 
the  church  on  the  east  side  of  the  road  to  Matching 
Green  is  High  Laver  Hall."  Behind  church  and  hall 
is  a  windpump.  About  \  mile  north  of  High  Laver 
Hall  on  the  west  side  of  the  road  to  Matching  Green 
is  High  Laver  Grange.  This  has  a  fine  barn,  in  one 
bay  of  which  are  two  grotesque  carved  brackets  of  the 
1 6th  or  early  17th  century.  About  i  mile  north  of 
High  Laver  Grange  is  Newhouse  Farm,  formerly 
Chalkpits,  a  timber-framed  house  which  has  been 
much  restored  but  of  which  part  may  date  from  the 
17th  century.  On  the  east  side  of  the  road  north  of 
Newhouse  Farm  there  are  thirteen  council  houses  in 
two  groups  known  as  Culvers  Cottages  and  Chalkpit 
Cottages.  Beyond  these  is  the  village  of  Matching 
Green,  the  south  side  of  which  is  just  inside  the  parish 
boundary.  Here  there  are  several  19th-century  brick 
houses,  including  the  Chequers  Inn. 

From  the  east  side  of  Matching  Green  a  road  runs 
south-east  to  Waterman's  End,  Little  Laver,  and  the 
Rodings.  On  the  west  side  of  this  road,  immediately 
to  the  south  of  the  parish  boundary,  is  the  chapel  of 
ease'2  and,  next  to  it.  High  Laver  school. '^  Immediately 
to  the  south  of  the  school  the  road  is  joined  by  another 
road  leading  south  to  Ongar.  Near  this  junction  on 
the  north  side  of  the  road  to  Little  Laver  there  are  four 
pairs  of  council  houses  known  as  Hull  Green  Cottages. 

From  High  Laver  church  the  Harlow  road  runs 
west  past  Church  Farm,  formerly  Whites,  and  Travel- 
lers Joy,  formerly  Herberts.  Both  these  houses  are 
timber- framed  and  may  date  from  the  1 6th  century; 
they  have  been  much  restored.  A  little  beyond  Travel- 

lers Joy  the  Harlow  road  is  joined  by  Faggoters  Lane 
which  runs  northward  to  Loyters  Green.  About  \  mile 
along  Faggoters  Lane  is  Faggoters  Farm,  a  timber- 
framed  and  roughcast  house  probably  built  in  the  i8th 
century.  By  the  east  side  of  Faggoters  Farm  is  a  foot- 
path leading  to  the  site  of  Otes.'*  On  the  Harlow  road 
to  the  west  of  Faggoters  Lane  is  Mashams,  a  timber- 
framed  house  which  may  date  from  the  i6th  century. 
Beyond  Mashams  the  road  runs  past  Great  Wilmores 
and  Spinneys,  formerly  Little  Wilmores,  to  Tilegate 
Green.  At  Spinneys,  which  stands  on  the  north  side  of 
the  road  about  \  mile  beyond  Mashams,  there  are  in- 
dications of  a  former  moat.  Tilegate  Farm,  on  the  north 
side  of  the  road  at  Tilegate  Green,  may  be  of  the  i6th 
century  but  has  a  later  farm-house  built  in  front  of  it, 
the  whole  being  much  modernized;  the  restored  barn 
has  16th-century  timbers.  Opposite  Tilegate  Farm  a 
road  leads  southward  to  Magdalen  Laver.  There  are 
two  pairs  of  council  houses  on  the  west  side  of  this 
road,  which  forms  part  of  the  southern  boundary  of  the 
parish.  Also  on  the  west  side  of  the  road  and  just  within 
the  boundary  are  Magdalen  Laver  school,"  built  in 
1 862,  and,  next  to  it,  a  row  of  timber-framed  cottages 
called  Melanese  Cottages,  of  which  part  may  date  from 
the  17th  century  or  earlier. 

West  of  Tilegate  Farm  the  Harlow  road  turns  north- 
west to  Thrushesbush,  alias  Threshers  Bush,  on  the 
western  boundary  of  the  parish.  At  Herds  Farm,  on  the 
north  side  of  the  road  \  mile  north-west  of  Tilegate 
Green,  there  are  indications  of  a  former  moat.  The 
farm-house  is  probably  of  the  17th  century  and  has  an 
original  brick  chimney.  West  of  Herds  Farm  is  the 
John  Barleycorn  Inn,  formerly  the  'King's  Arms',  a 
timber-framed  house  of  which  part  dates  from  the  17th 
century  or  earlier.  The  former  Methodist  chapel'*  is 
on  the  north  side  of  the  Harlow  road  at  Thrushesbush, 
just  outside  the  parish  boundary. 

High  Laver  Bridge  was  accepted  as  a  county  charge 
by  1800."  In  1858  it  was  described  in  detail  by  the 
county  surveyor.'* 

The  inhabitants  of  High  Laver  were  several  times 
indicted  for  the  bad  condition  of  their  roads.  In  1644 
it  was  said  that  High  Laver  and  Little  Laver  were  to 
share  the  responsibility  for  the  highway  from  Matching 
Green  to  Sheepcroft  Bridge."  In  1776  the  parishes  of 
High  Laver  and  Magdalen  Laver  agreed  that  'the 
roads  which  these  two  parishes  are  obliged  in  con- 
junction to  mend  shall  be  equally  divided  and  that 
the  part  which  lies  nearest  to  each  parish  shall  be  ap- 
propriated to  it,  by  a  post  set  up  at  the  expense  of  both 
parishes,  and  marked  on  one  side  "M.L.  mends  thus 
far"  and  on  the  opposite  side  "H.L.  mends  thus  far"  '.^^ 

High  Laver  was  one  of  the  villages  served  from 
Moreton  when  a  postal  receiving  house  was  set  up 
there  in  1846.^'  A  sub-post-office  was  opened  at  High 
Laver  in  November  1936,  following  a  petition  from 
the  inhabitants.^^ 

'  O.S.  2\  in.  Map,  sheets  52/40,  52/50, 


*  Inf.  from  Essex  County  Council. 

3  Chapman  and  Andr^,  Map  of  Essex 
lyyy,  plates  xi  and  xii. 

••  Census,  I  80 1,  181 1,  1821. 

5  y.C.H.Essex,u,T,$o. 

*■  Ibid. 

'  Ibid. 

>  Census,    191  if.;    inf.    from    Essex 
County  Council. 

»  See  below,  Church. 
'0  Ibid. 

■'  See  below,  Manor  of  High  Laver. 
■a  See  below,  Church. 
"  See  below,  School. 
'*  See  below. 
'5  See  below,  School. 


16  See  below,  Nonconformity. 
"  E.R.O.,  2/ABz  I  &  2. 
'8  E.R.O.,  e/ABz,  3. 
>9  E.R.O.,  e/SR  322/45. 
"  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 1 1/22. 
2'  P.M.G.  Mins.  1846,  vol.  87,  p.  5. 
"  Inf.  from  Head  Postmaster  of  Brent- 


Water  was  supplied  by  the  Herts,  and  Essex  Water- 
works Co.  in  1912.^3  There  is  no  sewerage  system.^ 
Electricity  was  laid  on  in  part  of  the  village  in  1950.^5 
A  sports  ground  is  used  by  the  football  club.^* 

High  Laver  has  always  been  a  rural  parish  devoted 
almost  exclusively  to  agriculture.  The  owners  of  the 
capital  manor  never  lived  in  the  parish  after  the  first 
decade  of  the  i6th  century.^'  The  owners  of  Otes 
lived  in  the  parish  during  most  of  the  period  1614- 
1767.^*  They  were  not  resident  from  1767  until 
shortly  before  1841.^'  For  a  few  years  after  1841  they 
did  live  in  the  parish  but  ceased  to  do  so  before  1863 
and  were  never  resident  again.^" 

In  1848  the  parish  consisted  of  1,894  acres.3' 
William  St.  Quintin  owned  475  acres  but  farmed 
none  of  it  himself.  George  Starkins  Wallis  owned,  but 
did  not  occupy.  High  Laver  Farm  (340  acres). ^^  John 
and  Thomas  Inkersole  owned  223  acres  of  which 
Thomas  farmed  74  acres.33  There  were  two  other 
substantial  farms  in  the  parish:  Holts  Farm  (118  acres) 
and  Tilegate  Farm  (100  acres).  The  respective 
owners,  Joseph  Davies  and  J.  M.  Gilbertson,  did  not 
occupy  them.34  There  were  five  other  farms  of  over 
40  acres. 35 

High  Laver  has  always  been  a  parish  of  mixed  farm- 
ing with  a  heavy  predominance  of  arable.  In  1086 
there  were  loj  ploughs  in  the  manor  of  High  Laver; 
there  was  woodland  for  200  swine  and  37J  acres  of 
meadow. 3*  In  1847  there  were  estimated  to  be  1,428 
acres  of  arable,  368  acres  of  pasture,  and  12  acres  of 

In  the  17th  and  1 8th  centuries  Otes  manor  house, 
the  residence  of  the  Mashams,  was  a  large  and  well- 
known  dwelling  which  must  have  employed  a  con- 
siderable amount  of  domestic  labour.  In  1691  John 
Locke  the  philosopher  (1632-1704)  went  to  live  there 
as  a  paying  guest  of  Sir  Francis  Masham  and  his  wife 
Damaris,  who  had  been  Locke's  friend  for  some  years.3  8 
He  paid  ^i  a  week  for  himself  and  his  manservant  and 
IS.  a  week  for  his  horse.^'  He  was  given  two  of  the 
best  rooms  in  the  house  and  he  remained  until  his 
death.''"  While  he  lived  there  Otes  was  'one  of  the 
really  important  addresses  in  the  world  of  European 
letters' .■♦■  Locke  assembled  there  a  library  of  nearly 
4,000  volumes."*^  He  also  had  'his  desk  and  his  specially 
constructed  chair,  his  meteorological  instruments  set 
up  "in  the  Drawing  Room",  his  telescope,  his  botanical 
specimens,  and  a  great  porous  stone  through  which  all 
the  water  he  drank — and  he  drank  nothing  else — had 
to  be  carefully  filtered' .*' 

From  1723  Otes  was  occupied  by  Samuel,  ist  Baron 
Masham,  and  his  wife  Abigail  who  from  1707  until 

Herts.    &    Essex    Water- 

1714  had  been  Queen  Anne's  friend  and  one  of  the 
most  powerful  persons  in  the  country .♦^   Abigail  died 

in  '734-'" 

It  is  not  possible  to  distinguish  with  certainty  be- 
tween High  Laver  and  Little  Laver  in 
MJNORS  Domesday  but  it  is  probable  that  before 
the  Conquest  Lewin  held  a  manor  in  High 
Laver  worth  jT'^.''*  Alwin  held  'another  part  of  that 
manor  as  a  manor  but  Ingelric  added  it  to  his  own 
manor'  in  another  parish."*'  In  1086  High  Laver  was 
probably  held  in  demesne  by  Eustace,  Count  of 
Boulogne,  and  valued  at  j^20.''*  Eustace's  heir  was  his 
daughter  Maud,  wife  of  King  Stephen.  William,  Count 
of  Boulogne,  son  of  Stephen  and  Maud,  apparently 
granted  the  manor  in  free  alms  to  the  Benedictine 
abbey  of  St.  Sulpice  in  Brittany ."t*  This  grant  must 
have  been  made  by  1 1 59,  when  William  died,  but  it 
was  ignored  until  shortly  after  1234.50  After  the  death 
of  William  the  honor  of  Boulogne  passed  to  the  king, 
who  held  the  manor  of  HIGH  LAFER  in  demesne 
until  1 1 84  or  1185  and  from  that  time  until  1237  as 
immediate  overlord  of  the  Between  1234 
and  1237  Mabel,  abbess  of  St.  Sulpice,  claimed  the 
manor  from  Richard  fitz  Alcher.52  A  lawsuit  ensued 
after  which  the  parties  came  to  an  agreement. 53  In 
1237  Richard  fitz  Alcher  acknowledged  the  manor  to 
be  the  right  of  St.  Sulpice  which  was  to  hold  it  in  chief 
as  \  fee.5-t  The  abbess.  Amice,  then  granted  the  estate 
to  Richard  fitz  Alcher  and  his  heirs  to  hold  of  the  abbey 
as  J  fee  and  at  an  annual  rent  of  j^io.55  In  1259  St. 
Sulpice  transferred  its  rights  in  the  manor  to  Waltham 
Abbey.56  After  1267  Henry  fitz  Alcher,  then  lord  of 
the  manor,  refused  to  admit  that  Waltham  had  any 
rights  in  the  estate. 5'  In  1275  a  jury  declared  that  he 
held  the  manor  as  tenant  of  the  abbey. 5  8  Afterwards, 
at  the  command  of  the  king's  justices,  Henry  did 
homage  to  the  abbot  and  paid  his  arrears  of  rent. 5' 
Henry  fitz  Alcher  died  in  1303  holding  the  manor  of 
Waltham  abbey.*"  It  is  not  clear  how  much  longer  the 
abbey  retained  the  tenancy  in  chief  In  1475  the 
manor  was  held  of  Anne,  widow  of  Humphrey  Stafford, 
Duke  of  Buckingham  (d.  1460).*'  In  1485  it  was  held 
of  Jasper,  Duke  of  Bedford  (d.  1495),  and  his  wife 
Katherine,  whose  first  husband  had  been  Henry 
Stafford,  Duke  of  Buckingham  (d.  1483).*^  The 
manor  was  still  held  of  Jasper  and  his  wife  in  I493.*3 
By  1 5 10  the  Crown  received  j^io  ^  y^^""  fro™  t^^ 
manor,*"*  and  this  rent  was  paid  until  after  I559.*5 
In  1584  the  manor  was  held  of  Robert,  3rd  Baron 
Rich,  at  a  rent  of  iJ.  a  year.** 

In  1 167  it  was  reported  that  the  estate  could  not  be 
farmed  because  it  was  not  stocked  but  during  the 

*3  Inf.    from 
works  Co. 

2*  Inf.  from  sub-postmistress  of  High 

"  Inf.  from  East.  Elec.  Bd. 

''  Inf.  from  sub-postmistress  of  High 

"  D.N.B.  XX,  685-7;  E.R.O.,  D/DW 
T41;  ibid.  Q/RTh  I,  5;  ibid.  Q/RPl 
685-737;  ibid.  D/P  111/27/2;  Kelly's 
Dir.  Essex  (lS$^{.). 

^'  See  belovif,  Manor  of  Otes ;  P.  Laslett, 
Hist.  To-day,  iii,  536—4.3. 

29  See  below,  Manor  of  Otes ;  P.  Laslett, 
Hist.  To-day,  iii,  5+2-3;  E.R.O.,  D/DEw 
Tz;  ibid.  Q/RPl  685-737;  "'i''-  D/P 

3»  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 1 1/27/2;  fFhitc'sDir. 
Essex  (1863) ;  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (i  870  f.). 

3"  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 1 1/27/2. 

3»  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

34  Ibid.  35  Ibid, 

s'  y.C.H.  Essex,  i,  467a. 
3'  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 1 1/27/2. 

38  P.  Laslett,  Hist.  To-day,  iii,  536-9. 

39  Ibid.  ♦»  Ibid. 

4"  Ibid.  «  Ibid.  «  Ibid. 

+•  Complete  Peerage,  viii,  540-1 ;  D.N.B. 
xii,  1295-7;  Hist.  To-day,  iii,  539-40. 

45  D.N.B. 

46  y.C.H.  Essex,  i,  467a  and  n.  2. 

4'  Ibid.     For    Ingelric    see    Manors    of 
Chipping  Ongar  and  Stanford  Rivers. 

48  F.C.H.  Essex,  i,  467a. 

49  B.M.  Harl.  MS.  3739,  f.  93. 
5°  Ibid. 

51  See  below. 

52  B.M.  Harl.  MS.  3739,  f.  93. 

53  Ibid. 

54  Ibid.  ff.  94-96,  108. 


55   Ibid. 

5'  Ibid.  ff.  96-98,  1 10-12. 
5'  Ibid.  ff.  98-104.    For  details  of  this 
dispute  see  below. 

58  B.M.  Harl.  MS.  3739,  ff.  102-3. 

59  Ibid.  ff.  103-4. 

'"  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  iv,  p.  112. 

'■  C140/52. 

'2  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  VIl,  \,  pp.  61-63  i 
Complete  Peerage,  ii,  73.  In  the  inquisi- 
tions post  mortem  on  John  Wrytell  (d. 
1485)  and  Katherine  (d.  1493)  widow  of 
Walter  Wrytell,  the  wife  of  Jasper,  Duke 
of  Bedford  (d.  1495),  was  wrongly 
described  as  Anne. 

63  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  VU,  i,  p.  383. 

64  E.R.O.,  D/DDw  M78. 

65  Ibid, 
^s  Ibid. 




following  year  it  was  restocked  at  a  cost  of  ^5  2/.  'id!''' 
In  1 184-5  ^he  king  granted  to  William  son  of  Alcher 
ithe  huntsman  land  in  Laver  to  the  annual  value  of 
jTS.**  In  1 199  Richard  fitz  Alcher  gave  King  John 
100  marks  to  have  ;^8  of  land  in  Laver  which  his 
brother  William  had  by  the  gift  of  King  Richard  and 
of  which  William  died  seised.*'  In  June  11 99  the 
king  granted  to  Richard  fitz  Alcher  all  the  land  which 
his  brother  William  had  in  Laver  of  the  gift  of  King 
Henry,  to  hold  in  chief  as  \  fee.'"  In  1 204  Richard 
fitz  Alcher  gave  10  marks  and  a  goshawk  for  licence  to 
assart  1 5  acres  of  his  land  in  Laver  and  to  have  them 
put  outside  the  forest  boundary."  It  was  presented 
from  the  honor  of  Boulogne  in  1 2 1 2  that  Richard  son 
of  Alcher  held  Great  Laver  in  chief  for  \  fee.'^  In 
February  1227  Henry  son  of  Richard  fitz  Alcher  was 
granted  his  father's  lands  in  Laver  according  to  King 
John's  charter.'^  Henry  died  in  1234  and  his  son 
Richard  then  had  livery  of  J  fee  in  Laver  held  in  chief'* 
In  1237  this  estate  consisted  of  2  carucates  of  land.'' 
In  1253  Peter  de  St.  Hilary  paid  a  gold  mark  to  escape 
proceedings  for  the  death  of  Richard  fitz  Alcher.'* 
Richard  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Stephen." 

Shortly  after  1259  Stephen  entered  into  an  agree- 
ment with  Simon,  Abbot  of  Waltham,  whereby  the 
abbey  was  to  farm  the  estate  for  eight  years  instead  of 
receiving  an  annual  rent  from  it.'^  Stephen  was  dead 
by  1267."  Afterwards  his  brother  and  heir  Henry 
would  not  let  the  abbey  farm  the  estate  and  refused  to 
pay  rent.*"  In  1269-70  servants  of  Geoffrey,  Prior 
of  Waltham,  went  to  High  Laver  to  distrain  Henry 
for  arrears  of  rent.*'  They  took  some  cattle  but  Henry's 
men  then  assaulted  them  and  the  cattle  were  restored.*^ 
In  1272—3  Henry  brought  an  action  against  Richard 
de  Harewes,  then  Abbot  of  Waltham.  Henry  alleged 
that  24  of  the  abbot's  men  had,  at  his  command, 
trespassed  upon  High  Laver  manor  and  carried  off 
livestock  to  the  value  of  ^40  after  ill  treating  Henry's 
men  and  killing  two  of  them.  Henry  claimed  that  he 
had  suffered  ^50  damages  in  consequence  of  the  assault. 
The  abbot  pleaded  in  defence  that  in  taking  the  live- 
stock he  was  exercising  his  lawful  power  of  distraint, 
since  Henry,  unlike  his  predecessor  Stephen,  had 
refused  to  do  homage  to  him  for  the  manor  and  was 
five  years  in  arrears  with  his  rent.  Henry  denied  that 
previous  abbots  had  ever  received  either  homage  or 
rent  for  High  Laver  manor.  In  1275,  after  the  verdict 
against  him,  Henry  made  an  agreement  with  the  abbot 
whereby  he  paid  four  years'  arrears  in  addition  to  the 
current  year's  rent.*3  When  Henry  fitz  Alcher  died 
in  1303  the  estate  consisted  of  a  dwelling  house  worth 

3/.  4<j'.  a  year,  362  acres  of  arable  worth  /J6  o/.  %d.  a 
year,  1 3  acres  of  meadow  worth  1 9/.  i>d.  a  year,  and 
5  acres  of  pasture  worth  3/.  \d.  a  year.**  The  rents  of 
assize  of  freeholders  amounted  to  ^5  6/.  a  year.'' 
Annual  outgoings,  including  the  ^^lo  rent  due  to 
Waltham  Abbey,  amounted  to  ^10  8/.'*  The  net 
annual  value  was  thus  ^2  10/.  ()d.*'' 

Henry  fitz  Alcher  left  as  his  heir  his  son  Alcher.'* 
In  1 3 1 5  Alcher  granted  the  manor  to  his  son  Henry 
and  Henry's  wife  Beatrice  and  their  heirs  to  hold  of 
Alcher  and  his  heirs  and  do  all  services  to  the  chief 
lords."  In  1324  Henry  fitz  Alcher  and  his  wife 
Beatrice  granted  a  life  interest  in  the  manor  to  Robert 
Norman  for  ^^lo  a  year.»"  In  1343  Henry  fitz  Alcher 
and  Beatrice  granted  the  manor  to  John  de  Depeden 
and  his  heirs  to  hold  of  the  chief  lords  except  for  £10 
of  rent  and  the  homage  and  services  of  seventeen 
tenants  which  were  to  be  paid  to  Henry  fitz  Alcher 
and  his  heirs."  In  1 346  John  de  Depeden  was  reported 
as  holding  \  fee  in  High  Laver  which  Henry  Alcher 
once  held. '^  At  theend  of  1358  Maud,  widow  of  John 
de  Depeden,  empowered  the  Rector  of  High  Laver  to 
sue  for  her  dower  of  every  freehold  which  belonged  to 
her  husband  in  the  counties  of  Essex,  Hertford,  and 
York. '3  A  rental  drawn  up  in  143 1  suggests  that  Maud 
held  the  manor  of  High  Laver  in  dower.''*  After  her 
death  it  passed  into  the  possession  of  another  John 
Depeden,  probably  her  son  or  grandson.  In  July  1406 
John  de  Neuton,  treasurer  of  St.  Peter's,  York,  and 
other  trustees  of  Sir  John  Depeden's  estate  quitclaimed 
to  Robert  Ramsey  and  his  heirs  the  manor  of  High 
Laver  and  all  other  lands  in  Essex  and  Herts,  which 
belonged  to  Sir  John  Depeden  in  demesne  and  in 
reversion.''  In  141 2  John  Ramsey  was  reported  as 
holding  one  manor  in  High  Laver  worth  £10.'*  In 
1428  Robert  Ramsey  was  holding  the  J  fee  which 
Henry  Alcher  once  held  in  High  Laver."  According 
to  the  rental  of  143 1  Robert  Ramsey  was  still  holding 
the  manor  of  High  Laver  in  that  year,  but  shortly  after- 
wards it  came  into  the  possession  of  his  daughter 
Eleanor  and  her  husband  Richard  Priour  who  in  1436 
received  confirmation  from  the  Crown.''  In  1452 
when  he  presented  to  the  church,  Richard  Priour  was 
still  lord  of  the  manor,  but  within  a  few  years  the  estate 
came  into  the  possession  of  Walter  Wrytell,  son  of 
Eleanor  Priour  by  her  first  husband  Ralph  Wrytell." 

Walter  Wrytell  died  in  1475;  his  widow  Katherine 
held  the  manor  in  dower  until  her  death  in  1493.'  The 
estate  then  descended  to  John  Wrytell,  son  of  John 
(d.  148;),  son  of  V/alter  Wrytell.^  In  1493  the  estate 
consisted  of  230  acres  and  was  valued  at  ^^4.'  John,  son 

"  VipeR.  ii67{P.R.S.xi),  \c,j;TipeR. 
1 168  (P.R.S.  xii),  45-46. 

'8  Bk.  of  Fees,  1432;  Pipe  R.  I185 
(P.R.S.  xxxiv),  44-45. 

M  Rol.  de  Ob.  et  Fin.  (Rec.  Com.),  5. 

">  Cal.  Pat.  1436-41,  26.  The  land  was 
granted  to  Richard  as  the  next  heir  of  his 
brother  William.  See  also  Bk.  of  Fees,  121. 

"  Rot.  de  Ob.  et  Fin.  (Rec.  Com.),  224. 

'^  Bk.  of  Fees,  121.  In  early  documents 
High  Laver  was  also  called  Great  Laver 
and  King's  Laver. 

73  Cal.  Chart.  R.  1226-57,  II. 

'«  Ex.  e  Rot.  Fin.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  255. 

'5  B.M.  Harl.  MS.  3739  ff.  94-96,  108. 

"  Ex.  e  Rot.  Fin.  (Rec.  Com.),  ii,  149. 

"  B.M.  Harl.  MS.  3739,  ff.  97-i°3. 

'«  Ibid.  f.  103. 

"  Ibid.  ff.  97-103,  1 10-12. 

8»  Ibid.  f.  103. 

81  B.M.  Cott.  MS.  Tib.  C.  ix,  f.  180. 

82  Ibid. 

83  B.M.  Harl.  MS.  3739  f.  98-104; 
B.M.  Cott.  MS.  Tib.  C.  ix  f.  180-1.  The 
effect  of  this  agreement  was  that  Henry 
paid  all  rent  owing  from  the  time  that 
Richard  de  Harewes  was  elected  abbot  in 
October  1270.  Richard  died  in  1273  and 
was  succeeded  by  Reynold  de  Maidenhcth 
(see  F.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  171)  who  made  the 
agreement  with  Henry  fitz  Alcher  in 

84  B.M.  Harl.  MS.  3739,  ff.  321-6. 

85  Ibid. 

86  Ibid.  87   Ibid. 

88  Ibid.;  Cal  Inq.  p.m.  iv,  p.  112. 

89  Feet  ofF.  Essex,  ii,  156. 

90  Ibid.  214. 

9'  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iii,  65.  John  de 
Depeden  acquired  several  other  estates 
from  Henry  fitz  Alcher  about  this  time. 

92  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  160. 

93  Cal.  Close,  1354-60,  532. 

94  E.A.T.  N.s.  xxii,  256.  The  rental 
refers  to  the  manor  as  'formerly  of  Maud 

95  Cal.  Close,  1405-9,  265;  Cf.  Cal. 
Close,  1354-60,  611,  614.  Sir  John 
Depeden  died  c.  1403  {Cal.  Close,  1402-5, 
12,  305). 

96  Feud.  Aids,  vi,  441. 
9'  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  222. 

98  E.A.T.  N.s.  xxii,  256;  Cal.  Pat. 
1436-41,  26;  E.R.O., -D/DEl  Mi95i 
ibid.  D/DB  T96/69. 

99  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  368;  E.R.O., 
D/DB  T96/69.  For  the  Wrytells  see  also 
Manors  of  Bobbingworth,  Ashlyns  in 
High  Ongar,  and  Lampetts  in  Fyfield. 

'  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  FII,  i,  p.  383. 
'  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  FII,  i,  pp.  61-63, 
383.  >  Ibid. 



of  John  Wrytell,  died  in  1507.*  His  heir,  an  infant 
daughter  Juliane,  was  dead  by  November  1 509.5  The 
heirs  to  High  Laver  and  other  manors  were  the 
daughters  of  Waher  Wrytell:  Eleanor  wife  of  James 
Walsingham  and  Gresilda  wife  of  Edward  Walde- 
grave.*  A  partition  of  their  inheritance  was  made  in 
May  1 5 10  and  the  manor  of  High  Laver  was  ap- 
portioned to  Eleanor  and  her  husband.'  In  15 10  the 
manor  was  said  to  be  worth  ^14  14/.  iJ.  a  year.*  The 
demesne  was  apparently  farmed  out,  the  chief  farmer 
being  Reynold  Foster.'  Rents  from  the  farmed  land 
amounted  to  j^iy  9/.  44/.'"  In  addition  there  were 
twelve  freeholders  paying  rents  totalling  £-^  \os.  i^J. 
a  year  and  4  copyholders  paying  rents  amounting  to 
;^4  6s.  ^i/."  A  rental  of  1 540  showed  no  change  in  the 
value  of  the  manor.'^ 

James  Walsingham  died  in  1 540. '3  Sir  Edmund 
Walsingham,  elder  son  of  James,  apparently  succeeded 
to  the  estate,  for  in  1550,  the  year  in  which  he  died, 
his  only  surviving  son  Thomas  held  his  first  court  for 
the  manor.'*  In  June  1552  the  demesne  land  consisted 
of  266  acres.'s  By  1559  the  annual  value  of  the  manor 
had  risen  to  £17  9/.,  the  rents  from  farmed  land 
amounting  to  ^{^20  ys.  81/.'*  There  were  apparently 
only  three  copyholders  at  this  time."  Sir  Thomas 
Walsingham  died  in  1 5  84,  leaving  as  his  heir  his  son 
Edmund;  the  manor  was  then  said  to  be  worth  ^{^5.'' 
Edmund  died  in  1589  and  was  succeeded  by  his 
younger  brother  Thomas  who  retained  the  manor  until 
his  death  in  1630. ■«  His  son  and  heir,  Sir  Thomas 
Walsingham,  disposed  of  the  estate  about  1655  to 
Anthony  Stanlake.^"  During  the  ownership  of  the  last 
two  Walsinghams,  at  least  part  of  the  estate  was  leased, 
the  lessees  being  in  turn  G.  Day  and  Josias  and  Thomas 

Stanlake  was  described  as  lord  of  the  manor  in  1659 
and  it  may  have  been  on  his  death,  sometime  after  1662, 
that  the  estate  descended  to  coheiresses:  Sarah,  wife  of 
Jacob  Foster,  and  Martha,  wife  of  Richard  Matthews.^^ 
In  i682and  1686  Foster  and  Matthews  were  described 
as  lords  of  the  manor  in  right  of  their  wives.^3  In  169$, 
1699,  and  1706  Richard  Matthews  and  Abraham 
Foster,  a  London  grocer  and  probably  son  of  Jacob 
Foster,  were  lords.^*  Mary,  daughter  of  Richard 
Matthews,  brought  one  half  of  the  estate  in  marriage 
to  her  husband  Samuel  Beachcroft  who  was  lord  of 
the  manor  with  Abraham  Foster  in  1713.^5 

On  Abraham's  death  his  widow  Anna  held  her 
husband's  half  manor  for  life.^*  On  her  death  this  half 
was  divided  between  Abraham's  two  daughters:  Sarah, 
wife  of  Richard  Merry,  a  London  merchant,  and  Mary, 
wife  of  Lewis  Scawen.^'  The  quarter  inherited  by 
Mary  and  Lewis  Scawen  descended  to  their  only  son 

Thomas  who  in  1753  devised  all  his  real  estate  to  his 
uncle  Robert  Scawen. ^^  In  addition  to  'an  undivided 
fourth  part'  of  High  Laver  manor,  Robert  also  held  an 
'undivided  half  of  Hayleys  manor  in  Epping.^'  In 
June  1766  he  and  the  owners  of  the  other  'undivided' 
half  (of  Hayleys)  and  quarter  (of  High  Laver  manor), 
Richard  Merry  and  his  heir  Anthony,  agreed  that  it 
would  be  to  their  mutual  convenience  to  make  a 
physical  division  of  their  properties.'"  Lots  were  cast, 
as  a  result  of  which  the  two  quarters  of  High  Laver 
manor  fell  to  the  share  of  Robert  Scawen. 3' 

There  must  have  been  an  agreement  about  the  same 
time  with  the  owner  of  the  other  half  of  the  manor, 
which  had  remained  in  the  Beachcroft  family  until 
after  1762,  for  the  sale  of  the  whole  manor,  for  by 
August  1767,  when  he  held  his  first  court,  Thomas 
Darby  had  become  sole  lord.'^  At  the  time  of  the  sale 
to  Darby  the  whole  estate,  which  consisted  of  about 
370  acres,  was  leased  to  Abraham  Thorrowgood." 
Thomas  Darby,  who  continued  to  live  at  Sunbury 
(Mdx.),  died  in  1769,  having  devised  the  manor  of 
High  Laver  to  his  wife  Dulcibella  for  her  life  and  then 
to  his  brother  George.^'*  Dulcibella  died  in  1784  and 
George  in  1790. 

George  Darby  was  succeeded  by  his  son  William 
who  changed  his  surname  to  St.  Quintin.  In  1802 
William  mortgaged  the  manor  to  Mrs.  Elizabeth 
Dashwood  for  ^^2, 557.  The  estate  was  still  encumbered 
with  this  debt  in  1805  when  William  died,  leaving  as 
his  heir  his  son  William,  a  minor.  The  trustees  of  the 
estate  eventually  repaid  Mrs.  Dashwood  in  18 12.  In 
183 1  William  St.  Quintin  mortgaged  the  manor  for 
;^5,ooo.  In  each  of  the  years  1840  and  1850  he  bor- 
rowed a  further  ^1,000,  making  a  total  mortgage  on 
the  estate  of  j^7,ooo.  This  was  still  outstanding  when 
William  St.  Quintin  died  in  1859. 

The  St.  Quintins  never  lived  in  High  Laver.  After 
the  death  of  Abraham  Thorrowgood  and  his  wife  the 
manor  house  and  farm  were  leased  to  the  Speed  family 
and,  from  1826,  to  William  Barnard  and  his  son  who 
paid  a  rent  of  ^^425  a  year  for  the  first  12  years,  ;^36o 
a  year  for  the  next  twelve,  and  ^^373  a  year  from 

William  St.  Quintin  stipulated  in  his  will,  made  30 
years  before  his  death,  that  all  his  lands,  except  those 
in  Yorkshire,  should  be  sold  by  his  trustees.  The 
manor  of  High  Laver  was  sold  for  ^{^1 2,050  to  John 
Watlington  Perry  Watlington,  M.P.,  and  the  mortgage 
on  the  estate  was  paid  out  of  the  purchase  money.  At 
the  time  of  the  sale  the  estate  consisted  of  374  acres.'' 
J.  W.  Perry  Watlington  was  still  owner  in  1874.3*  By 
1886  he  was  dead  and  Robert  Wicksted  Ethelston  had 
succeeded  to  the  estate. 3?    Ethelston  died  in  19 14.3* 

■•  C142/21/2. 

i  L.  &  P.  Hen.  yill,  i,  p.  103. 
'  Ibid. 

'  E.R.O.,  D/DB  T96/69 ;  ibid.  D/DDw 
8  E.R.O.,  D/DDw  M78. 
«  Ibid. 
'0  Ibid. 

"  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

"  Ibid.;    Conyers    Read,    Sir    Francis 
Wahingham,  i,  7;  D.N.B.  xx,  685. 

'4  E.R.O.,  D/DDw  M75;  D.N.B.  xx, 
685—7.  Thomas  was  knighted  in  1573. 
■5  E.R.O.,  D/DEl  M195. 
■«  E.R.O.,  D/DDw  M78. 
"  Ibid.  IS  Ibid. 

"  C 142/467/71;  D.N.B.  XX,  686.    He 
had  been  knighted  in  1597. 

2»  CP25(2)/55ifi  Mich.  1655. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DW  T4I. 

2i  E.R.O.,  D/DW  T41.  A  note  in  the 
register  of  burials  describes  Anthony 
Stanlake  as  lord  of  the  manor  in  1659: 
D/P  iii/i/i.  He  presented  to  the  church 
of  High  Laver  in  1662:  Newcourt, 
Repert.  ii,  368. 

23  E.R.O.,  D/DDw  M76. 
«  Ibid. 

25  Ibid. 

24  Ibid.;  E.R.O.,  D/DW  T41. 
"  E.R.O.,  D/DWT41. 

28  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

3"  Ibid.  31  Ibid. 

32  E.R.O.,  D/DDw  M77. 

33  E.R.O.,  D/DW  T41;  ibid.  D/DDw 
T32;    ibid.    D/DEs   T88.     Previous   oc- 

cupiers   were    Samuel    Brooks,    Thomas 
Roddington,  and  John  Pavell. 

3*  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  T88.  Information 
for  all  that  follows  has  been  obtained  from 
this  group  of  documents. 

35  E.R.O.,  D/DEs  T88.  Cf.  D/P 
1 1 1  /27/2  (Tithe  Award  1 848)  which  gave 
the  acreage  as  356  of  which  278  were 

36  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1874).  From 
1870  the  manor  of  High  Laver  was 
described  in  Kelly's  Directories  as  the  manor 
of  High  Laver  Hall  to  distinguish  it  from 
Otes  manor  which  was  apparently 
described  at  this  period  as  the  manor  of 
High  Laver. 

3'  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1886). 

38  Burke's  L.G.  (15th  edn.),  712. 




By  1 9 1 7  the  estate  was  apparently  no  longer  regarded 
as  a  manor.39 

The  present  farm-house  stands  on  a  moated  site 
immediately  north  of  the  church.  South  of  it  an  arm 
of  the  moat  may  have  enclosed  the  church  itself.  To 
the  north  there  was  formerly  a  third  rectangular  moated 
enclosure.'"'  The  present  house  is  of  brick,  partly 
plastered,  and  probably  dates  from  the  late  i8th  or 
early  19th  century.  At  least  two  of  the  timbered  farm 
buildings  are  older  than  the  house. 

The  manor  of  OTES  alias  OATES  may  originally 
have  formed  part  of  the  manor  of  Little  Laver  (q.v.). 

In  1288  Emma,  daughter  of  Eustace  fitz  Walter, 
granted  all  her  lands  in  High  Laver  and  Housham 
(Matching)  to  Sir  Henry  de  Enfield.^'  In  1325  Sir 
John  de  Enfield,  son  of  Henry,  John  Otes,  and  others 
were  tenants  of  the  manor  of  Little  Laver .^^  In  1329 
Sir  John  divided  his  estates  between  his  sons  Richard 
and  William.  He  conveyed  to  William  his  holding  in 
Little  Laver  which  became  the  separate  manor  of 
Envilles.^s  To  Richard  he  conveyed  i  messuage,  2 
carucates  of  land,  1 2  acres  meadow,  and  40^.  rent  in 
High  Laver  and  Housham  (Matching).^*  It  is  possible 
that  at  this  time  or  shortly  afterwards  the  lands  held  of 
Little  Laver  manor  by  John  Otes  were  merged  with 
the  lands  held  by  Richard  de  Enfield  in  High  Laver  to 
form  a  separate  manor  which  descended  in  the  Enfield 
family  but  which  became  known  by  the  name  of  Otes. 

The  heir  of  Sir  Richard  de  Enfield  was  his  daughter 
Elizabeth,  wife  of  Thomas  Battail.'^s  In  1397  the 
manor  of  Otes  was  held  by  John  Battail,  son  and  heir 
of  Thomas  and  Elizabeth.**  John  Battail  made  his 
will  in  1397,  on  the  eve  ofhis  departure  for  Jerusalem.*' 
He  gave  detailed  instructions  for  the  partition  of  his 
property  between  his  sisters,  Margaret,  soon  after- 
wards wife  of  John  de  Boys,  and  Alice,  wife  of  John 
Barrington.  Battail  died  shortly  afterwards  and  Boys 
and  Barrington  quarrelled  over  the  partition.*'  The 
dispute  was  eventually  referred  to  the  arbitration  of  the 
Countess  of  Hereford  who  decided  that  Otes  should  be 
equally  divided  between  Alice  Barrington  and  Margaret 
de  Boys,  as  John  Battail  had  instructed.*'  In  141 2 
John  de  Boys  and  John  Barrington  were  each  reported 
as  holding  lands  in  High  Laver  and  elsewhere  worth 
£20.50  Margaret  de  Boys  apparently  died  without 
issue. 51  Afterwards  two  daughters  of  John  Barrington, 
Elizabeth,  wife  of  John  Sulyard,  and  Katherine,  wife 
of  John  Pykenham,  each  inherited  half  of  Otes. s^ 

Sir  John  Sulyard,  son  of  Elizabeth  and  John  Sulyard, 
died  in  1488  in  possession  of  half  of  Otes  which  he  held 

of  Edward,  Duke  of  Buckingham,  and  which  was 
worth  20  marks.'!  His  son  and  heir  Edward  died  in 
1 5 16  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Sir  William  Sulyard 
who  held  his  first  court  in  1 523.5*  William  died  with- 
out issue  in  1540  and  his  half-brother  Eustace  Sulyard 
inherited  his  half  of  Otes.55  Eustace  died  in  1547 
leaving  as  his  heir  his  son  Edward. 5*  In  1 574  Edward 
conveyed  his  half  of  the  manor  to  John  Collins  who 
had  already  acquired  the  other  half  (see  below). 57 

John  Pykenham  survived  his  wife  Katherine  and 
died  in  1436  in  possession  of  half  of  Otes. '*  In  1445 
William  Hasilden  and  others  (named)  conveyed  this 
half  of  the  manor  to  John  Pykenham,  evidently  the  son 
of  John  Pykenham  (d.  1436),  and  his  wife  Margery. 59 
Margery  Pykenham  was  still  seised  of  this  half  in  1 500 
when  her  son  and  heir  George  died  childless,  leaving 
as  his  heirs  his  two  nieces,  Margery  and  Elizabeth 
Pykenham,  daughters  of  his  brother  Thomas.'"  At 
that  time  this  half  of  the  manor  was  held  of  John,  Earl 
of  Oxford,  and  was  worth  20  marks.*'  Apparently  the 
sisters  Margery  and  Elizabeth  Pykenham  each 
inherited  half  of  the  moiety. 

In  1539  John  Heron  and  his  wife  Elizabeth,  who 
was  probably  the  daughter  of  Thomas  Pykenham, 
conveyed  a  quarter  of  Otes  to  John  Lymsey.*^  The 
latter  died  in  1545;  in  1558  Edward  Lymsey,  his  son 
and  heir,  conveyed  this  quarter  to  John  Collins.'^ 

Meanwhile  in  1550  John  Collins  had  received  the 
other  half  of  the  moiety  from  John  Jennyns  and  his 
wife  Joan,  one  of  whom  may  have  been  the  child  or 
grandchild  of  Margery  sister  of  Elizabeth  Pykenham.** 

Between  1 5  50  and  1 574  John  Collins  thus  acquired 
the  whole  manor  of  Otes.  It  remained  in  the  Collins 
family  until  shortly  after  16 14  when  it  was  purchased 
by  William  Masham  whose  son  William  succeeded 
him  and  was  created  a  baronet  in  i62i.*5  In  1638  Sir 
William  Masham  was  visited  at  Otes  by  Oliver 
Cromwell,  who  was  his  relative  by  njarriage.**  Sir 
William  died  about  1656.*'  His  heir  was  his  grandson 
William  Masham,  2nd  Bt.,  who  died  unmarried  about 
1662  and  was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Francis 
Masham,  3rd  Bt.**  In  1668  there  were  59  freeholders 
and  copyholders  on  the  estate.*'  The  area  in  their 
hands  was  more  than  3  54  acres'"  and  they  paid  rents 
amounting  to  ^£9  12/.  xdJ^  In  1678  22  tenants  who 
failed  to  attend  their  lord's  court  were  each  fined  2(/.'* 

From  1 69 1  until  1704  John  Locke  the  philo- 
sopher lived  at  Otes  as  the  paying  guest  of  Sir  Francis 
Masham.'!  In  1723  Sir  Francis  died,  leaving  as  his 
heir  his  son  Samuel,  ist  Baron  Masham  of  Otes  (cr. 

3'  Kelly' %  Dir.  Essex  (1917  f.). 

*o  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 1 1/27/2. 

*>  Cal.  Close,  1279-88,  525;  Visits,  of 
Essex  (Had.  Soc.  xiii),  227;  C.  Moor, 
Knights  of  Ediu.  I  (Harl.  Soc.  Ixix),  i, 

**  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  vi,  p.  372;  Morant, 
Essex,  i,  143. 

*3  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iii,  5.  See  Little 
Laver,  Manor  of  Envilles. 

<*  Feet  ofF.  Essex,  iii,  5 ;  Visits,  of  Essex 
(Harl.  Soc.),  227. 

*5  Visits,  of  Essex  (Harl.  Soc),  227. 

*«  E.A.T.  N.s.  i,  268-72;  Visits,  of 
Essex  (Harl.  Soc),  227;  Cal.  Close,  1396- 
9,  282. 

*'  E.A.T.  N.s.  i,  268-72. 

♦«  Ibid.;  Cal.  Close,  1396-9,  282. 

♦9  E.A.T.  N.s.  i,  268-72. 

5"  Feud.  Aids,  vi,  440. 

5'  E.A.T.  N.s.  i,  272. 

5'  B.M.  Add.  Chart.  40792;  Visits,  of 

Essex  (Harl.  Soc),  147;  E.A.T.  n.s.  i, 
272.  The  historian  of  the  Harringtons 
{E.A.T.  n.s.  i,  272)  believed  that  John 
Barrington,  husband  of  Alice,  had  only  one 
daughter,  Elizabeth.  The  evidence  of  the 
B.M.  charter,  however,  suggests  strongly 
that  he  had  several  daughters. 

53  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  Vll,  i,  p.  177. 

54  Ibid.;  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  M9;  E.A.T. 
iii,  180;  ibid.  n.s.  vi,  325. 

55  E.A.T.  iii,  180;  ibid.  n.s.  vii,  16. 

56  C142/86/63. 

57  CP25(2)/l29/l6S5. 

58  B.M.  Add.  Chart.  40792. 

50  Cal  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  VII,  ii,  p.  246. 
When  the  half  manor  was  settled  on  John 
and  Katherine  Pykenham  it  was  stipulated 
that  if  they  had  no  issue,  the  estate  should 
descend  to  Margery,  sister  of  Katherine  or, 
if  Margery  died,  to  Alice  also  sister  of 

'0  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  VII,  ii,  p.  246. 


6"  Ibid. 

"  CP25(2)/52/374Trin.3i  Hen. Villi 
C 142/74/72.  Elizabeth  Heron  certainly 
held  the  half  manor  in  her  own  right. 

«5  C142/74/72;  CP25(2)/7o/586  Trin. 
4  &  5  Phil.  &  Mary. 

«*  CP25(2)/57/42i  East.  4  Edw.  VI. 

65  CP25(2)/295  Mich.  12  Jas.  I  & 
Trin.  17  Jas.  I;  Hisi.  Essex  by  Gent,  iii, 
348;  Morant,  Essex,  \,  141;  G.E.C. 
Complete  Baronetage,  \,  182. 

"  E.R.  xviii,  201. 

»7  G.E.C.  Complete  Baronetage,  i,  182. 

68  Ibid. 

M  E.R.O.,  D/DXs  I. 

">  Ibid.  Some  of  the  acreages  in  indivi- 
dual tenants'  hands  are  not  given  in  the 
rent  roll. 

7"  Ibid. 

72  Ibid. 

73  See  above,  p.  88. 


1712)7'*  In  1736  Lord  Masham  impoverished  himself 
when  he  settled  the  greater  part  of  his  estates,  including 
the  manor  of  Otes,  on  his  son  Samuel  at  the  time  of  the 
latter's  marriage  to  Henrietta  Winnington.'s  The 
young  Samuel  had  already  inherited  the  property  of 
his  uncle  General  Hill  and  Henrietta  brought  him  a 
dowry  of  some  ^10,000.'*  He  was  a  lord  of  the  Bed- 
chamber to  George  II  and  auditor-general  of  the  house- 
hold of  George,  Prince  of  Wales.^'  He  was,  however, 
a  wastrel'*  and  before  he  succeeded  his  father  as  Baron 
Masham  in  175 S'''  he  was  already  in  need  of  money. 
In  1 7  5  7  he  mortgaged  Otes  and  his  two  other  manors 
of  Matchinghall  in  Matching  and  Little  Laver  to  Dr. 
Robert  Taylor  of  Albemarle  St.,  Hanover  Square 
(Mdx.)  for  ^{^3,000.80  Part  of  the  manor  farm,  which 
was  valued  at  ;^l4o  a  year,  was  then  let  to  John 
Hinson.*'  There  were  100  acres  of  woodland,  valued 
at  j^35  a  year,  in  hand.*^  The  free  and  copyhold  rents 
belonging  to  Otes  and  Matchinghall  manors  amounted 
to  £1 1  i6s.  1  i^J.  a  year  and  the  fines  and  reliefs  for 
the  two  manors  were  estimated  at  ^5  a  year.^3 

In  1 76 1  Lord  Masham  was  granted  a  pension  of 
;^i,ooo  a  year  by  George  III.*''  In  February  1762  he 
still  owed  ;^2,ooo  of  the  ^^3,000  he  had  borrowed  from 
Taylor  in  1757.85  He  then  married  as  his  second  wife 
Charlotte  Dive  whose  father  John  Dive  of  Queen 
Square,  Westminster,  gave  her  a  dowry  of  ^£8,000, 
paying  off  the  debt  to  Taylor  as  part  of  this  sum.** 
At  about  the  time  of  the  marriage  Lord  Masham  sold 
to  a  bookseller  part  of  his  family  library,  including 
books  bequeathed  by  John  Locke,  'to  make  room',  it 
was  commonly  believed,  'for  books  of  polite  amuse- 
ment'.*'  Charlotte  Masham  was  as  irresponsible  and 
as  extravagant  as  her  husband,**  and,  less  than  three 
years  after  the  marriage,  Lord  Masham  began  to  bor- 
row money  on  a  scale  which  led  rapidly  to  the  loss  of 
his  estate.  Between  January  1765  and  June  1766  he 
borrowed  a  total  of  ;/^8,6oo  on  the  security  of  jhe 
estate.*'  Most  of  this  was  lent  by  Robert  Palmer  of 
St.  Andrew's  parish,  Holborn  (Lond.)  who  had  been 
manager  of  the  estate  from  1757,  if  not  before. '°    In 

1766  the  estate  was  valued  at  ^^25,369.9'    Early  in 

1767  Palmer  acquired  the  freehold  on  terms  which 
allowed  Lord  Masham  to  live  at  Otes  for  the  rest  of 
his  life.9^   Masham  died  there  in  1776. '3   Even  at  the 

'<  Complete  Peerage,  viii,  540  j  see  above, 
p.  88. 

75  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  Ti ;  P.  Laslett,  'The 
Mashams  of  Otes*,  Hist,  To-day^  iii,  541. 

■">  Hist.  To-day,  iii,  541;  D.N.B.  xii, 

"  D.N.B.  xii,  1297. 

'8  Hist.  To-day,  iii,  541-2.  Swift,  who 
hated  him  from  a  boy,  commented  that  he 
was  'ill-natured  and  proud  and  very  little 
in  him*. 

"  Complete  Peerage,  viii,  541. 

80  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  Ti.  Mr.  Laslett 
believes  (Hist.  To-day,  iii,  p.  541)  that  this 
mortgage  was  probably  owned,  in  fact,  by 
Robert  Palmer  whose  name  appears  as  a 
witness  only  to  the  deed  and  who  certainly 
lent  Lord  Masham  a  great  deal  of  money 
between  Jan.  1765  and  June  1766.  There 
is  no  evidence,  however,  to  support  this 
view.  The  fact  that  Palmer  was  manager 
■  of  Masham's  estate  in  1757  is  sufficient  to 
explain  his  attestation  of  the  deed. 

8"  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  Ti. 

82  Ibid. 

83  Ibid.  There  are  no  separate  figures 
for  Otes  at  this  date. 

84  D.N.B.  xii,  1297. 
'5  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  Ti.  86  ibid. 

8'  Hist.  To-day,  iii,  542. 

88  Ibid.  541-2. 

89  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  Ti  ;  ibid.  D/DEw 

«»  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  E3. 

»'  Berks.  Rec.  Off.  D/EE  F38. 

«  Ibid.;  ibid.  D/EE  E18;  E.R.O., 
D/DXs  i;  ibid.  D/DEw  Mil.  Mr. 
Laslett's  statement  (Hist.  To-day,  iii,  542) 
that  the  transfer  of  ownership  took  place 
in  1766  is,  on  the  basis  of  Palmer's  notes, 
incorrect.  The  document  to  which  Mr. 
Laslett  refers  as  the  deed  of  sale  contained 
in  fact  only  the  valuation  of  the  estate  and 
the  terms  submitted  for  Lord  Masham's 

93  Hist.  To-day,  iii,  542. 

9*  Ibid. 

95  See  below.  Church. 

96  P.  J.  Budworth,  Memorials  of  Green- 
sted—Budivorth,  Chipping  Ongar  and  High 
Laver,  35. 

9'  Nor  did  his  son  and  successor, 
Richard  (see  below).  Some  of  the  con- 
tents of  the  house,  including  Locke's 
possessions,  were,  however,  removed  to 
the  Palmers'  residence ;  Hist.  To-day,  iii, 
542-3;  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  T2. 

98  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  T2. 

end  he  was  'so  burdened  with  debt  that  he  could  not 
attend  the  House  of  Lords'.''*  An  interesting  comment 
on  the  characters  of  Lord  Masham  and  Robert  Palmer 
was  written  a  century  later  by  P.  J.  Budworth  whose 
family  had  been  connected  with  High  Laver  almost 
from  the  time  when  Masham  lost  his  estate.''  In  1 876 
Budworth  wrote  that  'Lord  Masham  seemed  to  have 
been  improvident  and  his  improvidence  had  been  taken 
advantage  of  by  one  to  whom  he  confided  the  manage- 
ment of  his  estates  and  who  built  up  his  own  fortune 
upon  the  ruins  of  that  of  his  master'.'* 

Robert  Palmer  never  lived  at  Otes."  He  died  in 
1786  leaving  all  his  real  estate  to  his  only  son  Richard 
but  charging  it  with  the  payment  of  ^10,000  to  each 
of  his  two  unmarried  daughters.'*  In  1801  Richard 
Palmer  put  up  his  Essex  estate  for  auction."  This 
consisted  of  1,258  acres  valued  at  £i,oj^  a  year." 
Otes  manor  farm  contained  279  acres  which  were 
valued,  with  the  manor  house,  at  ^£385  a  year.^  Of 
these  279  acres,  160  were  in  the  occupation  of  three 
leaseholders,  called  Browne,  the  elder  and  younger, 
and  Crush,  and  92  were  occupied  by  the  elder  Browne 
as  tenant  at  will.3  The  manor  house  was  empty.'*  The 
quit  rents  on  the  manor  amounted  to  about  ^10  a  year 
and  the  royalties  were  valued  at  j(^20.5  An  offer  for  the 
leasehold  land  appears  to  have  been  accepted  in  1801.* 
The  manor  house  and  1 1 6  acres  in  hand  or  in  the 
occupation  of  the  tenant-at-will  were  sold  in  1 802—3 
to  John  Hughes  who  held  his  first  court  in  1808.''  In 
181 1— 1 2  the  manor  came  into  the  possession  of  George 
Starkins*  who  had  already  acquired  much  of  the  land 
in  High  Laver  which  was  auctioned  in  1 80 1—2.  In 
1824  there  were  44  manorial  tenants  whose  rents 
totalled  £<)  igs.  6 J.  a  year'  and  in  1837  34  whose 
rents  totalled  £7  5/.  St/.'"  In  1841  George  Starkins 
owned  613  acres  in  the  parish;  of  this  he  then  occupied 
426  acres." 

Between  1841  and  1843  John  and  Thomas  Inkersole 
came  into  possession  of  the  manor.'^  In  1848  the  manor 
farm  consisted  of  68  acres  and  was  occupied  by  Thomas 
Inkersole. '3  The  Inkersoles  also  owned  an  estate  of 
155  acres  which  had  previously  been  in  the  possession 
of  George  Starkins.''*  They  were  still  lords  of  the 
manor  in  1 860  when  the  last  recorded  court  was  held.'' 
By   1870  the  manor  had  apparently  come  to  Mrs. 

99  Ibid.  ■  Ibid. 

2  Ibid.  The  figures  which  Mr.  Laslett 
gives  both  as  to  the  extent  and  as  to  the 
value   of  Otes    Manor   in    1801    are   in- 


3  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  T2. 

*  Ibid. 

5  Ibid.  «  Ibid. 

'  Ibid.;  E.R.O.,  Q/RPl  707-8;  ibid. 
D/DXs  I. 

8  E.R.O.,Q/RPl7i6-i7;ibid.  D/DXs 
I .   He  held  his  first  court  in  Jan.  1 8 1 5. 

9  E.R.O.,  D/DXs  2. 
'0  E.R.O.,  D/DXs  3. 

>'  E.R.O.,  D/P  111/27/1.  According 
to  the  Land  'Tax  Assessments  Starkins 
owned  much  of  this  land  before  he  ac- 
quired the  manor  but  he  did  not  occupy  it 
for  many  years. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  111/27/1;  ibid. 
D/DXs  I. 

■3  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 1 1/27/2. 

■4  Ibid.;  ibid.  D/P  111/27/1.  Most  of 
the  rest  of  George  Starkins's  land  had 
passed  to  George  Starkins  Wallis  by  1848. 

'5  E.R.O.,  D/DXs  I.  The  sudden 
cessation  of  entries  in  the  Court  Book 
after  i860  suggests  that  the  i860  court 
was  in  fact  the  last  one  held  for  the  manor. 




Wright  and  others  who  still  held  it  in  19 14.'*  By 
19 1 7  the  estate  was  apparently  not  regarded  as  a 
manor. '7 

There  is  no  longer  a  house  at  Otes.  The  site,  which 
is  partly  moated,  is  clear  except  for  a  well  shaft  and  two 
large  lime  trees.  South-west  of  the  moated  enclosure 
are  the  remains  of  an  orchard  wall  and  of  two  out- 
buildings. One  of  these  buildings  was  constructed  of 
re-used  timbers.  South  of  the  site  a  small  stream  has 
been  dammed,  probably  in  the  i8th  century,  to  form 
an  ornamental  lake  with  a  weir  at  its  outlet. 

In  about  1770  Otes  was  said  to  be  one  of  the  only 
two  good  houses  in  the  parish:  'a  large  building,  in  a 
delightful  situation,  with  a  park,  gardens,  canals  etc.''* 
A  woodcu  t  of  the  house,  pu  blished  in  1 8  2 1 , "  shows  on 
the  left  hand  a  low  three-gabled  block,  apparently 
timber-framed  and  plastered.  It  was  probably  of 
medieval  origin,  altered  in  the  i6th  or  early  17th 
century.  There  were  slightly  projecting  oriel  windows 
and  a  two-storied  porch  with  a  pointed  entrance  arch. 
Adjoining  the  old  house  to  the  right  there  were  two 
later  additions.  In  front  was  a  square  three-story 
block,  probably  of  the  Queen  Anne  period.^"  Behind 
this  was  a  two-story  wing  in  the  picturesque  style  of 
the  late  i8th  century.  In  1801  it  was  said  that  the 
newer  part  of  the  house  had  been  recently  erected.^' 
The  building  is  said  to  have  been  demolished  in  1822." 
In  1835  it  was  described  as  'completely  destroyed'.^^ 
Some  outbuildings  remained,  however,  for  some  time.^ 
The  last  of  them  fell  in  1952.^5 

The  advowson  of  High  Laver  was  held  by  the  lords 
of  the  capital  manor  until  1315.^'  In  that 
CHURCH  year  Alcher  son  of  Henry  retained  the 
advowson  when  he  granted  the  manor  to 
his  son  Henry  and  Henry's  wife  Beatrice."  In  1331 
and  1334  Alcher  presented  to  the  church.^*  In  1337 
he  converted  his  interest  in  the  advowson  into  a  life 
interest  with  remainder  to  Sir  John  de  Shardelowe  for 
life  and  then  to  John,  son  of  Sir  John,  in  tail.^'  In  1 366 
William  de  Ferrers,  probably  Lord  Ferrers  of  Groby 
(d.  1 37 1),  presented. 3"  Later  presentations  were  made 
by  John  de  Beston  and  others  in  1398,  by  William, 
Lord  Ferrers  of  Groby  (d.  1445),  in  1400,  and  by 
John  Gwyne  and  others  in  1426.2'  By  1438  the 
advowson  again  belonged  to  the  lord  of  the  capital 
manor.32  It  then  descended  with  the  manor  until  soon 
after  1 662  when  the  manor  passed  to  coheiresses,  Sarah, 
wife  of  Jacob  Foster,  and  Martha,  wife  of  Richard 
Matthews."  In  1683  Sarah  and  Jacob  Foster,  Martha 

and  Richard  Matthews,  Samuel  and  Mary  Lewin,  and 
Joseph  Reeve  conveyed  the  advowson  to  George  Cole 
and  John  Knapp.J'*  In  17 10  George  Cole  presented 
and  in  1727  William  Cheval.^s  In  1729  the  advowson 
was  held  by  the  rector,  Martin  Hall,  who  in  that  year 
sold  it  to  Alexander  Cleeve.3*  After  Hall's  death  in 
1734  Alexander  Cleeve  presented  his  son  John."  Hall 
had  encumbered  the  hving  with  many  debts.^'  John 
Cleeve  devised  the  advowson  to  his  nephew  Thomas 
Velley.39  In  1778, after Cleeve'sdeath, Thomas Velley 
presented  his  brother-in-law  Richard  Budworth  who 
held  the  living  until  his  death  in  i8o5.*<'  Afterwards 
Richard  Budworth's  trustees  held  the  patronage  until 
his  son  Philip  was  old  enough  to  become  rector  and 
to  hold  the  advowson.*'  After  Philip  Budworth's  death 
in  1 86 1  the  advowson  was  held  by  Captain  Budworth, 
grandson  of  Richard  Budworth,  until  his  death  in 
i885.'t2  It  was  then  held  by  Captain  Budworth's 
trustees  until  after  l9o6.*3  In  191 2  and  1 9 14  the 
living  was  in  the  gift  of  Mrs.  Heales.**  By  1922  the 
advowson  was  held  by  Canon  R.  D.  Budworth  who 
retained  it  until  his  death  in  about  I938.''s  In  1940 
and  194 1  it  was  held  by  the  Revd.D.  P.  D.  Budworth.** 
Since  1942  it  has  been  in  the  gift  of  the  Bishop  of 
Chelmsford,*'  and  since  1945  has  been  united  with 
that  of  Magdalen  Laver.*' 

In  about  1254  and  in  1295  the  rectory  was  valued 
at  16  marks.*'  In  1428  the  church  was  still  taxed  on 
this  valuation.  In  1535  the  rectory  was  valued  at 
£14  IJ-.  6d.^°  In  1637  there  were  about  47  acres  of 
glebe. 5'  In  1848  the  tithes  were  commuted  for  ^^520; 
there  were  then  63  acres  of  glebe. '^ 

In  1637  a  terrier  described  the  rectory  as  consisting 
of  'a  parsonage-house,  a  kitchen  by  itself,  a  barn,  a 
stable,  and  a  hay-house,  also  an  orchard,  a  garden-plat, 
a  little  court-yard  and  a  great  outer  yard'.sJ  A  separate 
kitchen  was  a  feature  of  the  parsonages  at  all  three 
Lavers  in  the  17th  century  and  was  certainly  a  survival 
from  medieval  times.  No  mention  was  made  of  a 
separate  kitchen  in  a  terrier  of  18 10  although  the  lath- 
and-plaster  house  still  existed  then.'*  Shortly  before 
he  died  in  1805  Richard  Budworth  had  plans  drawn 
up  for  rebuilding  the  rectory. ss  On  his  death,  how- 
ever, the  plan  was  abandoned  and  it  was  not  until 
shortly  after  1864  that  the  old  parsonage  was  pulled 
down  and  a  new  one  built  on  nearly  the  same  site.'* 
The  present  building  is  a  large  red  brick  gabled  house, 
part  of  it  of  three  stories.  It  ceased  to  be  used  as  a 
parsonage  when  the  living  was  united  with  that  of 

^''Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1870  f.).  For 
Kelly's  description  of  Otes  Manor  at  this 
period  see  above,  n.  36. 

"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1917  f.). 

**  Hisi.  Essex  ify  Gent,  iii,  346. 

">  Monthly  Magazine,  Iii;  E.R.O., 
Prints,  High  Laver. 

»o  E.R.  xvii,  212. 

"  E.R.O.,  U/UEwT2. 

"  E.R.  xvii,  213. 

^3  T.  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  346. 

2*  E.R.O.,  D/P  111/27/1  &  2;  O.S. 
6  in.  Map  ( i  st  edn.),  sheet  xlii. 

2'  Hist.  To-day,  iii,  543. 

^'  Cal.  hq.  p.m.  iv,  p.  112;  Feet  of  F. 
Essex,  ii,  1 56. 

"  Feet  ofF.  Essex,  ii,  156. 

^'  Newcourt,  i?ir^fr/.  ii,  368. 

2'  Feel  of  F.  Essex,  iii,  41. 

30  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  368. 

3"  Ibid.  "  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

M  CP25(2)/655  Mich.  35  Chas.  II. 

3'  J.  Bacon,  Thesaurus,  615. 

36  P.  J.  Budworth,  Memorials  of  Green- 
sted-Budtvorth,  Chipping  Ongar,  and  High 
Laver,  35-36.  Budworth  said  that  before 
1729  there  had  been  'several  changes  of 
patrons  rapidly  succeeding  each  other'. 

"  Ibid.  In  J.  Bacon,  Thesaurus,  615, 
however,  there  is  a  record  that  a  year 
before  Alexander  Cleeve  presented  in 
1734,  John  Turvin  presented. 

3'  P.  J.  Budworth,  Mems.  of  Greensted- 
Bud-worth  etc.  -iS-l^-  "Ibid. 

w  Ibid.  Budworth  says  that  in  1777 
Thomas  Velley  sold  the  advowson  to 
Richard  Budworth  who  bought  it  in  order 
to  present  his  son  Richard,  husband  of 
Thomas  Velley's  sister.  According,  how- 
ever, to  the  Bishop  of  London's  certificate 
of  institution  (E331/41)  Thomas  Velley 
presented  to  the  living  in  1778.  What 
probably  happened  was  that  Thomas 
Velley  presented  his  brother  in  law. 

41  P.  J.  Budworth,  Mems.  of  Greensted- 
Budiuorth  etc.  36;  Cler.  Guide,   liij  t; 


Clergy  List,  1845  f- 

*^  P.  J.  Budworth,  Mems.  of  Greensted- 
Budivorth  etc.  j6 ;  Clergy  List,  1864.  For 
the  Budworths  see  also  Greenstcad. 

*3  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1890,  1902,  1906), 

♦*  Ibid.  (1912,  1914). 

*5  Ibid.    (1922,     1926,     1929,     1933) 
Chel.  Dioc.  Tear  Bk.  1938. 

*<•  Chel.  Dioc.  Tear  Bk.  1940,  1941. 

*'  Ibid.  1942  f. 

*8  Crockford's  Cler.  Dir.  (195 1-2);  inf. 
from  the  Revd.  W.  D.  Topping. 

*»  Lunt,  Val.  of  Nortvich,  337;  Tax. 
Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  21. 

50  ralor  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  437. 

S'  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  368. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 1 1/27/2.  Tithes  of  the 
glebe  were  not  included  in  the  j^520. 

53  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  368. 

5*  E.R.O.,  D/P  111/3/2. 

55  P.  J.  Budvvorth,  Mems.  ofGreensted- 
Bud-uiorth  etc.  36. 

56  Ibid. 


Magdalen  Laver  and  it  is  now  a  private  house  called 
High  Laver  House. 

The  parish  church  of  ALL  SJINTS  consists  of 
nave,  chancel,  west  tower,  south  porch,  and  north 
vestry.  The  walls  are  of  flint  rubble  roughly  coursed, 
particularly  in  the  chancel.  Roman  brick  is  found 
among  the  rubble  and  forms  some  of  the  quoins.  Most 
of  the  dressings,  originally  of  clunch,  have  been  replaced. 

The  nave  was  built  late  in  the  12th  century.  It 
retains  one  small  round-headed  window  in  the  north 
wall.  West  of  this  is  an  original  doorway,  partly 
restored,  which  now  leads  to  the  vestry.  It  has  a  semi- 
circular arch  and  chamfered  imposts. 

The  chancel,  probably  built  about  1 200,  has  seven 
lancets  with  pointed  heads.  There  are  two  in  each  of 
the  north  and  south  walls  and  three  graduated  lancets 
at  the  east  end;  all  are  much  restored. 

Two  doorways,  one  in  the  north  wall  of  the  chancel 
and  one  in  the  south  wall  of  the  nave,  are  probably  of 
the  13th  century.  The  former  is  now  blocked  but  the 
arch  in  clunch  is  visible  externally.  The  piscina,  which 
has  a  trefoiled  head  and  a  double  drain,  may  be  of  the 
13th  century.  There  are  fragments  of  13th-  or  14th- 
century  glass  in  the  small  nave  window. 

The  tower,  of  three  stages,  appears  to  have  been 
added  about  1340.57  It  was  originally  of  flint  rubble, 
but  this  is  now  mostly  plastered  and  much  of  the  tower 
has  been  rebuilt  in  brick.  The  moulded  tower  arch  is 
sharply  pointed.  In  the  west  wall,  but  not  axial  with 
the  arch,  is  a  good  14th-century  window  with  a  pointed 
arch  and  two  ogee-headed  lights.  There  is  a  blocked 
window  in  the  second  stage  of  the  tower  on  the  north 
side.  The  chancel  arch  was  probably  rebuilt  in  the 
14th  century.  The.  responds  and  head  are  finely 
moulded.  It  has  spread  considerably  at  springing  level 
and  this  may  have  caused  the  arch  itself  to  drop,  giving 
the  unusual  three-centred  shape. 

Late  in  the  14th  or  early  in  the  15th  century  four 
new  windows  were  inserted  in  the  nave  and  one  in  the 
chancel.  These  are  all  square-headed  externally  with 
label  moulds  and  head  stops.  Internally  the  arches  are 
three-  or  four-centred.  The  tracery,  which  has  all  been 
replaced,  was  probably  originally  of  this  date  and  has 
been  copied  with  fair  accuracy.58 

In  the  1 5th  or  i6th  century  the  roofs  of  the  chancel 
and  nave,  which  are  ceiled  in  except  for  the  plates  and 
tie-beams,  were  renewed. 

In  1737  the  vestry  agreed  that  the  tower  should  be 
repaired  and  that  'one  Tarling  should  undertake  it  by 
the  day  and  put  up  a  brick  buttress  and  restore  the 
plaistering  where  it  is  necessary,  the  parish  finding  all 
materials'. 59  The  south-west  buttresses  may  have  been 
rebuilt  in  brick  at  this  time  as  a  result  of  this  decision. 
In  about  1789  the  spire  and  part  of  the  tower  were 
found  to  be  ruinous  and  were  taken  down.*°  The 
upper  stage  of  the  tower,  and  probably  the  south-west 
buttresses,  were  rebuilt  in  red  brick  for  some  ^^200.*' 
The  parapet  is  castellated  and  there  are  round-headed 
windows  to  the  belfry.  The  octagonal  spire  is  shingled. 

A  general  restoration  of  the  church  possibly  took 
place  in  1865,  when  the  font  and  tomb  of  John  Locke 
were  repaired.*^  The  south  porch  and  the  vestry 
appear  to  date  from  this  period.  The  porch,  which  is 
of  flint  with  a  timber  superstructure,  replaced  a 
plastered  porch*'  of  unknown  date.  The  vestry,  on  the 
north  side  of  the  nave,  is  of  flint  with  limestone  dressings. 

In  1873  an  organ  was  built  in  the  chancel.*''  In 
1927  the  chancel  was  altered,  the  choir  stalls  and  a 
19th-century  stone  pulpit  being  cleared  away  and  the 
organ  moved  to  the  west  end.  The  alterations  cost 
;^I27  of  which  ^43  was  contributed  by  the  Rhode 
Island  Society  of  America.*' 

The  font,  which  stands  in  the  tower,  dates  from  the 
middle  of  the  14th  century.  It  has  an  octagonal  bowl 
on  each  face  of  which  is  a  quatrefoil  panel  enclosing  a 
shield.  The  prayer  desk  in  the  chancel  is  a  memorial  to 
those  killed  in  the  First  World  War**  and  the  oak 
pulpit  is  of  the  same  style  and  date. 

There  is  one  bell  in  use  and  a  small  disused  sanctus 
bell.  In  1552  there  were  two  bells  in  the  steeple 
weighing  about  18  cwt.,  two  'rogacione  bells'  weighing 
9  lb.,  and  a  sanctus  bell  of  3  lb.*''  In  about  1768  there 
were  three  bells.*'  In  about  1790  the  parishioners 
agreed  that  'one  large  bell  and  a  small  bell  or  Saints 
Bell  only  shall  be  hung  in  the  steeple  of  the  church 
instead  of  three  bells  and  that  two  of  the  said  three  bells 
shall  be  sold'  and  the  money  used  to  help  defray  the 
cost  of  rebuilding  the  steeple.*'  In  1866  the  cost  of  a 
new  bell,  evidently  a  replacement,  was  raised  by  a  rate 
of  4/70  "pijg  sanctus  bell  is  inscribed  'xpe  audi  nos'." 
It  is  probably  of  the  14th  century  and  is  one  of  the  few 
remaining  medieval  sanctus  bells  in  Essex." 

From  1657-8,  or  earlier,  the  church  owned  Bell 
Acre  (i  a.  3  r.),  in  the  north-east  of  the  parish. '^  The 
rent  from  this  land,  which  was  £1  a  year  until  at  least 
1805,  was  usually  spent  on  church  repairs  in  the  i8th 
and  19th  centuries.7^  In  192 1  the  rector  informed  the 
Charity  Commissioners  that  the  rent  had  been  applied 
to  church  expenses  since  before  191 5.''  In  1945 
dividends  of  ^^2  were  spent  in  maintaining  the  church 
grounds.'*   In  1952  the  land  was  sold  for  ^120. '7 

Nearly  all  the  church  plate  was  given  by  Sir  Francis 
Masham,  Bt.,  and  his  son  Samuel,  Lord  Masham  (d. 
1758).  It  includes  two  silver  cups,  one  of  1674  given 
by  Sir  Francis  and  one  of  1 73  5  given  by  Lord  Masham ; 
two  silver  patens,  one  undated  but  given  by  Sir 
Francis,  and  one  of  1735  given  by  Lord  Masham;  and 
a  silver  almsdish  dated  1724  and  given  by  Lord 
Masham  in  1735.'' 

In  the  chancel  is  a  brass  to  MyrabyU  (Mirabel),  wife 
of  Edward  Sulyard  (c  I495).79  There  are  figures  of 
a  man  in  i  jth-century  armour  and  a  woman  in  a  full- 
skirted  gown  and  a  pedimented  head-dress.  Below  are 
figures  of  four  sons  and  one  daughter  and  a  rhymed 
inscription.  There  are  floor  slabs  in  the  chancel  to  Sir 
Francis  Masham  (1723)  and  his  granddaughter 
Elizabeth  Masham  (1724).  On  the  north  wall  is  a 
marble  tablet  to  Damaris,  widow  of  Ralph  Cudworth, 

5'  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  130. 

"  Early-igth-cent.  engravings  (E.R.O., 
Prints,  High  Laver)  show  much  the  same 

59  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 1 1/8/2.  ">  Ibid. 

"  Ibid.  Of  this,  ^£^150  was  borrowed 
from  Thomas  Speed  of  Harlow,  maltster, 
because  the  parishioners  were  unwilling 
that  so  large  a  sum  as  ;^200  should  be 
raised  by  one  rate. 

»»  Kell/i  Dir.  Essex  (1886). 

'J  Sketch  dated  1 82 1:  E.R.O.  Prints, 
High  Laver. 

'•*  Vestry  Minute  Book  1863-1943,  in 
possession  of  the  rector. 

65  Ibid.  The  society's  contribution  was 
in  memory  of  Roger  Williams,  founder  of 
the  colony,  who  was  married  at  High 
Laver  in  1629.  ^^  Inscription  in  situ. 

<"  E.A.T.  N.s.  ii,  228-9. 

"  Morant,  Essex,  i,  141. 

«9  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 1 1/8/2. 

'"Vestry  Minute  Book  1863-1943; 
Ci.  Bells  Essex,  316. 

"  C/i.  Bells  Essex,  316. 

"  E.A.T.s.s.xx'uzij. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  111/8/1;  ibid.  D/P 

'*  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 1 1/8/2. 

"  Char.  Com.  Files. 

■">  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

'8  CA.  Plate  Essex,  136. 

'«  £.yj.  r.  N.s.  vii,  13-17. 




Master  of  Christ's  College,  Cambridge.*"  The  epitaph 
is  thought  to  have  been  composed  by  John  Locke.'' 
Also  in  the  chancel  are  tablets  to  Samuel  Lowe  (1709), 
Richard  Budworth  (1805),  and  Phihp  Budworth 
(1861),  rectors.  In  about  1835  there  was  in  the 
chancel  a  broken  brass  plate  bearing  an  imperfect 
inscription  in  ancient  characters  in  memory  of  Robert 
Ramsey  (probably  died  about  1436)  and  his  wife  Joan  ;'^ 
this  plate  has  now  disappeared. 

Outside  the  south  wall  of  the  nave  is  the  brick  altar 
tomb  of  John  Locke  (1704).  A  mural  tablet,  originally 
above  the  tomb,  was  moved  inside  the  church  for  pre- 
servation in  1932,83  the  tercentenary  of  Locke's 
birth.  Outside  the  church  near  the  east  end  there  are 
many  other  altar  tombs,  of  the  Budworth,  Cleeve, 
Velley,  and  Masham  families. 

There  is  a  chapel  of  ease  at  Matching  Green  dedi- 
cated to  ST.  EDMUND.  It  was  built  in  18748*  at 
the  expense  of  Francis  R.  Miller,  Vicar  of  Kineton 
(Warws.).8s  It  is  of  yellow  brick  with  a  small  western 
bell-cote.  It  consists  of  a  nave  and  chancel.  In  1945 
it  was  transferred  to  the  ecclesiastical  parish  of 
Matching.  8* 

The  house  of  Robert  Morris  in  High  Laver  was 
licensed  for  Presbyterian  wor- 
NONCONFORMITT  ship  in  1673,87  but  no  per- 
manent congregation  appears 
to  have  been  established.  About  1869  Mr.  Vale,  the 
Congregational  evangelist  from  Moreton  (q-v.),  started 
preaching  at  Thrushesbush  in  High  Laver.88  In  1870 
Vale  reported  that  the  work  at  Thrushesbush  was  not 
going  well,  'great  influence  is  used  to  prevent  the  poor 
from  attending'. 89  For  several  years  Thrushesbush 
continued  to  be  associated  with  Moreton.  In  1876  the 
Revd.  W.  Passmore  of  Moreton  and  the  Revd.  G.  E. 
Singleton  of  Hatfield  Heath  both  helped  there,  and 
in  1877  a  chapel  was  opened,  the  gift  of  Mr.  Matthews 
of  Campions,  near  Hatfield  Heath.'"  In  1882  it  was 
attended  by  about  60,  but  by  1883  it  had  ceased  to  be 
used  by  the  Congregationalists." 

In  1883  it  was  proposed  that  the  Wanstead  and 
Woodford  Methodist  circuit  should  take  it  over.  The 
circuit  refused,  but  Messrs.  E.  Pope,  Godwin,  and 
Bowes  purchased  the  chapel,  and  it  was  subsequently 
accepted  on  the  circuit  plan.'^  It  was  later  taken  over 
by  the  North  West  Essex  Mission  and  had  apparently 
been  closed  by  1906.'^ 

It  is  now  a  dwelling  house  called  'Drinkwaters'.  It 
lies  outside  the  parish  boundary  on  the  north  side  of 
the  Harlow  road.  The  upper  part  of  the  structure  is 
timber  framed,  the  panels  being  filled  with  brick 
Hogging  and  plaster.  The  front  is  altered. 

Vestry  minute-books  for  High  Laver  survive  for 
1657-1804M      and       1863- 


Until  1682  vestry  meetmgs 

seem  to  have  been  held  only  at 

Easter  in   each  year.    From 

1682  meetings  were  held  at  Easter  and  Christmas.   In 

1739  f""""  meetings  were  recorded  and  if  a  resolution 


of  23  April  1739  w*'  carried  out  there  must  afterwards 
have  been  at  least  three  meetings  a  year,  at  Easter, 
Michaelmas,  and  Christmas.  In  later  years  meetings 
were  sometimes  held  at  other  times  also. 

Until  John  Cleeve  became  rector  in  1734  the 
minutes  were  brief  and  rarely  signed.  Only  three 
resolutions  were  entered  before  1735  and  two  of  these 
were  not  signed.  Only  the  appointment  of  officers  and 
the  approval  of  their  accounts  were  usually  recorded. 
Until  the  end  of  the  17th  century  the  totals  of  officers' 
receipts  and  disbursements  were  usually  entered,  but 
from  1696  until  1735  the  minutes  only  recorded  the 
annual  balances  and  sometimes  omitted  even  this. 
Cleeve  exercised  an  immediate  influence  on  the  parish 
records.  He  attended  vestry  meetings  regularly  and 
he  wrote  the  minutes.  Vestry  resolutions  were  recorded 
regularly  and  were  always  signed  by  him  and  the 
parishioners  present.  Moreover,  from  1 75  5  it  was  again 
the  practice  to  record  the  details  of  accounts  although 
it  did  not  become  customary  to  sign  them.  From 
Cleeve's  death  in  1777  until  1804  the  accounts  con- 
tinued to  be  minuted  in  the  same  fashion,  but  only 
once,   in  1790,  was  a  vestry  resolution  recorded. 

The  number  of  parishioners  attending  vestry  meet- 
ings before  1776  varied  between  2  and  7  but  was 
usually  between  4  and  7  until  1745  and  2  or  3  after 
that  date.  At  a  vestry  in  1 771  it  was  agreed  that  in 
future  anyone  absenting  himself  from  a  meeting  with- 
out a  good  excuse  should  be  fined  6J.  The  next 
recorded  vestry,  in  1776,  was  attended  by  six  parish- 
ioners. Only  once  after  this,  in  1790,  were  the 
minutes  signed  and  then  there  were  nine  signatures. 
In  the  17th  and  early  i8th  centuries  the  Mashams  of 
Otes  evidently  took  an  active  interest  in  parish  affairs 
and  attended  vestry  meetings.  Of  the  five  occasions 
on  which  minutes  were  signed  before  1735,  Sir  Francis 
Masham,  3rd  Bt.,  signed  twice,  in  1665  and  1667, 
and  F.  C.  Masham,  half  brother  of  Samuel,  ist  Lord 
Masham,  and  heir  of  John  Locke,  signed  once,  in  1728. 
Sir  Francis  signed  before,  and  F.  C.  Masham  after, 
-the  rector.  When  it  became  the  practice  to  sign  the 
minutes  the  Mashams  were  usually  not  resident  in  the 
parish  and  their  signatures  never  appeared  in  the 
minutes.  The  owners  of  the  capital  manor  seem  never 
to  have  attended  vestry  meetings,  but  Abraham 
Thorrowgood,  tenant  of  the  estate  by  1767,  took  an 
active  part  in  parish  affairs  from  1764  and  usually 
signed  the  minutes  immediately  after  the  rector. 

The  main  work  of  the  vestry  consisted  in  appoint- 
ing officers  and  approving  their  accounts.  It  evidently 
became  the  practice,  however,  for  the  poor  to  take 
complaints  to  vestry  meetings  and  for  individuals  to  use 
these  occasions  to  settle  their  accounts  with  parish 
officers.  In  1767  it  was  resolved  that  'for  the  future  no 
business  whatsoever  shall  be  done  on  the  day  the  ac- 
counts are  settled  but  what  relates  to  the  parish  business 
of  that  day  only,  so  that  the  poor  shall  bring  their  com- 
plaints on  the  vestry  immediately  preceding,  and  all 
private  accounts  between  officers  and  others  shall  be 
settled  either  before  or  after  that  day'. 

'»  Dr.  Cudworth  and  his  wife  were 
parents  of  Damaris,  second  wife  of  Sir 
Francis  Masham,  3rd  Bt. 

8'  Undated  cutting  c.  1830:  E.R.O. 
Prints,  High  Laver. 

82  T.  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  348  note. 

83  Inscription  in  situ. 

8-t  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1874). 

85  Ibid.  (1886). 

•«  Inf.  from  the  Revd.  W.  D.  Topping, 

Rector  of  High  Laver. 

87  G.  L.  Turner,  Orig.  Recs.  of  Early 
Nonconformity,  ii,  929. 

88  Essex  Congr.  Union  Reps.  1869. 

89  Ibid.  1870. 
9"  Ibid.  1876-8. 
91  Ibid.  1882-3. 

n  Address  by  A.  W.  Leach,  J.P.,  at 
Wanstead,  Dec.  19 19,  reported  in  Mins. 
of  Local  Preachers'  Mtg.  Wanstead  and 


Woodford  Circuit.  For  Pope  sec  Loughton 

93  Ibid.;  Kellfs  Dir.  Essex  (1906). 

94  E.R.O.,  D/P  111/8/1  &  2.  Unless 
otherwise  stated  all  the  following  informa- 
tion is  derived  from  these  minute-books. 
A  separate  'Poor  Book'  was  evidently 
kept  but  this  is  now  missing. 

95  In  possession  of  the  rector. 


In  1712  it  was  agreed  that  'Henry  Marling  shall 
have  20S.  a  year  allowed  for  church  clerk's  wages'.  In 
1735  i^  ^35  agreed  that  'the  clerk  shall  receive  \J. 
yearly  of  every  householder  that  does  not  pay  to  the 
poor'.  In  1743  it  was  resolved  that  los.  a  year  should 
be  added  to  the  clerk's  wages. 

There  were  two  churchwardens  in  each  of  the  years 
161 3  and  1614.  There  were  also  two  each  year  from 
1657  until  1698.  During  this  period  they  usually 
served  for  2—4  years  consecutively.  From  1698  there 
was  only  one  churchwarden,  who  usually  served  for 
many  consecutive  years. 

Until  1672  there  were  two  overseers  each, year  and 
they  usually  served  for  two  or  three  years  consecutively. 
From  1672  there  was  only  one  overseer.  Until  1724 
it  was  usual  to  serve  two  years  consecutively,  but  after- 
wards the  overseers  served  for  one  year  only.  They 
were  evidently  chosen  on  a  rota  system  and  once,  in 
1802,  a  woman,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Speed,  tenant  of  the 
capital  manor,  was  appointed  to  serve. 

Constables  were  nominated  in  vestry  at  least  from 
1657.  Until  1704  there  were  always  two,  each  of 
whom  usually  served  two  years  consecutively.  There- 
after there  was  usually  only  one.  Until  1743  this  officer 
usually  served  no  more  than  two  years  at  a  time,  but 
after  that  date  he  usually  served  for  at  least  three  con- 
secutively and  sometimes  much  longer. 

Two  surveyors  of  highways  were  nominated  annu- 
ally. From  1682,  if  not  before,  they  were  appointed  at 
Christmas.  The  number  of  years  served  consecutively 
varied  from  one  to  five.  Sir  Francis  Masham  was 
surveyor  from  1672  until  1676. 

Until  at  least  1739,  ^"<^  perhaps  until  1743,  the 
overseers,  churchwardens,  and  constables  were  each 
granted  separate  rates  for  which  they  were  directly 
responsible  to  the  parish.  Occasionally  one  officer  was 
ordered  to  pay  another  officer's  deficit  out  of  his  sur- 
plus. In  the  churchwarden's  account  of  expenditure 
for  1692-3  there  were  four  items,  totalling  is.  \\d., 
'for  relief.  These  items  were  passed  only  after  some 
hesitation  and  it  was  resolved  'never  to  allow  any  reliefs 
hereafter  paid  by  churchwardens'.  From  1743,  if  not 
from  1739,  '^^  constables  were  no  longer  granted 
separate  rates.  Their  expenditure  was  met  by  the 
churchwardens  who  included  it  in  their  account.  There 
is  no  clear  evidence  that  the  surveyors  accounted 
directly  to  the  parish  until  1743-4  when  they  received 
a  separate  rate  for  which  they  accounted  to  the  vestry. 
From  1744  until  1747  the  churchwarden,  who  was 
also  one  of  the  surveyors,  included  their  expenditure 
in  his  accounts,  but  after  1747  there  was  always  a 
separate  surveyors'  account. 

There  was  a  workhouse  in  High  Laver  in  1767. 
In  that  year  the  vestry  agreed  'that  the  old  persons  in 
the  workhouse  shall  have  one-quarter  of  what  they 
shall  earn  and  the  other  three  parts  shall  go  to  the 
governor  of  the  workhouse'.  By  1776,  however,  the 
house  had  become  a  mere  poorhouse  where  paupers 
were  lodged  rent  free.'*  It  lay  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Harlow  Road  about  \  mile  west  of  the  church."  In 
1 84 1,  when  it  was  no  longer  a  poorhouse  and  belonged 

to  George  Starkins,  it  was  a  cottage,  occupied  by  three 

In  most  cases  poor  relief  was  given,  in  various  forms, 
outside  the  poorhouse.  In  each  of  the  years  181 3-1 5 
there  were  20-22  adults  on  'permanent'  outdoor 
relief."  Provision  for  the  poor  was  made  in  various 
ways,  including  the  binding  out  of  paupers'  children  as 
apprentices,  the  payment  of  rent,  and  the  provision  of 
clothes.  Parish  apprentices  were  allotted  on  a  rota 
system.  In  1738  it  was  agreed  that  'no  poor  person's 
rent  should  be  paid  by  the  parish  for  any  time  before 
he  becomes  chargeable  without  a  special  order  of 
vestry'.  In  1753  John  Parsons  agreed  to  attend  the 
poor  as  apothecary  and  surgeon  'except  midwifery  and 
smallpox'  for  3  years  at  4J  guineas  a  year. 

In  161 3-14  the  cost  of  poor  relief  was  ^^4  9^.'  In 
1 734— 5  it  was  ^24.  It  then  rose  sharply  to  a  maximum 
of  j^i04  in  1741-2.  In  1776  it  was  ^£133^  and  in 
1783-5  it  averaged  ;^i65.3  In  1 800-1  it  reached 
^^724,  but  in  the  next  seven  years  never  exceeded  ^^520 
and  was  sometimes  much  lower.*  In  the  remaining 
years  of  the  Napoleonic  war  the  cost  averaged  ^582. 
a  year  and  in  1816-17  it  was  ^^634. 5 

In  1836  High  Laver  became  part  of  the  Ongar  Poor 
Law  Union. 

There  were  no  schools  in  the  parish  in  1807  and 
1 8 1 8  although  at  the  latter  date  the  rector, 
SCHOOL  P.  Budworth,  was  helping  to  maintain  a 
private  school  in  Moreton,  to  which  pre- 
sumably he  sent  High  Laver  children.*  By  1 828  a  day 
school  in  union  with  the  National  Society  had  been 
established.  In  that  year  it  had  30  pupils,'  but  atten- 
dance declined  until  in  1832  it  seems  to  have  been 
closed.^  In  1833  there  was  only  a  private  school  in 
the  parish,  founded  in  1832.  It  had  40  pupils  and 
further  accommodation  was  available  at  a  dame  school 
in  Matching,  which  some  30  High  Laver  children 
attended  in  1839.'  In  1833,  however,  the  Sunday 
school  was  refounded  in  High  Laver  and  by  1846-7 
this  had  apparently  led  to  the  setting  up  of  a  day  school, 
under  the  Diocesan  Board,  with  27  pupils  and  a 
further  7  on  Sundays.  The  schoolmistress  was  paid 
;^i6  a  year.'"  This  school  had  ceased  by  1865  when 
there  was  only  an  inefficient  dame  school  in  the  parish." 

In  about  1865  the  rector,  with  the  support  of  the 
largest  landowner  (J.  W.  Perry  Watlington)  and  other 
churchmen,  established  a  Building  Committee  to  col- 
lect subscriptions  for  a  new  school  for  High  and  Little 
Laver,  with  a  teacher's  residence  of  six  rooms  attached. 
The  school,  with  accommodation  for  about  7  5  children, 
was  built  in  1 866  at  Matching  Green  at  a  cost  of  j^668, 
of  which  the  Treasury  contributed  ;^I43  i?-?.,  the 
Diocesan  Board  £35,  the  National  Society  ^^37,  and 
subscribers  the  rest.'^  It  was  placed  in  union  with  the 
National  Society  and  was  managed  by  the  rector  and 
churchwardens. '3  In  1870  there  were  75  pupils  at  the 
school  and  25  infants  in  an  unsuitable  room  nearby. 
In  1 87 1  an  infants'  classroom  was  built  with  the  help 
of  ^24  from  the  Treasury,  £,\o  from  the  Diocesan 
Board,  £,(,  from  the  National  Society,  and  some  local 
subscriptions.'*    In   1872  the  Education  Department 

'>'•  Rep.  Set  Cttee.  on   Overseers  Retns. 
iTJT,  H.C.  scr.  i,  vol.  ix,  p.  350. 
»'  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 1 1/27/1  &  2. 
»8  E.R.O.,  D/P111/27/1. 
9»  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  i/io. 
■  E.R.O.,  g/SBa  3. 

2  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  i/i. 

3  Ibid. 

-t  E.R.O.,Q/CR  1/9. 

5    Ibid. 

*  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  2/4  (Archdeaconry) ; 
Retns.  Educ.  Poor,  H.C.  224,  pp.  260,  262 

'  Nat.  Soc.Rep.  1828,  p.  62. 

*  Nat.  Soc.  Rep.  1832,  p.  61;  Educ. 
Enquiry  Ahstr.  H.C.  62,  p.  281  (1835), xli. 

«  Educ.  Enquiry  Ahstr.  H.C.  62,  p.  281 
(1835),  xli;  E.R.O.,  D/P  30/28/19. 

'"  Nat.  Soc.  Enquiry  into  Church  Schs. 
1846-7,  pp.  12-13. 

"  Inf.  from  Nat.  Soc. 

'2  Ibid. 

'3  Min.  of  Educ.  File  i  3/196. 

»  Inf.  from  Nat.  Soc. 




said  that  the  accommodation  was  sufficient  for  the 
parish."  Attendance  increased  considerably  in  the 
next  eight  years  and  the  annual  grant  rose  from  ^^26 
in  1872  to  ^^58  in  i88o.'6  In  1899,  when  there  was 
accommodation  for  132  pupils,  there  was  an  average 
attendance  of  95  and  a  grant  of  ^^85  was  received.'^ 
In  1900  about  58  people  were  subscribing  money  for 
the  school."  8  Attendance,  however,  was  falling  as  the 
population  of  the  parish  declined.  In  1904  there  were 
84  pupils  and  3  teachers." » 

By  the  Education  Act  of  1902  the  school  passed 
under  the  administration  of  the  Essex  Education  Com- 

mittee as  a  non-provided  school.  The  average  atten- 
dance fell  to  76  in  1914  and  57  in  1938.  In  1939  the 
school  was  reorganized  for  mixed  juniors  and  infants." 
In  May  1952  there  were  2  teachers  and  44  pupils.*' 

The  school  is  a  single-story  red-brick  building.  On 
the  front  is  a  combined  chimney  and  bell-cote. 

Magdalen  Laver  school,  which  is  situated  a  little  to 
the  south-west  of  Tilegate  Green  just  within  the 
southern  boundary  of  High  Laver,  is  attended  by 
children  from  this  part  of  the  parish  as  well  as  by  those 
from  Magdalen  Laver  (q.v.). 
CHARITY.  For  Bell  Acre  charity  see  above.  Church. 


Little  Laver  is  a  small  parish  about  5  miles  to  the 
north  of  Chipping  Ongar,"  with  an  area  of  964  acres.* 
In  1428  it  contained  fewer  than  10  households.^  There 
were  15  inhabited  houses  in  1801,  20  in  181 1,  and 
16  in  1821.*  In  1 80 1  the  population  was  90.5  By 
1841  it  had  grown  to  128.*  It  declined  in  the  next  30 
years  to  104,  then  rose  to  124  in  1891.'  At  the  end  of 
the  century  it  fell  j  ust  below  1 00  and  has  since  remained 
about  this  level.'   In  195 1  it  was  96.' 

The  land  is  about  280  ft.  above  sea-level  in  the  east 
and  230  ft.  in  the  west.  Three  streams  run  across  the 
northern  half  of  the  parish.  There  is  a  small  area  of 
woodland  on  the  north-east  boundary.  The  road  from 
High  Laver  to  Abbess  Roding  crosses  the  western 
boundary  of  the  parish  and  runs  eastward.  On  the 
south  side  of  the  road,  about  \  mile  from  the  boundary, 
is  Church  Farm,  where  there  is  part  of  a  large  moat. 
Farther  east  are  Little  Laver  Mill  and  the  Mill  House.'o 
Beyond  the  mill  the  road  is  joined  by  a  road  which 
runs  southward  to  Moreton.  On  the  east  side  of  the 
road  junction  is  the  Red  House,  a  timber-framed  farm- 
house of  the  1 8th  century  or  earlier.  To  the  south  of 
the  Red  House,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Moreton  road, 
is  the  former  rectory."  East  of  the  Red  House  on  the 
road  to  Abbess  Roding  is  the  village  hall.'*  To  the 
south  of  the  road  on  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  parish 
is  Envilles.'s 

Nearly  opposite  the  village  hall  a  road  runs  north- 
west to  Matching  Green.  On  the  west  side  of  this  road 
is  Gosling  Hall,  a  two-story  timber-framed  building 
probably  of  the  1 5th  century.  It  originally  consisted 
of  an  open  hall  of  two  bays  with  a  two-story  cross-wing 
at  its  north  end.  The  south  end  of  the  hall  block  may 
be  a  later  addition.  In  the  i6th  or  early  17th  century 
a  chimney  was  built  in  the  south  bay  of  the  hall,  a  ceil- 
ing was  inserted  and  the  roof  was  renewed  and  possibly 
raised.  The  lower  part  of  the  arched  braces  to  the  tie- 
beam  of  the  original  hall  roof-truss  can  still  be  seen  in 

"  Chelmsford  Chronicle,  2  Aug.  1872. 

"  Rep.  of  Educ.  Citee.  of  Council,  i8y2 
[C.  812], p.  408,  H.C.  (1873),  ixiv;  ibid., 
1880  [C.  2948-1],  p.  577,  H.C.  (1881), 

"  Retn.  of  Schs.  1899  [Cd.  315],  p.  71, 
H.C.  (1900),  Ixv  (2). 

"  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/196. 

'•  Esiex  Educ.  Cttee.  Handhk.  1904, 
p.  185. 

"  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/196. 

"  Inf.  from  Essex  Educ.  Cttee. 
>  O.S.    2\    in.    Map,    sheets    52/50, 


'  Inf.  from  Essex  County  Council. 
'  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  205. 
*  Census,  1 80 1,  181 1,  1 82 1. 
»  y.C.H.  Essex,  \\,  350. 

«  Ibid.  ■ 

8  Ibid.;  Census,  191 1  f. 
«  Census,  1 95 1. 

10  See  below. 

■I  See  below,  Church. 

'2  See  below,  School.  • 

■3  See  below,  Manor  of  Envilles. 

'*  See  below,  Church. 

'5  See  below.  Manor  of  Little  Laver 
Hall.  "'  Ibid- 

J'  See  below.  Parish  Government  and 
Poor  Relief. 

18  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1886,  1890). 

"  The  location  of  this  inn  in  Chapman 
and  Andre,  Map  of  Essex  lyy;,  plate  xii, 
appears  to  be  wrong.  According  to  this 
map  there  was  at  that  time  a  building  on 
the  lite  later  occupied   by   the   Leather 


the  ground  floor  room  of  this  block.  A  cambered  tie- 
beam,  originally  having  arched  braces,  is  also  partly 
visible  above  the  first  floor  room  of  the  cross-wing.  The 
gabled  east  end  of  this  wing  oversails  and  has  curved 
supporting  brackets.  An  external  chimney  on  the  north 
side,  partly  rebuilt  recently,  has  diagonal  shafts  and  is 
probably  of  the  i6th  or  early  17th  century.  Beyond 
Gosling  Hall  to  the  north  are  the  church'*  and  the  old 
manor  house,  now  called  the  Grange. 's  Farther  north 
there  is  a  windpump  on  the  west  side  of  the  road. 
Opposite  this  is  a  long  drive  north-east  to  Little  Laver 
Hall.'*  To  the  north  of  the  drive  on  the  road  to  Match- 
ing Green  are  Stone  Cottages,  formerly  the  parish  poor- 
house."  About  J  mile  farther  north  is  Hull  Green 
farm-house,  which  is  probably  of  18th-century  date. 
From  Hull  Green  the  road  turns  westward  and  forms 
the  parish  boundary  for  a  short  distance  before  joining 
the  road  from  Matching  Green  to  Ongar.  South  of 
the  junction  the  Ongar  road,  called  at  this  point  Water 
Lane,  forms  the  western  boundary  of  the  parish  for 
about  a  mile.  On  the  east  side  of  this  road  is  Water- 
man's End  House,  a  timber-framed  building  of  the 
1 8th  century  or  earlier.  North  of  the  house  is  a  pair  of 
18th-century  cottages.  South  of  Waterman's  End 
House,  on  the  same  side  of  the  road,  is  a  brick  house 
which  until  1886— 90'8  was  the  Leather  Bottle  Inn." 

Postal  facilities  were  extended  to  Little  Laver  when 
a  receiving  office  was  set  up  at  Moreton  in  1846.*" 
Water  was  supplied  by  the  Herts,  and  Essex  Water- 
works Co.  in  1912.*'  Electricity  was  supplied  to  one 
end  of  the  parish  in  1950.**  There  is  a  village  hall, 
erected  in  i89i.*3 

Little  Laver  has  always  been  a  rural  parish  devoted 
mainly  to  agriculture.  The  Collins  family,  owners  of 
the  manors  of  Little  Laver  Hall  and  Envilles  for  a 
century  or  more  after  1559,  lived  in  the  parish  at  least 
during  the  period  1599-167 1. *•♦  It  is  not  clear  whether 
the  owners  were  resident  in  the  period  immediately 

'  Ibid. 

Bottle  Inn  but  the  name  of  the  inn  was 
attached  to  a  building  about  i  mile  farther 
south  on  a  site  now  occupied  by  America 
farm  in  High  Laver.  As  there  was  un- 
doubtedly a  Leather  Bottle  Inn  in  Little 
Laver  by  1769  It  is  almost  certain  that  on 
the  map  of  1777  the  name  was  attached 
to  the  wrong  building:  E.R.O.,  D/CT 
210;  6  in.  O.S.  Map  (ist  edn.),  plate  xlii; 
2j  in.  O.S.  Map,  sheet?  52/50,  52/51; 
E.R.O.,  2/RLv  24-82. 

"  P.M.G.  Mins.  1846,  vol.  87,  p.  5. 

^'  Inf.  from  Herts.  &  Essex  Waterworks 

"  Inf.  from  East.  Elcc.  Bd. 

*3  See  below.  School. 

M  E.R.O.,  D/P  147/i/ii  ibid.  Q/RTh 


after  the  Collinses  disposed  of  the  estates.  The  owners 
of  Little  Laver  Hall  certainly  did  not  live  in  the  parish 
from  1 7 14  until  after  the  Meyers  acquired  the  estate 
in  1804—5.^5  Christian  P.  Meyer,  who  succeeded  to 
the  estate  in  1828-9,  was  resident  by  1848  and  since 
his  time  the  owners  of  this  estate  have  always  lived  in 
the  parish.^*  Whether  the  owners  of  Envilles  did  so  in 
the  first  three  quarters  of  the  i8th  century  is  not  clear; 
certainly  they  were  not  resident  between  1780  and 

In  1848  the  parish  consisted  of  968  acres.^^  C.  P. 
Meyer  owned  270  acres  of  which  he  occupied  only  1 5 
acres.2'  John  Maryon  Wilson  owned  249  acres  but 
farmed  none  of  it  himself 3o  "phe  only  other  sub- 
stantial owner  in  the  parish  was  Thomas  Poynder  who 
owned,  but  did  not  occupy,  Hull  Green  Farm  (119 
acres)."  There  were  two  other  farms  of  over  40  acres.^^ 

Then,  as  now,  there  was  mixed  farming  in  the  parish, 
with  a  marked  predominance  of  arable.  In  1847  it  was 
estimated  that  there  were  716  acres  of  arable,  150  acres 
of  pasture,  and  23  acres  of  woodland.'s 

There  has  been  a  windmill  on  the  site  of  the  present 
mill  since  the  first  half  of  the  17th  century.34  From  the 
late  1 8th  century  until  the  First  World  War  the  mill 
descended  from  father  to  son,  four  consecutive  millers 
being  named  Stephen  Roast.'s  The  first  of  these,  who 
died  in  1797,  is  said  to  have  left  money  for  his  son  to 
build  the  present  mill.^*  This  was  originally  a  weather- 
boarded  post  mill  of  the  usual  local  pattern.  The  tall 
brick  base,  about  20  ft.  high,  is  an  improvement  said 
to  date  from  about  1 86o.37  The  wooden  superstructure 
was  raised  on  jacks  and  props  and  a  second  story  was 
added  to  the  round  housed*  giving  ertra  height  and 
storage  space.  It  thus  became  a  combination  of  smock 
and  post  mill  and  appears  to  be  the  only  example  known 
of  this  type.  The  fantail  was  also  added  about  i860. 
A  miller  named  Hart^'  succeeded  the  last  of  the  Roasts 
but  the  mill  ceased  working  soon  after  ig30.'»o  It  is 
now  the  property  of  J.  Brace  &  Sons  of  High  Ongar 
and  is  used  for  storage  purposes  by  their  tenant.'"  The 
Mill  House,  which  stands  west  of  the  mill,  is  a  timber- 
framed  building  probably  dating  from  the  17th  century. 

In  1066  LITTLE  LAVER  was  held  as  a  manor  by 
Brictmar.'i^  In  1086  it  was  held  of  Eustace 
MANORS  Count  of  Boulogne  by  Richard  and  was 
worth  10;.*"  In  1190  an  assize  was  held 
to  determine  whether  Eustace  de  Lagefare  had  more 
right  to  hold  the  'land  of  Lagefare'  of  the  king  than  the 
king  had  to  hold  it  in  demesne.''^  In  1200  Ralph  de 
Rochester  brought  a  suit  against  Eustace  de  Lagefare, 
the  tenant,  for  possession  of  the  land.'ts  Afterwards  they 
came  to  an  agreement  whereby  Eustace  de  Lagefare 
acknowledged  'all  the  town  of  Lagefare'  to  be  the  right 

of  Ralph  de  Rochester  who  granted  to  Eustace  the 
services  of  8  tenants  and  27  acres  of  land  to  hold  of  him 
by  the  service  of  J  knight's  fee."**  In  I2i2and  1217-18 
Ralph  de  Rochester  held  Little  Laver  in  chief  of  the 
king  by  the  service  of  \  fee  and  Richard  de  Rochester 
and  his  brother  Eustace  held  the  manor  of  Ralph.""  It 
was  probably  from  this  division  of  the  manor  between 
Eustace  and  Richard  that  there  came  to  be  two  manors 
in  Little  Laver:  Little  Laver  aliai  Bourchiers  Hall  and 
Enfields  alias  Envilles  (see  below).  It  seems,  however, 
that  until  1325,  if  not  later,  the  estates  held  by  the 
successors  of  Eustace  and  Richard  were  considered  not 
as  separate  manors  but  as  parts  of  one  manor.'**  In 
1307  this  manor  was  held  of  Robert,  2nd  Lord  Scales, 
whose  great-grandfather  Robert  de  Scales  (d.  before 
1250),  had  probably  inherited  it  through  his  wife 
Alice  de  Rochester.'"  Robert,  2nd  Lord  Scales,  died 
in  1325  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Robert,  3rd  Lord  After  this  Envilles  and  Bourchiers  estates 
came  to  be  regarded  as  separate  manors  but  they  prob- 
ably continued  under  a  common  overlord.  Certainly  in 
1428  the  tenant  in  chief  of  both  manors  was  Humphrey 
Stafford,  later  Duke  of  Buckingham  (d.  1460). 5' 

In  1303  Bennet  le  Brun  held  \  fee  in  Little  Laver.^^ 
Shortly  afterwards  the  Bourchier  family  came  into 
possession  of  this  estate.  In  1325  John  le  Bousser  and 
others  were  tenants  of  the  manor  of  Little  Laver  which 
was  held  by  the  service  of  i  fee. 53  Soon  afterwards 
Bousser's  estate  became  a  separate  manor  known  as 
HALL.  In  1 3  30  Robert,  afterwards  ist  Lord  Bourchier, 
was  granted  free  warren  in  his  demesne  lands  in 
Laver. 54  In  1346  John  Bourchier,  son  of  Robert,  held 
the  J  fee  which  Bennet  Broun  once  held.^s  In  1384 
John,  now  2nd  Lord  Bourchier,  was  granted  free 
warren  in  the  demesne  lands  of  his  manor  of  Little 
Laver. 56  This  manor  now  followed  the  same  descent 
as  that  of  Bourchiers  Hall  in  Moreton  (q.v.)  until  1 5  59 
when  Richard,  ist  Baron  Rich,  conveyed  it  to  John 
Collins.57  Thomas  Collins  was  lord  of  the  manor  in 
1584.58  The  estate  remained  in  the  Collins  family*' 
until  it  was  sold  to  Matthew  Blucke  of  Hunsdon 
(Herts.)  who  died  about  1713.*"  From  1563  to  1660 
or  later  the  Collinses  also  held  Envilles  (see  below). 
For  some  years  Blucke  had  held  the  office  of  usher  of 
the  rolls  of  the  Court  of  Chancery  and  after  his  death 
it  had  been  decreed  by  the  court  that  his  private  estate 
should  be  sold  to  meet  debts  arising  from  his  term  of 
office.*'  Accordingly  in  1714  Little  Laver  manor  was 
sold  for  j{^2,ioo  to  Samuel,  ist  Baron  Masham.*^  At 
that  time  the  estate  contained  300  acres  and  was  in  the 
occupation  of  Thomas  Halden.*'  In  1736  Lord 
Masham  settled  the  manor  on  his  son  Samuel  at  the 

25  See  below.  Manor  of  Little  Laver 
Hall;  E.R.O.,  Q/RPl  685  f. 

26  See  below,  Manor  of  Little  Laver 
Hall;  E.R.O.,  D/CT  210;  Kelly's  Dir. 
Essex,  1859  f. 

"  See  below.  Manor  of  Envilles ;  E.R.O., 
Q/RPl  685-737;  ibid.  D/CT  210. 

28  E.R.O.,  D/CT  210. 

"  Ibid.  30  Ibid. 

3'  Ibid.  "  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

3«  E.R.O.,  Q/SR  281/9;  D-  Smith, 
English  PVindmills,  ii,  4.9. 

35  D.  Smith,  English  Windmills,  ii,  49. 

3'  Ibid. 

3'  E.R.  xl,  163. 

3*  D.  Smith,  English  ffindmiUs,  ii,  49. 

3»  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1926). 

«  E.R.  xl,  163. 

4^  Inf.  from  present  tenant. 

12  r.C.H.  Essex,  i,  467A. 

'*3  Ibid.  See  note  under  High  Laver 
about  the  difficulty,  emphasized  by  J.  H. 
Round,  of  distinguishing  between  High 
Laver  and  Little  Laver  in  Domesday. 

'"  Pipe  R.  1 1 90  (P.R.S.  N.s.  i),  III. 

45  Rot.  Cur.  R.  (Rec.  Com.),  ii,  219. 

46  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  i,  22. 
"  Bk.  of  Fees,  i,  121,  240. 
48  Cal.  Inq.p.m.  vi,  p.  372. 

4''  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  439;  W.  Farrer,  Uons. 
and  Knights'  Fees,  iii,  269-70;  Complete 
Peerage,  xi,  499—501.  The  exact  relation- 
ship of  Alice  to  Ralph  de  Rochester  is  un- 
certain but  she  may  have  been  his  grand- 
daughter.   Cf.  Morant,  Essex,  i,  143. 

5»  Cal.  Inq.p.m.  vi,  p.  372. 


S'  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  222. 

52  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  136. 

53  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  vi,  p.  372. 

54  Cal.  Chart.  R.  1327-41,  191. 

55  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  160. 

5'  Cal.  Chart.  R.  1341-1417,  296. 

5'    CP25(2)/l26/l6o6. 

58  E.R.O.,  D/DK.  M29. 

s«  In  the  records  the  family  name  is 
sometimes  spelt  Collins,  sometimes  Collin, 
and  occasionally  CoUen. 

60  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  Ti ;  Morant,  Essex, 
i,  143. 

61  E.R.O.,  D/DEwTi.  <'^  Ibid. 
*3  Ibid.  The  estate  was  reported  to  have 

been  previously  in  the  tenure  or  occupa- 
tion of  Richard  Collins  and  William 
Collins  'or  either  of  them  or  their  assigns'. 



time  of  the  latter's  marriage  to  Henrietta  Winnington.''* 
In  1757  the  Hon.  Samuel  Masham  mortgaged  this 
manor  and  his  two  other  manors  of  Otes  in  High  Laver 
and  Matchinghall  in  Matching  to  Dr.  Robert  Taylor 
for  ;^3, 000.^5  At  that  time  the  manor  house  and  farm 
were  rented  by  Thomas  Halden  for  ;^l35^a  year.** 
There  were  no  freeholders  or  copyholders.*^  In  1765 
and  1766  the  manor  was  included  in  the  mortgage  of 
the  Masham  estates  to  Robert  Palmer  and  came  into 
his  possession  with  the  other  estates  in  1767.**  In 
1 80 1  it  was  sold  by  Richard  Palmer  to  William  Clark 
for  £5,855  of  which  ^^755  was  paid  for  the  timber  on 
the  estate.*'  At  that  time  the  manor  farm  consisted  of 
about  285  acres  of  which  235  acres  were  arable. 'o  The 
whole  farm  except  for  20  acres  of  woodland,  which 
Richard  Palmer  had  kept  in  hand,  had  been  leased  to 
John  Hall  in  1 799  for  2 1  years  at  £1 60  a  year.^'  There 
were  no  quit  rents  and  no  royalties.'^ 

William  Clark  was  owner  of  the  estate  until  1 804 
or  1805  when  it  was  acquired  by  James  Meyer.'^  In 
1 828  or  1 829  it  passed  to  Christian  P.  Meyer  who  built 
a  new  house,  afterwards  known  as  Little  Laver  Hall, 
for  his  own  occupation,  leaving  the  old  manor  house  for 
his  tenant  John  Hall.''*  C.  P.  Meyer  still  owned  the 
estate  in  1848;  it  then  consisted  of  270  acres  of  which 
he  occupied  1 5  acres  and  John  Hall  255  acres.''  C.  P. 
Meyer  was  succeeded  before  1859  by  his  son  Herman 
who  died  in  1893  leaving  as  his  heir  his  son  James.'* 
In  1930  James  Meyer  sold  Little  Laver  Hall  to  Mr. 
E.  W.  Bovill."  In  1943  he  sold  the  rest  of  the  estate, 
including  the  manor  farm  and  the  old  manor  house,  to 
Mr.  T.  Glasse,  who  still  owns  and  farms  the  property.'' 

The  old  manor  house  is  now  known  as  The  Grange. 
It  stands  on  a  moated  site ;  parts  of  the  moat  were  fiUed 
in  during  living  memory  and  only  fragments  now  exist. 
The  older  part  of  the  house  is  on  its  east  side  and  con- 
sists of  an  L-shaped  timber-framed  structure  with  wings 
running  east  and  north.  In  the  centre  is  a  massive 
brick  chimney,  cruciform  above  roof  level,  on  which  the 
date  1587  has  been  recut.  The  east  wing  may  be  a 
late-i6th-century  adaptation  of  an  earlier  structure  and 
there  are  indications  that  it  was  formerly  of  greater 
extent.  The  north  range  was  probably  built  in  1587 
as  a  two-story  'solar'  wing.  The  ground  floor  fireplace 
has  a  fine  three-centred  chamfered  brick  arch,  9  ft. 
wide,  and  there  is  a  heavily  moulded  cross-beam  in  the 
same  room.  In  the  upper  room  an  arch-braced  roof 
truss  is  partly  visible.  A  single-story  extension  to  this 
wing  at  its  north  end  is  now  a  dairy.  Various  timber- 
framed  additions  and  a  staircase  were  inserted  later  in 
the  angle  of  the  two  wings.  About  the  middle  of  the 
19th  century  a  gabled  brick  wing  was  added  on  the 
west  side  of  the  house. 

Little  Laver  Hall  was  probably  built  about  1845. 

The  original  gabled  house  was  of  brick  and  stucco  with 
hood-moulds  to  the  windows  and  a  two-story  bay  on 
the  garden  side.  The  south  and  east  wings  were  added 
in  1930." 

In  1299  Sir  Henry  de  Enfield  was  granted  free 
warren  in  his  demesne  lands  in  Little  Laver  and 
Fyfield.*"  In  1303  Ralph  of  Essex  was  reported  as 
holding  i  fee  in  Little  Laver."  Ralph  probably  held 
a  life  interest  only,  for  it  seems  that  Sir  John,  son  and 
heir  of  Sir  Henry  de  Enfield,  afterwards  held  the 
estate. 82  In  1325  John  de  Enfield  and  others  were 
tenants  of  the  manor  of  Little  Laver  which  was  held 
by  the  service  of  i  fee.83  In  1329  Sir  John  de  Enfield 
divided  his  estates  in  Little  Laver,  High  Laver,  and 
elsewhere  between  his  sons.  He  granted  to  his  sons 
William  and  Thomas,  and  to  the  heirs  of  William,  a 
messuage,  a  mill,  2  carucates  of  land,  2  acres  of  meadow, 
20  acres  of  wood,  and  4.0s.  rent  in  Little  Laver,  More- 
ton,  Fyfield,  and  Beauchamp  Roding.**  In  1 346 
William  de  Enfield  was  reported  as  holding  the  J  fee 
which  Ralph  of  Essex  once  held.*'  In  1361  William 
died  in  possession  of  the  estate  which  had  been  granted 
to  him  in  1329  and  which  became  known  as  the  manor 
ofENFIELDS  alias  £NFILLES.»'>  His  heir  was  his 
son  John,  a  minor.*'  During  the  minority  of  John  his 
lands  were  in  the  custody  of  Thomas  Rokewood.'' 
John  came  of  age  in  November  1368.*'  In  June  1369 
he  had  seisin  of  his  lands. 'o  Immediately  afterwards  he 
granted  to  John  Hampton  and  John  Lepyngeden  in  fee 
a  yearly  rent  of  ^^20  'to  be  taken  of  all  his  lands  in 
Little  Laver,  Moreton  and  Beauchamp  Roding'." 
John  de  Enfield  died  in  1375.'^ 

In  or  soon  after  1 375  the  manor  descended  to  Alice, 
daughter  of  John  de  Enfield,  and  her  husband  Ralph 
de  Tyle.93  In  1397,  after  the  death  of  Ralph  de  Tyle, 
all  his  lands  in  Little  Laver  were  committed  to  the 
custody  of  William  de  Stuck  during  the  minority  of 
John  de  Tyle,  son  and  heir  of  Ralph.'*  John  de  Tyle 
died  in  1399  leaving  as  his  heir  Thomas  de  Enfield, 
uncle  of  his  mother  Alice." 

The  subsequent  history  of  the  manor  has  not  been 
traced  until  May  1 541  when  Robert  Tirrell  of  Lynton 
(Devon)  and  his  wife  Joyce  were  licensed  to  alienate  it 
to  Richard,  afterwards  ist  Baron  Rich.'*  In  1563 
Lord  Rich  conveyed  it  to  John  CoUins  of  Bourchiers 
Hall  and  his  son  Thomas."  In  1603  Nicholas  Collins 
held  the  manor. '^  In  1625  Thomas  Collins,  probably 
the  son  of  Nicholas,  and  his  wife  Dorothy  conveyed  it 
to  George  Scott  and  John  Rowley."  In  1632  and 
1634  Thomas  Collins  was  lord  of  the  manor.'  In  1640 
Thomas  Collins  and  his  wife  Dorothy  and  Richard 
Collins  held  the  estate.^  By  1660  Thomas  Collins  the 
husband  of  Dorothy  was  dead.^  In  that  year  the  widow 
Dorothy  Collins  and  Thomas  Collins,  probably  her 

<■*  E.R.O.,  D/DEwTi. 

«5  Ibid.  "  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

'8  Ibid.  See  Manor  of  Otes  in  High 

M  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  Tz. 

'0  Ibid. 

"  Ibid. 

'2  Ibid.  The  deed  of  sale  drawn  up  in 
May  1 802  described  the  estate  as  a  'manor 
or  reputed  manor'.  Cf.  E.R.O.,  D/DEw 
Ti  (.765). 

'3  E.R.O.,Q/RPI  708-11. 

'4  E.R.O.,  G/RPl  732-5- 

'5  E.R.O.,  D/CT  210. 

'«  Ke!!/!  Dir.  Essex  (1859  f.);  inscrip- 
tion on  gravestone  of  Herman  P.  D.  Meyer 
in  Little  Laver  churchyard. 

"  Inf.  from  Mr.  E.  W.  Bovill. 

'8  Inf.  from  Mr.  T.  Glasse,  the  owner. 

'«  Inf.  from  Mr.  E.  W.  Bovill. 

80  Cal.  Chart.  R.  1 257-1 300,  476.    • 

81  Feud.  Aids,\\,  136.. 

82  Fisits.  of  Essex  (Harl.  Soc),  23,  227. 

83  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  vi,  p.  372;  Morant, 
Essex,  i,  143. 

8*  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iii,  5.  Sir  John 
granted  his  estate  in  High  Laver  to  his 
son  Richard.  (See  Manor  of  Otes  in  High 

85  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  160. 

86  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  xi,  p.  50. 
8'  Ibid. 

88  Cal  Inq.  p.m.  xii,  p.  363. 

89  Ibid. 


«"  Cal.  Close,  1369-74,  43. 
9"  Ibid.  99. 

92  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  (Rec.  Com.),  iii,  7.  The 
inquisition  post  mortem  on  John  de  Enfield 
is  missing  from  the  P.R.O.  files. 

93  C139/13. 

9-»  Cal.  Fine  R.  139 1-9,  246. 

95  Ci 37/14;  Morant,  Essex,  i,  144. 

9'  L.  &■  P.  Hen.  yill,^v\,  p.  426. 

97  CP2S(2)/l26/l62I. 

98  E.  Anglian,  n.s.  vi,  222. 

99  CP25(2)/4is  East.  I  Chas.  Ij  f^isiu. 
of  Essex  (Harl.  Soc),  379. 

■  E.R.O.,  D/DB  M79. 
»  CP25(2)/4i8  Trin.  16  Chas.  I. 
»  CP25(2)/652    Mich.    12    Chas.    II; 


son,  conveyed  the  manor  to  Henry  Wheeler  and  Edwin 

By  1702  John  Austry  was  in  possession  of  the  estate.s 
He  was  still  lord  of  the  manor  in  1 7 1 3  .*  Within  the 
next  20  years  the  estate  passed  to  John  Evans,  ap- 
parently Austry's  grandson,  who  was  described  as  lord 
of  the  manor  in  court  rolls  from  1734  until  1757.''  In 
1745  there  were  thirteen  manorial  tenants  who  paid 
rents  amounting  to  ^l  os.  %d.  a  year.*  Between  1757 
and  1766  the  estate  descended  to  Margaret  Mary, 
who  may  have  been  the  daughter  of  John  Evans  and 
who  was  the  wife  of  John  Jones  in  1766.'  By  1780  the 
manor  had  passed  to  Sir  Thomas  Spencer  Wilson,  Bt., 
who  in  1767  had  married  Jane  daughter  of  Margaret 
Mary.'o  Sir  Thomas  died  in  1798."  His  son  and  heir. 
Sir  Thomas  Maryon  Wilson,  Bt.,  died  in  1821  having 
devised  the  manor  to  his  second  son  John  Maryon 
Wilson,  a  minor  at  the  time  of  his  father's  death.'^  In 
1 848  the  manor  farm,  which  consisted  of  249  acres, 
was  in  the  occupation  of  William  NichoUs  Clay. '3  John 
Maryon  Wilson  became  9th  baronet  in  1 869  and  died 
in  1 876.''*  He  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest  surviving 
son.  Sir  Spencer  Maryon  Wilson,  Bt.,  who  died  in 
l897.'s  In  1899  Sir  Spencer's  trustees  were  lords  of 
the  manor  but  after  the  beginning  of  the  20th  century 
the  estate  was  apparently  no  longer  regarded  as  a 

The  manor  house  site  had  an  elaborate  system  of 
moats  of  which  considerable  parts  remain.  There 
appear  to  have  been  at  least  three  moated  enclosures, 
one  of  which  was  triangular.  There  is  no  trace  of  an 
early  manor  house  although  the  present  farm-house 
probably  occupies  the  same  site.  It  probably  dates 
from  the  early  years  of  the  present  century.  A  seven- 
bay  timber  barn,  which  formerly  had  a  thatched  roof, 
may  be  of  the  i8th  century  or  earlier. 

The  early  history  of  the  advowson  of  Little  Laver  is 
not  clear.  It  was  certainly  granted  to  the 
CHURCH  priory  of  Rumilly,  a  Cluniac  house  in  the 
Pas-de-Calais,  by  a  count  of  Boulogne  after 
the  beginning  of  the  12th  century.'^  It  is  probable  that 
the  grant  was  made  by  Count  Eustace  during  the  reign 
of  Henry  I.'* 

For  some  time  in- the  13  th  century,  if  not  before,  the 
prior  and  monks  of  Rumilly  found  it  impossible  to 
exercise  their  rights  of  presentation."  This  led  them 
in  1279  to  make  an  agreement  with  Queen  Eleanor, 
wife  of  Edward  1.^°  The  queen  was  to  help  the  priory 
to  recover  the  advowson  from  usurpers.  The  prior  and 

monks  were  then  to  grant  the  advowson  to  the  queen 
for  50  marks  but  they  reserved  to  themselves  the  pen- 
sion of  i6s.  which  they  were  'wont  to  receive  in  times 
past  from  the  church'.  Apparently  the  priory's  claim 
was  successfully  established,  for  in  1280  the  prior 
granted  the  advowson  to  the  king  and  queen.^'  There- 
after the  advowson  remained  in  the  Crown  until  late  in 
thereignofHenry  VIII  when  it  was  granted  to  Richard, 
1st  Baron  Rich.^^ 

In  1559  Lord  Rich  conveyed  the  advowson  with 
the  manor  of  Bourchiers  Hall  to  John  Collins  who  pre- 
sented to  the  church  in  1569.^3  Nicholas  Collins 
presented  in  1599.^  In  1607  James  I  presented 
through  lapse.^5  In  1609  Nicholas  Collins  conveyed 
the  advowson  to  John  Adams.^*  In  1637  Benjamin 
Oliver  presented  to  the  living.^'  In  about  1654  Anne 
Gilbert  presented  William  Hiccocks  who  in  1655 
presented  Edward  Whiston.^*  Presentations  were 
made  by  Richard  Collins  in  1662,  Ann  Bayn  in  1670, 
Samuel  Burnet  in  1690,  and  Maurice  Hunt  in  1697. 2' 
Matthew  Blucke  held  the  advowson  with  the  manor  of 
Bourchiers  Hall  before  his  death  in  about  1713.3° 
After  this  the  advowson  descended  with  the  manor 
until  1767.3'  In  1767  Robert  Palmer  came  into  pos- 
session of  the  advowson  as  well  as  the  manor.'^  He 
immediately  sold  the  next  presentation  to  Timothy 
Earle  for  ;^52  5.33  The  right  of  presentation  after- 
wards reverted  to  Palmer  according  to  the  agreement 
of  1767.3*'  The  living  then  remained  in  the  gift  of  the 
lords  of  the  manor  of  Bourchiers  Hall  until  the  manor 
was  sold  to  William  Clark  in  i8oi.3s  The  advowson 
was  also  offered  for  sale  by  Richard  Palmer  in  1 80 1  but 
did  not  find  a  purchaser.^*  It  remained  with  the 
Palmers  or  their  trustees  until  1910  when  it  was 
transferred  to  the  Bishop  of  St.  Albans  from  Mary 
Isabella,  widow  of  the  Revd.  Henry  Golding-Palmer, 
grandson  of  Richard  Palmer. 3'  In  19 14  the  right  of 
presentation  was  transferred  from  the  Bishop  of  St. 
Albans  to  the  Bishop  of  Chelmsford. 3 8  Since  1933  the 
living  has  been  united  with  that  of  Moreton  in  the 
gift  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  who  have  first 
and  third  turns,  and  the  Bishop  of  Chelmsford,  who 
has  second  turn. 3' 

In  about  1254  the  church  was  assessed  at  6  marks.*" 
This  sum  did  not  include  the  pension  of  i6i'.  which 
was  at  that  time  paid  to  the  monks  of  Rumilly.*'  In 
1291  the  church  was  assessed  at  ^8.*^  In  1428  it  was 
still  taxed  on  this  valuation .*3  In  1535  the  rectory  was 
valued  at  ^^i  5  10/.  4i/.+*  Its  'improved'  value  was  £,io 

♦  CP43/311;  Vhits.  of  Essex  (Harl. 
Soc),  379.  5  CP43/476. 

'  E.R.O.,  D/DB  M79. 

'  E.R.O.,  D/DB  M79-80i  Morant, 
EsseXf  i,  144.  No  court  rolls  exist  for  the 
period  between  1713  and  1734.  Morant 
stated  that  Evans  was  grandson  of  Austry. 

»  E.R.O.,  D/DB  M79. 

9  E.R.O.,  D/DB  M80. 

■»  E.R.O.,  C/RPl  685;  ibid.  D/DB 
M80;  Burke,  Peerage  (1931),  2496. 
Margaret  Mary  apparently  married  twice 
since  Jane  was  her  daughter  by  John 
Badger  Weller. 

"  Burke,  Peerage  (1931),  2496. 

■2  Ibid.;    E.R.O.,    D/DB    MSo;    ibid. 

e/RSg  5- 

■3  E.R.O.,  D/CT  210. 

'♦  Burke,  Peerage  (193 1),  2497. 

■5  Ibid.;  Kell/s  Dir.  Essex  (1886,  1890, 

'*  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1899,  1902).  No 
court  rolls  exist  for  the  period  after  1823. 

"  E.A.T.  N.s.  viii,  228. 

^8  Ibid.  In  1 125  CountEustacecertainly 
gave  to  this  priory  a  charge  of  ^10  on  his 
manor  of  Fobbing  and  another  of  ^Tio 
charged  on  Shenfield.  J.  H.  Round 
thought  it  almost  certain  that  this  same 
Count  Eustace  gave  to  the  priory  the 
advowson  of  Little  Laver. 

'»  Cal.  Close,  1272-9,  577-8.  In  1250 
the  Bishop  of  Carlisle  had  claimed  the 
right  of  presentation  and  the  Bishop  of 
London  had  upheld  his  claim ;  Newcourt, 
Repert.  ii,  368-9. 

2"  Cal.  Close,  1272-9,  577-8. 

"  Feet  ofF.  Essex,  ii,  25. 

"  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  369-70.  The 
king  held  the  advowson  until  at  least  1 540 
when  he  granted  It  to  John  Gyes :  L.  ^  P. 
Hen.  VIII,  XV,  p.  411.  Lord  Rich  pre- 
sented to  the  church  in  1554:  Newcourt, 
op.  cit. 

"  CP25(2)/i26/i6o6;  Newcourt, 

Repert.  ii,  370. 

^<  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  370.       ^s  Ibid. 

2«  CP25(2)/293  East.  7  Jas.  I. 

2'  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  370. 

28  E.A.T.  N.s.  vi,  326. 

29  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  370. 

30  E.R.O.,  D/DEwTi. 

3'  Ibid.;  J.  Bacon,  Thesaurus,  615. 

32  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  Ti ;  ibid.  D/DEw 

33  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  T2. 

3*  Ibid.;  J.  Bacon,  Thesaurus,  615. 

35  E.R.O.,  D/DEw  T2.  36  Ibid. 

37  Ibid.;  Eccl.  Reg.  1808;  Cler.  Guide, 
1822  f. ;  Clergy  List,  1845  ^-i  Lor^t^-  Gaz. 
13  Oct.  1880,  p.  5431 ;  ibid.  II  Jan.  19 10, 
230;  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1874  f.). 

38  Clergy  List,  1 9 1 3  f. ;  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex 
{1912,  1914). 

39  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1933);  Chel.  Dioc. 
Tear  Bk.  1952;  Lond.  Gaz.  26  May  1933, 
pp.  3536-7. 

t"  Lunt,  Val.  of  Norwich,  337. 

4'  Ibid. 

■12  Tax.  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  2i. 

«  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  205. 

«  Falor  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  437. 





in  1604,  £90  in  1650,  and  ^^140  in  i66i.t5  In  1610 
there  were  about  87  acres  of  glebe.-t*  The  tithes  were 
commuted  in  1 848  for  ;^26o;  there  were  then  89  acres 
of  glebe/' 

A  terrier  of  16 10  described  the  rectory  as  'a  fair 
dwelling-house,  the  greater  part  whereof  was  built  by 
John  Oliver,  rector  of  this  parish  in  1600'  with  'an  old 
kitchen  a  little  distant  from  the  house,  a  great  barn  for 
corn,  and  a  barn  for  hay,  with  a  stable  at  the  east  end 
of  it,  two  gardens,  a  little  square  green  court,  a  great 
old  orchard,  and  other  yards  and  easements  for  the  most 
part  compassed  about  with  a  great  ditch  or  small  moat'.** 
The  separate  kitchen  was  a  medieval  feature  which 
evidently  survived  when  the  house  was  rebuilt  by 
Oliver.  The  north  side  of  the  moat  was  still  in  exis- 
tence in  1848*'  but  only  short  stretches  now  remain. 
The  house  was  rebuilt  in  183 1  at  a  cost  of  j^2,ooo.5<' 
It  consists  of  a  square  two-story  block  with  a  pedimented 
porch  on  the  north  side  and  a  splayed  bay  to  the  south. 
A  large  wing  adjoins  it  on  the  west.  It  ceased  to  be 
used  as  a  parsonage  after  the  living  was  united  with  that 
of  Moreton  in  1933  and  it  is  now  a  private  house  called 
White  Lodge. 

The  parish  church  of  ST.  MART  consists  of  nave, 
apse,  south  porch,  and  combined  north  vestry  and  organ 
chamber.  The  walls  are  of  flint  rubble.  The  porch  is 
of  timber.  In  1872  the  church  was  largely  rebuilt  and 
very  little  medieval  work  now  remains. 

Nothing  is  left  of  the  pre- 13th-century  church 
except  the  font  (see  below).  The  nave  was  probably 
rebuilt  in  the  14th  century.  It  retains  two  windows, 
much  restored,  of  this  date.  The  south  window  has  a 
chamfered  hood-mould  externally  and  two  much- 
decayed  head  stops.  The  braced  collar-beam  roof 
appears  to  be  partly  ancient.  The  only  other  original 
feature  is  the  trefoil-headed  piscina,  which  is  probably 
of  the  14th  century  and  which  has  been  reset  in  the 

Drawings  of  the  church  before  1872  showed  that  it 
had  a  square-ended  chancel^'  with  a  doorway  and  a 
15th-century  window  on  its  south  side. 52  In  about 
1768  the  church  was  described  as  'small,  of  one  pace, 
and  the  same  width,  with  the  chancel,  and  the  whole 
tyled.  The  belfry  stands  in  the  middle  of  the  church, 
with  a  spire  shingled,  in  which  there  is  only  I  bell.'sJ 

In  1872  the  church  was  restored  and  enlarged  at  the 
expense  of  the  Revd.  Richard  Palmer  in  memory  of 
his  brother,  the  Revd.  H.  Palmer.54  The  architects 
were  Messrs.  Turner  &  Son  of  Wilton  Street,  Gros- 
venor  Place  (Lond.).55  The  west  wall,  the  apsidal 
chancel,  the  porch,  and  the  vestry  are  all  of  this  date. 
In  general  the  new  work  is  a  free  interpretation  of  an 
early-i4th-century  style.  The  apse  has  three-light 
windows  with  an  inner  arcade  resting  on  polished 
shafts  of  pink-veined  marble.  The  west  window  is 
three-light  and  there  are  single-light  lancets  elsewhere. 
The  south  doorway  of  the  nave  is  13th-century  in  style 
with  a  Norman  zigzag  moulding  superimposed  on  the 
arch.   The  opening  from  the  vestry  to  the  nave  has  a 

large  trefoil-headed  arch.    In   1884  the  floor  of  the 
church  was  raised  and  relaid.'* 

There  is  one  bell  by  Anthony  Bartlet  inscribed  'All 
Glory  Be  To  God'  and  dated  1674."  It  has  been 
rehung  in  the  stone  cupola  above  the  west  end  of  the 

The  square  font  bowl  is  of  the  late  12th  century 
and  is  similar  in  character  to  those  in  some  neighbour- 
ing parishes.58  The  base  is  an  addition  of  187259  and 
the  carving  of  the  bowl  was  probably  recut  at  the  same 
time.  The  decoration  includes  the  fleur-de-lis,  crescent, 
disk,  and  whorl  found  on  other  fonts  of  the  type.  (See 
plate  facing  p.  184.) 

There  is  a  chair  which  has  early- 17th-century 
carving  and  may  have  been  made  from  a  pulpit  and 
sounding  board  of  this  period.*"  The  stone  pulpit, 
carved  with  niches  and  figures,  dates  from  1872.*' 
The  carved  stone  teredos  was  given  by  the  Revd.  S.  C. 
Beauchamp  in  1886  in  memory  of  Miss  S.  Caroline 

The  plate  includes  a  silver  cup  with  a  bowl  of  1 562 
which  has  a  gilded  band  of  foliage  ornament,  a  silver 
cup  with  a  bowl  of  1563  to  which  a  stem  with  a 
scalloped  collar,  probably  of  the  17th  century,  has  been 
added,  and  an  undated  silver  paten  of  which  the  foot 
possibly  fits  the  bowl  of  1 562. 

Little  Laver  was  one  of  the  two  parishes  in  this 

hundred  from  which  Roman 

ROMAN  Catholics    were    reported    in 

CATHOLICISM  1676.63  No  evidence  has  been 

found    of   organized    Roman 

Catholicism  in  this  parish  at  a  later  date. 

The  surviving  court  rolls  (1528-84)  of  the  manor 
of  Little  Laver  consist  only  of 
PARISH  GOFERN-    odd  membranes,  many  illegible 
MENT  AND  as  a  result  of  decay  .^-t  Only  one 

POOR  RELIEF  legible  membrane  records  pro- 

ceedings at  a  court  leet.  This 
court,  which  was  held  in  1 564,  was  attended  by  a  jury 
of  eleven. 

■  The  parish  records  of  Little  Laver  are  brief  and  un- 
informative.  Only  three  isolated  memoranda  survive 
before  1705.  These  are  included  in  the  parish  register 
for  1 538-1773 ;*5  they  are  the  minutes  of  the  vestry 
held  at  Easter  1663  and  two  other  memoranda,  of 
1668  and  1684,  also  in  the  form  of  vestry  minutes.  A 
vestry  minute-book  survives  for  170  5-1 944,**  but  until 
the  end  of  the  19th  century  the  minutes  were  rarely 
signed,  except  in  the  period  1709-14,  and  did  no  more 
than  record  the  appointment  of  officers  and  their 
annual  balances.  Overseers'  account  books  and  rate 
books  survive  only  after  1836.*' 

Vestry  meetings  were  held  at  Easter  in  each  year  and 
from  1725,  if  not  before,  there  were  also  regular  meet- 
ings at  Christmas.  Occasionally,  until  1735,  there 
were  meetings  at  other  times  also. 

The  minutes  of  the  vestry  held  at  Easter  1663  were 
signed  by  the  rector  and  seven  parishioners.  The 
resolution  of  1668  was  signed  by  the  rector  and  one 

«  E.A.T.  N.s.  xxi,  78,  83. 
46  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  369. 
"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  210.    Tithes  of  the 
glebe  were  not  included  in  the  ^^260. 
48  Newcourt,  Refert.  ii,  369. 
«  E.R.O.,  D/CT  210. 
5»  IVhite'!  Dir.  Essex  (1848). 
5'  E.R.O.,  D/CT  210. 
5^  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Recs. 
"  Morant,  Essex,  i,  144. 

54  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  {1874,  1886). 

55  E.R.O.,  D/P  147/8. 

56  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1886). 

57  Ck.  Bells  Essex,  317. 

58  There  are  similar  bowls  at  Moreton, 
Fyfield,  and  Norton  Mandeville. 

59  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1874). 

<">  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  157. 
"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1874). 
«»  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  {1886). 


«'  Wm.  Salt.  Libr.  Stafford,  Bp. 
Compton's  Census,  1676. 

<'4  E.R.O.,  D/DK  M27-29. 

«!  E.R.O.,  D/P  147/1/1. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  147/8.  Unless  other- 
wise stated  all  the  following  information 
is  derived  from  this  minute-book  and  from 
the  parish  register  quoted  above. 

«'  E.R.O.,  D/P  147/11  and  12. 


parishioner  and  that  of  1684  by  the  rector  and  three 
parishioners.  The  minutes  for  the  period  1705-9  are 
imperfect  but  in  1706  and  1708  they  appear  to  have 
been  signed  only  by  the  rector.  From  1709  until  17 14 
the  minutes  were  usually  signed  by  the  rector  and  by 
the  parishioners  present;  it  seems  from  these  signatures 
and  from  those  which  appeared  occasionally  after  17 1 5 
that  the  number  of  persons  attending  the  meetings 
varied  between  two  and  four. 

The  main  work  of  the  vestry  consisted  in  appoint- 
ing officers  and  approving  their  accounts.  In  the  first 
part  of  the  i8th  century  at  least,  however,  vestry  meet- 
ings were  held  as  required  to  regulate  the  allotment  of 
parish  apprentices  and  the  distribution  of  weekly  doles 
and  allowances. 

In  1614  there  were  two  churchwardens.**  At  Easter 
1663,  however,  only  one  was  elected  for  the  following 
year  and  it  is  clear  that  during  the  period  1705-1844 
there  was  never  more  than  one.  It  was  usual  to  spend 
many  consecutive  years  in  this  office.  From  1 844  until 
1852  there  were  two  churchwardens  each  year,  one 
being  elected  by  the  rector  and  the  other  by  the 
parishioners.  From  1852  only  one  seems  to  have  been 

There  were  two  overseers  in  each  of  the  years  1 6 1 3 
and  1614.*"  In  1663  and  each  year  from  1709  until 
1742  one  overseer  was  appointed.  These  officers 
usually  served  for  one  year  only,  but  occasionally  for 
two  consecutive  years.  They  were  evidently  chosen 
on  a  rota  system.  On  four  occasions  during  the  period 
1709-42  a  woman,  Mrs.  Collins,  was  nominated  over- 
seer but  on  at  least  two  of  these  occasions,  in  1 721  and 
1729,  a  man  was  appointed  to  serve  the  office  for  her. 
The  minutes  of  the  vestry  held  at  Easter  1730  recorded, 
however,  that  'Mrs.  Collins  overseer  gave  up  her 
account  at  this  vestry  for  the  year  1729'. 

There  was  never  more  than  one  constable  for  the 
parish.'"  It  was  customary  for  this  officer  to  serve  at 
least  two  years  consecutively  and  sometimes  much 

One  surveyor  of  highways  was  appointed  in  each  of 
the  years  1614"  and  1663.  Only  ten  appointments  to 
this  office  were  recorded  in  the  vestry  minute-book 
after  1705;  these  were  for  the  years  1725  and  1729 
and  for  most  years  between  1758  and  1767.  These 
appointments  show  that  in  the  i8th  century  one  sur- 
veyor was  appointed  annually  in  December. 

In  the  period  1705—42  the  overseers,  churchwardens, 
and  constables  each  submitted  a  separate  annual  ac- 
count to  the  vestry  at  Easter.  No  record  of  overseers' 
accounts  was  kept  in  the  surviving  vestry  minute-book 
after  1742.  A  separate  overseers'  account  book  was, 
however,  probably  kept  from  this  time  when,  in  other 
parishes  in  the  hundred,''^  the  cost  of  poor  relief  was 
increasing.  The  churchwardens  and  constables  con- 
tinued to  account  separately  to  the  vestry  until  1836, 
after  which  no  more  constables'  accounts  appear  in  the 
minute-book.  In  the  period  1758-67  the  surveyors 
submitted  an  annual  account  to  the  vestry  in  December. 
In  1836  the  rateable  value  of  the  parish  was  about 

There  was  a  parish  poorhouse  in  Little  Laver, 
situated  on  the  east  side  of  the  road  to  Matching  Green, 
about  J  mile  to  the  north-west  of  the  church.'*  In 
May  1836  the  overseer  paid  £^  \\s.  'at  the  work- 
house'.'s  In  1837  and  1838  he  received  rent  for  the 
property.'*  By  1 848  it  belonged  to  C.  P.  Meyer  and 
was  said  to  comprise  two  cottages."  It  was  refaced 
with  flint  rubble  and  largely  rebuilt  during  the  second 
half  of  the  19th  century  by  Herman  P.  D.  Meyer.  It 
now  forms  two  small  dwellings,  called  Stone  Cottages. 
They  are  timber-framed  internally  and  may  have  an 
1 8th-century  or  earlier  origin. 

In  most  cases  poor  relief  was  given,  in  various  forms, 
outside  the  poorhouse.  In  each  of  the  years  18 13-15 
there  were  8  to  9  adults  on  'permanent'  outdoor  relief.'* 
Provision  for  the  poor  was  made  in  various  ways 
including  the  binding  out  of  paupers'  children  as 
apprentices,  the  payment  of  allowances  for  lodging, 
the  provision  of  clothes  and  the  payment  of  weekly 
doles.  The  memorandum  of  1668  recorded  that  the 
inhabitants  whose  names  were  subscribed  consented 
that  Thomas  Ansell  be  transported  'into  his  Majesty's 
plantations  of  the  Barbadoes',  he  having  acknowledged 
himself  willing  to  go. 

It  was  agreed  at  a  vestry  held  in  1709  that  four 
parishioners  should  each  take  ..  parish  apprentice  for 
three  years,  and  at  another  vestry  held  in  17 14  that 
William  Clemmory  should  receive  20s.  a  quarter  for 
providing  his  mother  with  'meals,  drink,  washing  and 
lodging  only  sickness  excepted'  and  that  the  overseer 
should  buy  her  a  gown  and  a  petticoat.  Before  this 
Clemmory  had  already  received  i  os.  from  the  overseer 
to  buy  bedding  for  her.  At  the  same  vestry  it  was 
agreed  that  the  widow  Oram  should  receive  a  weekly 
dole  of  3/.  Other  doles  recorded  soon  after  this  date 
ranged  from  \s.  to  2S.  bd.  a  week. 

In  1613-14  the  cost  of  poor  relief  was  ;{^i."  In 
1776  it  was  [fiz,  and  in  1783-5  it  averaged  ^^77  a 
year.*"  In  the  hard  years  which  opened  the  19th 
century  it  rose  to  about  ^{^200.*'  The  sums  recorded 
for  the  years  1800-17  show  a  minimum  ol  [j.00  in 
1803—4  but  the  cost  was  above  ^{^160  in  almost  every 
other  year,  1812-13  and  18 16-17  being  particularly 
expensive  years  at  ^^241  and  ^^231  respectively.*^ 

In  1836  Little  Laver  became  part  of  the  Ongar  Poor 
Law  Union. 

In  1807  there  was  no  school  in  the  parish  but  the 
rector  paid  for  a  few  children  to 
SCHOOL  AND  attend  a  neighbouring  school.*^  In 
CHARITY  1 8 1 8  there  was  still  no  school  of  any 

kind  in  Little  Laver,  though  the  poor 
were  said  to  desire  education  for  their  children.**  In 
1833  some  children  were  apparently  paying  \d.  a  week 
to  attend  a  school  in  Matching;  in  their  own  parish 
there  was  only  a  Sunday  school,  founded  two  years 
before  and  attended  by  17  girls  and  8  boys.*5  In 
1 846-7  attendance  at  the  Sunday  school  had  fallen  to 
7,  a  mistress  being  paid  (jl  12s.  a  year  to  teach  them.** 
Some  children  probably  attended  the  day  school  in 
High  Laver  (q.v.)  after  its  erection  in  1866.  In  1872 
this  school  was  said  to  have  accommodation  for  all  the 

««  E.R.O.,  Q/SBa  3. 

M  Ibid. 

'0  Ibid.  "  Ibid. 

'^  See  for  examples  the  parishes  of 
Bobbingworth  and  High  Laver. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  147/12/1. 

'*  There  was  a  poorhouse  by  1776  at 
latest :  Rep.  Sel.  Cttee.  on  Overteers'  Retns. 

1777,  H.C.  ser.  i,  vol.  \\,  p.  350. 

'5  D/P  147/12/1.  '6  Ibid. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/CT  210.  See  above,  p.  97, 
and  also  Manor  of  Little  Laver  Hall. 

'8  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  i/io. 

'«  E.R.O.,  Q/SBa  3. 

8"  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  i/l. 

8-  E.R.O.,  e/CR  1/9. 

"  Ibid. 

83  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  2/4. 

8-»  Reim.  Educ.  Poor,  H.C.  224,  p.  260 

85  Educ.  Enquiry  Ahstr.  H.C.  62,  p.  281 
(183s),  xli. 

8'  Nat.  Soc.  Enquiry  into  Church  Schs, 
1846-7,  pp.  12-13. 




19  children  from  Little  Laver  in  need  of  places.  87 
Thereafter  it  continued  to  serve  both  parishes. *' 

By  a  deed  of  1891  Arbury  Hill  Hoppit  (2  r.  17  p.) 
was  vested  in  the  rector,  the  rector's  warden,  and  the 
ovraer  or  occupier  of  Little  Laver  Hall  in  trust  for  use 

as  a  Sunday  school  and  parish  room  for  the  education 
of  the  poor.*"  The  building  erected  for  this  purpose  is 
now  known  as  the  village  hall  and  is  administered  by  a 
village  committee,  its  principal  use  being  as  a  social 
club.'"  It  is  a  single-story  building  of  brown  brick. 


Magdalen  Laver  is  a  small  parish  about  5  miles  to 
the  north-west  of  Chipping  Ongar  and  4  miles  to  the 
south-east  of  Harlow.'  A  very  small  detached  part 
(5-6  acres)  hes  on  the  boundary  between  Moreton 
and  High  Laver,  to  the  east  of  the  main  part  of  the 
parish.  The  area  of  the  ancient  parish  was  1,229  acres.^ 
It  was  increased  by  the  incorporation  of  two  detached 
portions  of  North  Weald  Bassett.  One  portion  of 
North  Weald  (10  acres),  lying  to  the  north-west  of 
Weald  Lodge,  was  transferred  to  Magdalen  Laver  in 
i883;3  the  larger  portion,  lying  to  the  north  of  the 
middle  of  Cripsey  Brook,  near  Weald  Bridge  and 
including  Weald  Bridge  Farm,  Weald  Lodge,  and 
Bowlers  Green,  was  transferred  to  Magdalen  Laver  in 
ig46.''  Magdalen  Laver  now  has  an  area  of  1,443 
acres. 5  The  parish  has  an  unusual  number  of  ancient 
timber-framed  farm-houses,  the  oldest  of  which  prob- 
ably dates  from  the  14th  century.*  Several  of  these,  as 
well  as  the  manor  house  and  the  old  rectory,  stand  on  or 
near  moated  sites.  There  were  28  inhabited  houses  in 
l8oi,33ini8ii,  and  3  8  in  1 8  2 1 .'  In  1 80 1  the  popu- 
lation was  228;*  it  reached  236  in  1821  and  again  in 
185 1.'  Then  it  declined  irregularly  to  134  in  1931.'" 
By  195 1  it  had  risen  to  242,"  this  being  partly  due  to 
the  incorporation  of  part  of  North  Weald  Bassett  in 

The  land  rises  in  the  west  of  the  parish  to  just  over 
300  ft.  above  sea-level.  It  slopes  eastward  and  south- 
ward to  less  than  200  ft.  along  the  streams  that  separate 
the  parish  from  Moreton  on  the  east  and  Bobbingworth 
on  the  south.  Another  stream  rises  in  the  north-west 
and  flows  south-eastward  across  the  middle  of  the 
parish,  joining  one  of  the  other  streams  on  the  southern 
boundary.  A  small  area  of  woodland  lies  on  the 
northern  boundary. 

The  road  from  Epping  crosses  the  southern  boundary 
at  Weald  Bridge  and  runs  northward  for  about  J  mile 
until  it  is  joined  by  a  road  from  Bobbingworth.  To 
the  north  of  this  junction  the  road  meets  another  road 
which  runs  from  east  to  west  across  the  parish.  About 
i  mile  to  the  west,  on  the  south  side  of  this  last  road,  is 
the  'Green  Man',  which  was  probably  built  early  in 
the  1 8th  century.  Almost  opposite  the  'Green  Man' 
is  a  single  pair  of  council  houses  built  during  the  Second 
World  War.  Immediately  to  the  west,  on  the  south 
side  of  the  rOad,  is  the  new  rectory.'^  On  the  north 
side  of  the  road,  by  a  drive  leading  north-eastward 
to  Spencers,  is  Humphreys  which  probably  derives  its 
name  from  the  family  of  John  Humphrey,  living  in  the 
13th  century."  This  has  a  pedimented  door-hood  and 
appears  to  be  an  early- 18th-century  timber-framed 

»'  Chelmsford  Chronicle,  2  Aug.  1872. 

88  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1899  f.). 

89  Char.  Com.  Files. 
9**  Local  information. 

'  O.S.  2i  in.  Map,  sheets  52/40,  52/50. 

»  O.S.  6  in.  Map  (ist  edn.),  sheet  xli. 

J  Under  the  Divided  Parishes  and  Poor 
Law  Amendment  Act,  1882, 39&40  Vict. 

*  County  of  Essex  {Rural  Parishes)  Con- 
firmation Order,  1946;  see  North  Weald 

house,  although  the  back  wing  may  be  older.  Immedi- 
ately west  of  Humphreys  is  Mollmans,  where  another 
road  leads  north-eastward  to  Tilegate  Green  in  High 
Laver.  At  Mollmans  a  fragment  of  a  moat  remains. 
The  south  end  of  the  house  and  the  back  wing  were 
probably  built  in  the  late  i6th  or  early  17th  century. 
On  the  north  side  of  the  road  leading  westward  from 
Mollmans  is  Rolls,"'*  a  timber-framed  farm-house  stand- 
ing on  a  moated  site.  The  moat,  more  than  half  of 
which  remains,  is  curved  in  shape  and  of  considerable 
size.  The  main  axis  of  the  house  runs  north  and  south 
and  there  is  a  cross-wing  at  the  north  end.  This  north 
wing  has  two  stories  and  an  attic  and  dates  from  the  late 
1 6th  or  early  17th  century.  It  has  a  chimney  with 
octagonal  clustered  shafts,  now  covered  with  cement. 
The  upper  flight  of  the  staircase  is  original  and  has 
turned  balusters  and  moulded  newel  caps.  The  main 
block  also  has  two  stories  and  an  attic,  but  there  are 
indications  that  it  is  an  adaptation  of  an  earlier  struc- 
ture. The  chimney,  now  cement-covered,  has  diagonal 
shafts.  The  doors  and  windows  of  the  house  mostly 
date  from  the  i8th  and  early  19th  centuries.  From 
Rolls  the  road  turns  northward  and  then  sharply  west- 
ward past  Wynters  Armourie  to  the  western  boundary 
of  the  parish. 

Wynters  Armourie,  formerly  Winters,  which  prob- 
ably derives  its  name  from  the  family  of  Alice  Winter, 
living  in  about  1248, '5  stands  on  a  moated  site.  The 
moat  encloses  a  long  narrow  rectangle  from  north  to 
south.  There  is  part  of  a  transverse  arm  in  the  centre 
but  the  south  end  has  been  obliterated  by  the  farm- 
yard. The  house  is  timber-framed  and  consists  of  a 
central  block  with  cross-wings  to  the  east  and  west  (see 
plate  facing  p.  1 37).  On  the  north  side  there  is  a  single- 
story  addition  and  a  small  staircase  wing.  The  central 
block  originally  consisted  of  a  partially  aisled  hall  of  two 
bays,  probably  dating  from  the  r4th  century.  Ceilings, 
fireplaces,  and  partitions  have  been  inserted  later  and 
the  west  bay  has  been  raised  in  height  and  rebuilt.  Most 
of  the  main  roof  truss  dividing  the  bays  is  stiU  in  posi- 
tion and  at  the  east  end  of  the  hall  are  the  remains  of  a 
'spere  truss',  suggesting  that  the  hall  is  of  the  transitional 
type  where  the  aisles  are  retained  in  the  screens  bay  only. 
The  central  truss  has  a  steeply  cambered  collar  below 
which  are  deep  curved  braces,  moulded  at  their  lower 
edge.  The  collar  purlin  and  some  of  the  original  rafters 
are  in  position  and  there  are  indications  of  a  former  king- 
post. All  the  timbers  are  blackened  with  smoke  from 
an  open  hearth.  Rising  obhquely  from  near  the  base 
of  one  of  the  principal  rafters  and  reaching  to  the  under- 
side of  the  plate  is  a  wind-brace  or  strut.'*  The  others 


5  Inf.  from  Essex  County  Council. 

6  See  below. 

7  Census  Reports,  1801,  1811,  1821. 

8  y.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  350. 
«  Ibid. 

'»  Ibid.;  Census  Reports,  191 1  f. 

'"   Census  Report,  1 95 1. 

'2  See  below,  Church. 

"  P.N.  Essex  (E.P.N.S.),  64. 

■♦  In    1539   Rolls  Farm,  consisting  of 


82  acres,  belonged  to  Sir  William  Sulyard, 
who  owned  half  of  the  manor  of  Otes  in 
High  Laver  (q.v.):  Morant,  i,  14.3;  by 
1848,  however,  Rolls  no  longer  formed 
part  of  the  Otes  estate:  E.R.O.,  D/CT  2n. 

'5  P.N,  Essex  (E.P.N.S.),  64. 

^6  An  almost  identical  truss  at  the  Old 
Parsonage,  Marlow  (Bucks)  retains  its 
moulded  king-post  and  has  been  dated 
c.  1340  {^nL  Brit.  Arch,  Assoc.  3rd  scr. 
^">  54-55)- 


are  missing.  In  the  east  bay  the  north  doorway  of  the 
screens  passage  is  in  position  and  there  is  one  jamb  of 
an  opposite  doorway  on  the  south  side.  A  post  dividing 
the  'nave'  from  the  north  aisle  still  exists  and  the  cor- 
responding post  of  the  south  aisle  has  only  recently  been 
removed.  On  this  side  a  large  curved  brace,  springing 
from  the  east  wall  and  rising  to  the  underside  of  the 
plate,  forms  part  of  the  'nave  arcade'.  Below  the  main 
truss  a  later  tie-beam  spans  the  whole  width  of  the  hall. 
The  detail  here  is  similar  to  that  of  the  open  trusses  on 
the  upper  floors  of  the  two  cross-wings  and  it  is  suggested 
that  all  these  features  represent  additions,  possibly 
dating  from  the  late  i  5th  or  early  i6th  century.  The 
rebuilding  of  the  west  bay  probably  took  place  later 
in  the  1 6th  century  when  the  roof  was  raised  to  give 
higher  rooms  and  an  attic.  The  gable  ends  have  un- 
glazed  windows  with  diagonal  mullions  and  the  roof 
has  small  curved  wind-braces.  The  central  chimney 
was  probably  inserted  at  this  time  and  the  single-story 
addition  at  the  back  of  the  house,  which  has  an  open 
queen-post  truss  and  a  large  end  chimney,  may  be  a 
kitchen  of  the  same  period.  The  present  owner 
restored  the  house,  which  was  in  poor  condition,  in 
about  1935." 

On  the  north-west  side  of  the  road  from  Mollmans 
to  Tilegate  Green  is  the  village  hall.  On  the  other  side 
of  the  road  is  the  former  rectory,"  *  on  a  moated  site. 
North  of  this,  on  the  west  side  of  the  road,  there  are 
three  pairs  of  white  plastered  council  houses.  Almost 
opposite  these  houses  one  drive  leads  south-eastward 
to  Spencers  and  another,  newly  made,  leads  north- 
eastward to  Magdalen  Laver  Hall."  Spencers,  which 
probably  derives  its  name  from  the  family  of  John  le 
Spenser,  living  in  1339,™  is  a  large  timber-framed 
farm-house  with  considerable  remains  of  a  moat.  It 
has  an  irregular  three-gabled  front  and  additions  on 
the  other  three  sides.  The  stop-moulded  ceiling  beams 
on  the  ground  floor  indicate  an  early-iyth-century  date 
but  it  is  possible  that  parts  of  the  structure  are  older. 
The  new  drive  to  Magdalen  Laver  Hall  is  extended  in 
a  north-easterly  direction  to  form  an  approach  to  the 
church.^'  Previously  the  approaches  to  the  church  had 
been  by  the  footpaths  which  run  from  the  road  to 
Spencers  on  the  south  and  through  the  farm-yard  of 
Magdalen  Laver  Hall  on  the  north.  Immediately 
north-west  of  the  churchyard  are  traces  of  a  large  moated 
site,  where  the  first  manor  house  probably  stood.^^  To 
the  south-east  of  the  church,  in  a  field  known  as  Redmill 
Shot,  a  stone  coffin  containing  a  skeleton  was  discovered 
in  about  1757  and  human  bones  were  found  in  other 
parts  of  the  same  field  at  different  times.^3  There  was 
a  tradition  in  the  1 8th  century  that  the  church  origin- 
ally stood  in  this  field  but  no  trace  of  a  church  or  of  any 
other  building  has  ever  been  found.^"*  It  may  be,  how- 
ever, that  the  field  was  once  a  burial  ground  belonging 
to  the  parish. 

Immediately  north  of  Magdalen  Laver  Hall  the 
road  to  Tilegate  Green  becomes  part  of  the  northern 
boundary  of  the  parish.  On  the  north  side  of  the  road, 
within  the  parish  of  High  Laver,  is  Magdalen  Laver 
school.^5  At  Tilegate  Green  the  road  is  joined  by  Pole 
Lane,  now  only  a  footpath,  which  leads  eastward  to  the 

Ongar-Harlow  road.  On  the  south  side  of  Pole  Lane, 
north-east  of  the  church,  is  a  moated  mound,  about 
80  ft.  in  diameter.  At  the  junction  of  Pole  Lane  and 
the  Ongar-Harlow  road  is  Start  Farm,  a  small  timber- 
framed  farmhouse,  part  of  which  may  date  from  the 
1 6th  century. 

To  the  south  of  Start  Farm  the  Ongar-Harlow  road 
is  joined  by  the  road  which  runs  right  across  the  parish 
to  Mollmans  and  Wynters  Armourie  on  the  west.  On 
the  south  side  of  this  road,  close  to  the  eastern  boundary 
of  the  parish,  is  Bushes,  an  L-shaped  timber-framed 
farm-house  with  wings  extending  to  the  north  and  east. 
The  north  wing,  now  of  four  bays  but  formerly  longer, 
was  built  as  a  two-story  structure  and  probably  dates 
from  the  late  1 5  th  century.  On  the  west  side  the  upper 
floor  overhangs  on  curved  brackets.  In  1933  the  plaster 
was  stripped  away  revealing  a  fine  timbered  front  with 
close  studding  and  curved  braces.  The  roof  is  original 
except  at  its  south  end  and  there  are  two  king-posts  with 
two-way  struts  in  position.  The  chimney  is  a  later 
insertion.  The  east  wing,  lying  at  right  angles  to  the 
two-story  wing,  may  represent  the  medieval  hall,  much 
altered.  A  large  chimney  and  ceilings  have  been 
inserted.  The  roof  is  not  ancient  but  two  of  the  rafters 
are  formed  from  old  moulded  timbers.  Also  incor- 
porated is  a  cambered  and  moulded  tie-beam  of  medieval 
origin.  The  south  porch  and  the  brick  chimney  appear 
to  be  of  the  i6th  century.  There  is  a  considerable 
amount  of  1 6th-  or  early-i  7th-century  panelling  intern- 
ally. In  the  angle  between  the  wings  there  is  a  later 
timber  structure.  The  house  was  restored  and  the 
staircase  altered  in  1933.^*  The  north  and  part  of  the 
east  sides  of  a  large  moat  are  still  in  existence.  To  the 
west  of  Bushes  is  Ashlings,  where  traces  of  a  moat 
remain.  About  J  mile  south-west  of  Ashlings  is  Lunds, 
a  timber-framed  farm-house  probably  of  the  late  17th 
or  early  i8th  century;  it  has  been  faced  with  yellow 
brick.  To  the  west  of  Lunds,  on  the  north  side  of  the 
road,  is  Whites,  a  timber-framed  farm-house  probably 
dating  from  the  late  1 7th  or  early  1 8th  century.  Almost 
opposite  Whites  is  the  junction  with  the  road  leading 
south  to  Epping. 

In  1776  the  parishes  of  High  Laver  and  Magdalen 
Laver  came  to  an  agreement  about  repairs  to  roads  for 
which  they  were  jointly  responsible.^^  These  roads 
were  to  be  equally  divided  by  a  white  post  and  each 
parish  was  to  repair  the  part  lying  nearest  to  it.^' 

Water  was  supplied  by  the  Herts,  and  Essex  Water- 
works Co.  in  1912.^'  Electricity  was  laid  on  in  part  of 
the  parish  in  1950.30  A  branch  of  the  county  library 
was  opened  in  June  1939.31 

Magdalen  Laver  has  always  been  a  rural  parish 
engaged  almost  entirely  in  agriculture.  The  lords  of 
the  manor  lived  in  the  parish  during  most  of  the  period 
from  1622  until  1832.32  After  John  Cozens  sold  the 
estate  in  1832  the  owners  were  not  resident  until 
Matthew  Torrance  purchased  the  estate  shortly  after 

In  1 848  James  Ewing  owned,  but  did  not  occupy, 
Magdalen  Laver  Hall  Farm  (191  acres)  .34  There  were 
only  two  other  substantial  owners  in  the  parish;  John 
Archer  Houblon  owned  but  did  not  occupy  Spencer's 

*'  Inf.  from  Mrs.  Fitzgerald. 
"  Sec  below,  Church. 
'9  Sec  below,  Manor. 
"  P.N.  Essex  (E.P.N.S.),  64;  Feet  of  F. 
Essex,  iii,  5 1 . 
2*  Sec  below,  Church. 
**  See  below,  Manor. 

23  Hist.  Essex  by  Gent,  iii,  354. 
21  Ibid. 

25  See  below,  School. 

26  Inf.    from    Mr.    Radbourne,   present 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  1 1 1/22.    See  also  High 
Laver.  28  Jbid. 

29  Inf.    from    Herts.    &    Essex    Water- 
works Co. 

30  Inf.  from  East.  Elec.  Bd. 

3^  Inf.  from  County  Librarian. 
32  E.R.O.,  D/DA  Ti99i  Q/RPl  685- 
737.  33  Sec  below,  Manor, 

3*  E.R.O.,  D/CT211. 




Farm  (126  acres)  and  Christian  P.  Meyer  owned 
MoUmans  Farm  (in  acres)  but  did  not  farm  it  him- 
self.35  There  were  seven  other  farms  of  over  60  acres; 
of  these  three  were  more  than  90  acres.3* 

Magdalen  Laver,  like  neighbouring  parishes,  has 
always  been  a  parish  of  mixed  farming  with  a  marked 
predominance  of  arable.  In  1331  the  manor  contained 
331  acres  arable,  30  acres  pasture,  6  acres  meadow,  and 
80  acres  wood. 37  In  1 847  it  was  estimated  that  there 
were  835  acres  arable,  150  acres  meadow  and  pasture, 
and  15  acres  woodland. 3  8 

From  1680,  if  not  before,  until  1731  a  regular  item 
of  income  in  the  churchwarden's  annual  account  was 
6s.  id.  'faire  money'.39  This  suggests  that  until  the 
second  quarter  of  the  i8th  century  a  fair  was  held 
annually  in  the  parish,  although  it  is  not  clear  why  it 
should  have  been  a  source  of  income  for  the  church- 
wardens. No  reference  to  'faire  money'  has  been  found 
after  173 1."*" 

In  1066  MAGDALEN  LAFER  was  probably  held 
as  a  manor  by  Sexi.*'  In  1086  it  was  prob- 
MANOR  ably  held  of  Ralf  de  Toesni  by  Roger.t2  At 
both  dates  it  was  worth  70^.'t3  In  the  12th 
century  the  manor  was  held  of  the  honor  of  Boulogne 
and  of  Pharamus  of  Boulogne,  great-grandson  of  Count 
Eustace  of  Boulogne.''^  Pharamus  died  in  1183  or 
1 1 84  and  was  succeeded  by  his  only  daughter  and  heir 
Sibyl  de  Fiennes.*5  The  manor  was  held  of  the  honor 
of  Boulogne  and  of  Sibyl  in  1 22 1-2.'«*  Sibyl's  heir  was 
her  son  William  de  Fiennes,  whose  grandson  Sir 
William  de  Fiennes  died  in  1 302.''7  In  1 33 1  the  manor 
was  held  as  \  knight's  fee  of  Hugh,  Lord  Audley  (d. 
1347),  and  his  wife  Margaret  'as  of  her  right  and 
inheritance' .'•8  By  1352  the  tenancy  in  chief  had 
passed  to  Elizabeth  de  Burgh,  Lady  of  Clare,  sister  of 
Margaret.^'  At  that  time  the  manor  was  held  by  the 
service  of  J  knight's  fee. 5"  Elizabeth  died  in  1360.5' 
Her  heir  was  her  granddaughter  Elizabeth,  suo  jure 
Countess  of  Ulster,  wife  of  Lionel,  later  Duke  of 
Clarence. 52  In  1361  the  manor  of  Magdalen  Laver 
was  held  of  Lionel  as  of  the  honor  of  Clare. 53  Lionel 
survived  his  wife  Elizabeth  and  was  succeeded  on  his 
death  in  1 368  by  their  only  daughter  and  heir  Philippe, 
wife  ofEdmund  Mortimer,  Earl  of  March  (d.  i38i).54 

The  heir  of  Philippe  and  Edmund  was  their  son  Roger, 
Earl  of  March,  who  was  tenant  in  chief  of  Magdalen 
Laver  at  his  death  in  1 398.55  Roger  was  succeeded  by 
his  son  Edmund,  who  died  in  1425.5*  The  manor  was 
then  held  of  Edmund's  widow  Anne  until  her  death  in 
1432.5'  She  was  succeeded  by  Richard,  Duke  of  York, 
son  of  Anne,  sister  of  the  last  earl.'*  Richard  died  in 
1460  and  the  manor  was  then  held  of  his  widow.5» 

It  is  not  clear  who  held  the  tenancy  in  demesne  of 
the  manor  in  the  first  half  of  the  12th  century.  It  was 
probably  during  this  period  or  shortly  before,  however, 
that  it  came  into  the  possession  of  the  Marcys.  In  the 
reign  of  Henry  II  the  tenant  was  Ralph  de  Marcy  who 
also  held  an  estate  in  Navestock.*"  In  Navestock  at 
least  Ralph  had  by  1 152  succeeded  William  de  Marcy, 
son  of  the  Ralph  de  Marcy  who  in  1086  held  a  manor 
in  Kelvedon  Hatch  (q.v.).*'  Ralph  the  younger  was 
dead  by  1 1 89  when  his  son  William  paid  a  mark  for  a 
recognizance  of  mort  d'ancestor.*^  William  died  be- 
tween 1 198  and  1205  leaving  his  son  Ralph  as  heir  to 
his  estates  in  Navestock  and  Magdalen  Laver.*'  Ralph 
was  probably  dead  by  1217-18.*''  He  was  succeeded 
by  his  daughter  Joan  wife  of  Gilbert  de  Breaute.*5 
In  1237  Magdalen  Laver  was  known  as  Laufar 
Breute.**  In  1270  Joan  de  Breaute  acknowledged 
the  manor  of  Magdalen  Laver  to  be  the  right  of 
Robert  de  Burnevill,  her  son  or  son-in-law,  who 
granted  a  life  interest  in  the  estate  to  Joan  with  reversion 
to  himself.*'  In  1285  Cecil  de  Terling,  son  of  Joan  de 
Breaute,  brought  an  action  against  Robert  de  Burnevill, 
grandson  of  Joan.**  Cecil  claimed  the  manor  from 
Robert  on  the  ground  that  Joan,  Cecil's  mother,  was 
seised  in  her  demesne  as  of  fee  of  the  manor  at  the  time 
of  her  death.*'  A  jury  declared  that  Joan  had  granted 
the  manor  in  fee  to  Robert  de  Burnevill,  father  of  the 
defendant,  and  that  Robert  the  father  had  then  granted 
her  a  life  interest  in  the  estate.'"  Robert  de  Burnevill 
the  son  was  therefore  confirmed  in  his  seisin." 

In  1 32 1  John  son  of  Robert  de  Burnevill  conveyed 
the  manor  to  Humphrey  de  Walden'^  and  it  after- 
wards followed  the  same  descent  as  the  manor  of  Ongar 
Park  in  High  Ongar  (q.v.)  until  1468.73  In  1331  the 
manor  of  Magdalen  Laver,  then  worth  £12  16/.  id. 
a  year,  was  granted  to  John  de  Cantebrigg  to  hold 

"  Ibid. 

s«  Ibid. 

"  C135/26. 

3»  E.R.O.,  D/CT211. 

3«  E.R.O.,  D/P  62/5. 

40  Ibid. 

*'  y.C.H.  Essexi'i,  $;^.  It  is  impossible 
to  distinguish  with  certainty  between  the 
three  Lavers  in  Domesday. 

42  Ibid. 

«  Ibid. 

«  Bk.  of  Fee!,  1428;  Genealogist,  n.s. 
xii,  14.5— 51.  Pharamus  was  grandson  of 
Geoffrey,  who  was  apparently  a  natural 
son  of  Count  Eustace.  For  Pharamus  and 
his  heirs  see  also  Lambourne  and  Bobbing- 

45  Bk.  of  Fees,  234-5;  Genealogist,  N.s. 
xii,  145-51. 

4'  Bk.  of  Fees,  240,  1435. 

47  Ibid.  235-6;  GcfiM/o^f/K,  N.s.  xii,  149; 
De  La  Chenaye-Desbois  et  Badier, 
Dictionnaire  de  la  Noblesse,  viii,  39-41; 
C.  Moor,  Knights  of  Ediu.  I,  ii,  23 ;  Cal. 
Inq.  p.m.  iv,  p.  60. 

48  Cal.,f.2^0.  Lord  Audley 
was  grandson  of  Margaret,  daughter  of 
Sir  William  de  Fiennes  (Complete  Peerage, 
\,  346,  347).   As,  however,  the  manor  had 

apparently  descended  not  to  Lord  Audley 
but  to  his  wife  Margaret  it  is  likely  that 
Sir  William  de  Fiennes  granted  the  over- 
lordship  of  Magdalen  Laver  as  well  as  that 
of  Blake  Hall  in  Bobbingworth  (q.v.)  to 
Margaret's  grandmother,  Eleanor  of 
Castile,  to  whom  he  pledged  part  of  his 
estate  in  1275. 

4'  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  X,  p.  5 ;  Complete  Peer- 
age, i,  346,  iii,  245.  Elizabeth  de  Burgh 
inherited  the  honor  of  Clare  on  the  death 
of  her  brother  Gilbert,  Earl  of  Gloucester, 
in  1 3 14  (ibid,  iii,  245).  Her  sister  Margaret 
died  in  1342,  5  years  before  her  husband. 
Lord  Audley  (ibid,  i,  346). 

5»  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  x,  p.  5. 

!■  Complete  Peerage,  iii,  245. 

52  Ibid. 

53  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  xi,  p.  1 84. 

54  Complete  Peerage,  iii,  245. 

55  Ci36/io6;    Complete    Peerage,    viii, 


56  C 1 39/19;     Complete     Peerage,     vni, 


57  C139/S9;  Complete  Peerage,  viii,  453. 

58  C 1 39/98;  Complete  Peerage,  viii,  453. 

59  C140/68. 

'0  Cal.  Chart.  R.  1341-1417,  186-7, 
where  a  charter  of  Ric.  I  is  quoted;  Dom. 

of  St.  Paul's  (Camd.  Soc.  Ixix),  133. 

"  Domesday  Studies  (ed.  P.  E.  Dove),  ii, 
553-5;  Hist.  MSS.  Com.  9M  Rep.  pt.  i, 
App.  3ii,  66a;  Dom.  of  St.  Paul's  (Camd. 
Soc.  Ixix),  133. 

62  Cur.  Reg.  R.  viii,  387;  Pipe  R.  11 89 
(Rec.  Com.),  29. 

OJ  Rot.  Cur.  Reg.  R.  (Rec.  Com.),  197; 
Pipe  R.  1205  (Pipe  R.  Soc.  N.s.  xix),  1 19, 

''4  Bk.  of  Fees,  240.  He  was  certainly 
dead  by  1222  (see  n.  65  below). 

<'5  Dom.  of  St.  Paul's  (Camd.  Soc.  Ixix), 
75;  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  i,  100,  214,  271. 

''  E.A.T.  N.s.  xix,  35.  It  was  so 
described  by  the  assessors  and  collectors  of 
the  3^  of  1237.  Cf.  like  description  in  the 
Norwich  Taxation  of  1254  (Lunt,  yal. 
of  Norioich,  337). 

'7  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  i,  271, 

"  Just.  Itin.  1/243  ■"•  5^- 

69  Ibid. 

7»  Ibid. 

"  Ibid. 

72  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  W,  197. 

73  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.  vii,  p.  250,  x,  p.  5,  xi, 
p.  1 84,  xii,  p.  1 64 ;  Feet  of  F.  Essex,  iii, 
241;  Cal.  Close,  1419-22,  78;  C139/98; 
E.R.O.,  D/DAT199. 


during  the  minority  of  Andrew  de  Walden.'''  In 
1 367,  after  he  came  of  age,  Thomas  de  Walden  granted 
the  estate  for  ten  years  to  Sir  John  Wade  who  had  had 
custody  of  it  during  the  minority  of  Thomas. '5  In 
141 2  the  manor  was  said  to  be  worth  ^{^12  a  year.'* 
After  the  death  of  Thomas  Bataille  in  1439  his  widow 
Isabel  held  in  dower  a  bakehouse  and  some  lands  and 
rents  in  the  manor.''  In  1439  ^^^  '^^^  annual  value  of 
the  manor  was  j^io.'*  In  about  1450  there  were  some 
fifteen  manorial  tenants  whose  rents  amounted  to 
£^  IS.  a.  yeiT.''9 

In  1468  John  BataiUe  mortgaged  the  manor  to  Sir 
Thomas  Cooke  for  ,^200.*°  Shortly  afterwards  Cooke 
became  absolute  owner  of  the  estate.*"  He  died  in 
1478  leaving  as  his  heir  his  son  John.*^  In  i486  John 
Cooke  died  and  was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Philip 
who  was  knighted  in  1497.*'  In  about  1500  there 
were  some  fourteen  manorial  tenants  paying  rents 
amounting  in  all  to  ^^4  19/.  iJM  In  1502  Sir  Philip 
Cooke  leased  the  manor  for  five  years  to  John  King  at 
an  annual  rent  of  ^12  ji.*'  The  lease  included  all  the 
manorial  lands  and  the  rents  of  manorial  tenants  but 
not  the  perquisites  of  the  court.**  Cooke  died  in  1 503 
leaving  as  his  heir  his  son  John.*'  In  1544  Margaret 
Cooke,  widow — probably  of  John  Cooke — received  a 
life  interest  in  the  manor  with  remainder  to  Anthony 
Cooke  (K.B.  1547)  son  of  John  Cooke,  and  the  heirs 
of  Anthony.**  In  1570  Sir  Anthony  Cooke  settled  the 
manor  on  his  second  son  William  when  William 
married  Frances  daughter  of  Lord  John  Grey  of  Pirgo 
and  cousin  of  Lady  Jane  Grey.*'  William  Cooke  died 
in  1 589.'°  In  1608  his  son  and  heir  Sir  William  Cooke 
conveyed  the  manor  to  Sir  John  Poyntz." 

In  1614  Sir  John  Poyntz  mortgaged  the  manor  to 
Sir  Edward  Buncombe  for  ^2,000.'^  It  was  then  in 
the  occupation  of  William  Aylett.'^  By  June  1622 
John  son  of  William  Aylett  had  become  lord  of  the 
manor. 9'«  In  June  1650  John  Aylett  sold  the  estate, 
which  then  contained  160  acres,  to  John  Throckmorton 
of  Twickenham  (Mdx.)  for  about  ^^2,400. 95  In  1659 
there  were  22  manorial  tenants  whose  rents  amounted 
to  £4.  15/.  9^/.  a  year.'* 

John  Throckmorton  died  in  1663-4  having  devised 
all  his  real  estate  to  his  son  George."  In  1676  George 
Throckmorton  made  a  settlement  by  which  after  his 
death  the  manor  was  to  be  held  by  his  wife  Elizabeth 
for  her  life  and  afterwards  by  his  heirs.'*  In  1692-5 
there  were  22  manorial  tenants  whose  rents  amounted 
to  £4  17s.  lod.  a  year."  In  1703  George,  William, 
and  Thomas,  sons  of  George  and  Elizabeth  Throck- 

morton, sold  to  William  Cole  the  reversion  of  the 
manor  after  the  death  of  their  mother."  WiUiam  Cole 
had  become  lord  of  the  manor  by  1707.^  He  died  on 
I  February  1730  having  devised  all  his  real  estate,  sub- 
ject to  a  life  annuity  of  ^£200  for  his  brother  Henry, 
to  his  nephew  William  Cole  in  tail  male  with  remainder 
to  his  nephew  Henry  Cole,  brother  of  William.3  The 
nephew  William  Cole  died  without  issue  on  24 
February  1730  and  his  brother  Henry  then  succeeded 
to  the  property.*  By  his  will  of  1760  Henry  Cole 
devised  all  his  real  and  nearly  all  his  personal  estate  to 
his  servant  John  Cozens.s  Between  1748  and  1764 
there  were  1 5  tenants  of  the  manor  of  Magdalen 
Laver;  the  total  of  their  rents  varied  irregularly  between 
^4  ^s.  I  \d.  and  ^^4  1 8;.  (i\d.  a  year.*  John  Cozens  died 
in  1766  having  devised  this  manor  to  his  eldest  son 
John.'  Some  time  before  April  1782  John  Cozens 
mortgaged  the  estate  to  Mrs.  George  Sealy  for  ;^75o.* 
He  died  in  1784  having  stipulated  that  the  estate 
should  be  redeemed  out  of  the  proceeds  of  sale  of  his 
freehold  lands  in  Hornsey  (Mdx.).'  He  devised  the 
manor  to  his  wife  Elizabeth  for  her  life  with  remainder 
to  his  son  John.""  Elizabeth  died  in  1791-2.""  In 
1832  John  Cozens  sold  the  estate  to  James  Ewing."^ 

In  1848  the  manor  farm,  which  was  occupied  by 
James  Edwards,  consisted  of  191  acres  of  which  34 
acres  were  meadow  and  nearly  all  the  remainder 
arable."^  In  December  1852  James  Ewing  died  leaving 
as  his  heirs  his  four  daughters:  Mary  Ann,  wife  of 
Robert  Ewing  Curwen,  Anna  Caroline,  wife  of  Caledon 
Du  Pre  Alexander,  Frances  Elizabeth,  later  the  wife  of 
William  James  Tyrwhitt  Walker,  and  Louisa,  latei;  the 
wife  of  Winthrop  Mackworth  Praed."''  In  1865  they 
sold  the  estate,  which  then  consisted  of  223  acres, 
nearly  all  arable,  to  John  Francis  Clark  of  Exning 
(Suff.)  for  ^8,380."'  At  that  time  the  manor  house 
and  farm  were  still  in  the  occupation  of  James  Edwards 
who  paid  a  rent  of  ^^320  a  year.'*  J.  F.  Clark  died  in 
1898,  having  placed  the  property  in  the  hands  of 
trustees  who  were  to  apply  the  rents  for  the  benefit  of 
his  daughters."'  At  the  time  of  Clark's  death  Matthew 
Torrance  occupied  the  estate.'*  In  1922  the  estate  was 
still  in  the  hands  of  Clark's  trustees  but  by  1926 
Matthew  Torrance  had  purchased  the  property." 
Torrance  still  lived  at  Magdalen  Laver  Hall  and 
farmed  the  estate  in  1937.^0  In  1942^'  the  property 
was  purchased  by  Mr.  Charles  French  who  is  stiU  the 

The  first  manor  house  probably  occupied  the  large 
moated  site  immediately  north-west  of  the  churchyard. 

'■•  Cal.  Fine  R.  1327-37,  256. 
'*  Cat.  Inq.  p.m.  xii,  p.  164J  Cal.  Close, 
"  Feud.  Aids,  vi,  443. 
"  E.R.O.,  D/DA  Ti99i  C139/98. 
78  E.R.O.,  D/DA  T 199. 
"  E.R.O.,  D/DU  199/9. 
»»  E.R.O.,  D/DKT51. 
8'  C140/68.  «2  Ibid. 

M  Cal.  lnq.f.m.  Hen.  Vll,  i,  p.  38. 
««  E.R.O.,  D/DU  199/10. 
«5  E.R.O.,  D/DAT199. 
««  Ibid. 
*'  Cat  Inq.  p.m.  Hen.  VII,  ii,  p.  472. 

88  CP25(2)/i3/74  Hil.  35  Hen.  VIII. 

89  C142/221/109.  John  Grey  was  the 
youngest  son  of  Thomas,  Marquess  of 
Dorset  (d.  1530):  Complete  "Peerage,  iv, 
420-1,  vi,  135. 

O"  C142/221/109. 

9"  Ibid.;  CP25(2)/293  East.  6  Jas.  I; 
E.R.O.,  D/DAT199. 

9^  E.R.O.,  D/DA  T199.  For  a  later 
marriage  alliance  between  the  Duncombe 
and  Poyntz  families  see  Chipping  Ongar. 

93  Ibid. 

94  E.R.O.,  D/DU  199/1.  He  held  his 
first  court  on  4  June  1622. 

95  CP25(2)/55oB  Trin.  1650;  E.R.O., 

96  E.R.O.,  D/DU  199/12. 

97  E.R.O.,  D/DAT199. 

98  Ibid. 

99  E.R.O.,  D/DU  199/15. 
>  E.R.O.,  D/DAT199. 

2  E.R.O.,  D/DU  199/3.  He  was  high 
sheriff  in  17 16  and  was  for  several  years 
treasurer  of  St.  Thomas's  Hospital,  South- 
wark:  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  350.  In 
1724  he  purchased  the  manor  of  Nether 
Hall  in  Moreton  (q.v.). 

3  E.R.O.,  D/DA  T199;  ibid.  D/DU 

♦  E.R.O.,  D/DU  201/35. 


s  Ibid.  6  E.R.O.,  D/DU  199/17. 

7  E.R.O.,  D/DU  201/35. 

8  E.R.O.,  D/DAT199. 

9  Ibid. 
'»  Ibid. 

■■  E.R.O.,  Q/RPl  695-g ;  ibid.  Q/RSg  4. 
She  died  between  Aug.  1791  and  June 

■2  E.R.O.,  Q/RPl  734-7  i  Essex  Arch. 
Soc.  Docs.  Magdalen  Laver  10;  Reg. 
Electors  S.  Essex,  1832. 

"3  E.R.O.,  D/CT  211.  James  Edwards 
occupied  the  estate  at  least  as  early  as 
1 840 :  Reg.  Electors  S.  Essex,  1 840. 

M  E.R.O.,  D/DU  199/22.  "5  Ibid. 

"^  Ibid.  His  lease,  which  was  for  6  years, 
was  due  to  expire  in  September  1866. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DTcTi2. 

'8  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1899). 

"9  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1922,  1926). 

"  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1937). 

2'  Inf.  from  Mr.  C.  French. 



A  short  stretch  of  dry  moat  still  remains  and  there  are 
traces  of  embankments  to  the  south  and  east  of  this. 
Further  south  is  a  large  pond  or  lake.  The  present 
house  is  immediately  to  the  west  of  the  old  site.  It  was 
probably  built  during  the  second  half  of  the  i8th 
century  and  is  of  two  stories,  timber-framed  and 
plastered.  Alterations  were  made  in  the  middle  of  the 
19th  century  and  by  the  present  owner. 

The  advowson  of  Magdalen  Laver  was  held  by  the 
lords  of  the  manor  until  shortly  after 
CHURCH  1468  when  John  Bataille  sold  the  manor 
to  Sir  Thomas  Cooke.^^  ^t  the  sale 
Bataille  apparently  retained  the  advowson,  for  his  son 
John  presented  to  the  church  in  1497.^3  In  1502  Sir 
Philip  Cooke,  then  lord  of  the  manor,  held  the  advow- 
son and  he  retained  it  when  he  leased  the  manor  to  John 
King  in  that  year.^*  John  Bataille,  probably  the  patron 
of  1497,  presented  in  1 5 1 3."  After  this  the  advowson 
was  held  by  the  lords  of  the  manor  until  1781  when  it 
was  conveyed  by  John  Cozens  and  his  wife  Elizabeth 
to  Thomas  Altham.^*  In  1783  Thomas  Burford  pre- 
sented.^^  In  1790  Peter  Thomas  Burford  and  Ann, 
probably  his  wife,  conveyed  the  advowson  to  James 
Watts.2*  James  William  Burford  presented  in  1 794.^' 
After  this  the  living  remained  in  the  gift  of  the  Burford 
family  until  about  1857.30  The  Revd.  S.  C.  Mason 
held  it  from  1857  until  about  18703' after  which  C.  G. 
Jones,  rector  1872-93,  held  it  until  1895.32  The 
advowson  appears  to  have  been  acquired  in  1895  by 
Mrs.  E.  Bellamy  who  held  it  until  her  death  in  191 2- 
13.33  After  this  it  remained  with  her  trustees  until 
about  1928  when  it  passed  to  the  Reformation  Church 
Trust,34  who  stiU  owned  it  in  1941.35  Since  1942  the 
living  has  been  in  the  gift  of  the  Bishop  of  Chelmsford3* 
and  since  1945  it  has  been  united  with  that  of  High 

In  about  1254  and  in  1 291  the  rectory  was  valued 
at  10  marks.38  In  1^28  the  church  was  still  taxed  on 
this  valuation.39  In  1535  the  rectory  was  valued  at 
;^i6  125.*°  In  1661  its  'improved'  value  was  ^9o.'" 
In  1621  there  were  22  acres  of  glebe.''^  In  1848  the 
tithes  were  commuted  for  ^310;  there  were  then  30 
acres  of  glebe.*3 

Until  1950  the  rectory  house  was  situated  on  the 
east  side  of  the  road  leading  from  Mollmans  to  Tile- 
gate  Green.'M  A  terrier  of  162 1  described  it  as  'a 
dwelling-house  all  tiled,  saving  one  end,  which  is 
thatched'  with  'an  old  kitchen  standing  by  itself'.t' 
The  detached  kitchen,  a  feature  which  the  rectories 
at  all  three  Lavers  retained  until  the  17th  century,''* 
must  have  been  of  medieval  origin.  A  new  house  was 
built  in  about  1850.^7  This  is  of  red  brick  with  stone 
dressings.    It  was  occupied  by  the  rector  until  a  new 

rectory  was  built  in  i95o.4»  This  new  building  stands 
on  the  south-west  side  of  the  road  between  Humphreys 
and  the  'Green  Man'.*"  It  is  a  white-plastered  two- 
story  house  with  red  brick  dressings. 

The  parish  church'"  oi  ST.  MART  MAGDALEN 
consists  of  nave,  chancel,  west  tower,  and  south  porch. 
The  walls  are  of  flint  rubble,  those  in  the  nave  includ- 
ing also  some  Roman  brick.  The  tower  is  of  timber. 

The  nave  was  built  early  in  the  12th  century.  The 
flints  are  set  in  herring-bone  courses  in  the  lower  part 
of  the  walls,  while  above  there  are  indications  that  the 
Roman  brick  was  arranged  in  decorative  bands.  The 
north  wall  retains  a  blocked  single-light  window  of  the 
original  date.  A  window  has  been  filled  in  on  the  south 
side  and  it  is  possible  that  this  was  also  of  the  1 2th 
century.  Two  blocked  bull's-eye  windows  in  the  west 
wall  were  noted  in  1919s'  but  are  not  now  visible.  It 
is  possible  that  the  west  doorway,  which  has  brick 
jambs,  chamfered  imposts  and  a  segmental-headed 
tympanum  is  also  original.  The  door  itself,  of  heavy 
oak  battens  with  zigzag  ornament  to  the  strap  hinges, 
is  evidently  of  great  antiquity. 

The  chancel,  which  is  slightly  narrower  than  the 
nave  but  has  no  chancel  arch,  was  built  or  rebuilt  in 
the  13th  century.  The  north  wall  and  the  upper 
part  of  the  other  walls  may  have  been  reconstructed 

Most  of  the  windows  in  the  church  as  well  as  the 
two  south  doorways  appear  to  have  been  inserted  at 
difl^erent  times  during  the  14th  century.  On  the  south 
side  of  the  chancel  the  single-light  window  and  the 
pointed  door-way  are  of  late-i  3  th-  or  early-i4th-century 
date.  Two  two-light  windows  in  the  chancel  and  three 
in  the  nave  were  probably  added  later  in  the  14th 
century.  These  have  square  heads  and  segmental  rear 
arches.  The  tracery  has  been  restored  or  replaced  but 
the  design  is  probably  near  to  the  original.  In  the  two 
easternmost  windows  of  the  nave  there  is  some  14th- 
or  15th-century  glass  which  appears  to  be  in  situ. 
Similar  glass  in  one  of  the  chancel  windows  has  been 
reset.  The  east  window  of  the  chancel,  which  has  a 
pointed  head  and  tracery  in  the  14th-century  style,  is 
largely  modern  but  retains  original  carved  head-stops. 
The  south  doorway  to  the  nave  has  a  pointed  head  and 
moulded  jambs.  The  door  itself  may  be  of  late-i4th- 
century  date. 

There  is  a  14th-century  oak  rood-screen  consisting 
of  a  central  doorway  with  six  bays  flanking  it  on  each 
side.  Each  bay  has  an  ogee-headed  arch  supported  on 
slender  banded  shafts  with  moulded  capitals  and  bases. 
Above  each  arch  the  tracery  consists  of  two  quatre- 
foiled  circles.  The  screen  was  evidently  reconstructed 
in  the  1 7th  century  and  part  of  the  base  panelling  is  of 


"  E.A.T.  N.s.  xviii,  19;  Feet  of  F. 
Essex,  i,  271;  ibid,  ii,  197;  ibid,  iii,  33, 
241 ;  Cal.  Close,  1 364.-8,  405  j  Newcourt, 
Repert.  ii,  370-1. 

»5  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  371. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/DA  T199. 

»  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  371. 

"  CP25(2)/i309   Trir.    21    Geo.    Ill; 

Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  371.    In  the  period 

between  1513  and  1781  the  only  known 

occasions   on   which   a   presentation   was 

1  made  by  someone  other  than  the  lord  of 

I  the   manor   were   in    1700    when   Josias 
Harvey  presented  (Newcourt,  Repert.  ii, 
371)  and  in  1702  when  Thomas  Harvey 
presented  (J.  Bacon,  Thesaurus,  616). 
"  P.R.O.  Inst.  Bks.  Ser.  C.  i  (i). 
"  CP25(2)/i3io  Mich.  30  Geo.  III. 

"  P.R.O.  Inst.  Bks.  Ser.  C.  i  (i). 

»  Ecd.  Reg.  1 808 ;  Cler.  Guide,  :  8 1 7  f. ; 
Clergy  List,  1845  f. 

"  Clergy  List,  1857  f.j  Crockford's  Cler. 

32  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1870,  1874); 
Crockford's  Cler.  Dir.  (1880  f.). 

33  Crockford's  Cler.  Dir.  (1895  f.). 

i*  Crockford's  Cler.  Dir.  (191 3  f.); 
Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1914  f-)- 

35  Ckel.  Dioc.  Tear  Bk.  1941. 

36  Ckel.  Dioc.  rear  Bk.  1942  f. 

3'  Crockford's  Cler.  Dir.  (1951-2);  inf. 
from  the  Revd.  W.  D.  Topping. 

38  Lunt,  Fal.  of  Nor-wich,  337;  Tax. 
Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  21. 

39  Feud.  Aids,  ii,  205. 

40  Falor  Eccl.  (Rec.  Com.),  i,  437. 


4'  E.A.T.  N.s.  xii,  78. 

M  Newcourt,  Repert.  ii,  371. 

43  E.R.O.,  D/CT2II. 

44  See  above,  p.  104. 

45  Newcourt,  Repert,  ii,  371. 

4'  See  parishes  of  High  Laver  and  Little 

4'  In  1848  it  was  stated  that  a  new 
parsonage  house  was  about  to  be  built : 
fr kite's  Dir.  Essex  (1848). 

48  Inf.  from  the  Revd.  W.  D.  Topping. 

49  See  above,  p.  103. 

3°  See  plate  facing  p.  202.  There  was  a 
tradition  in  the  i8th  cent,  that  the  church 
once  stood  in  the  field  known  as  Redmill 
Shot,  to  the  south-east  of  the  present  site. 
Sec  above,  p.  104. 

"  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  168. 


this  date.  The  doors  and  several  of  the  shafts  are 
replacements.  Above  the  screen  the  tie-beam  of  the 
roof  has  mortice-holes  for  studs,  suggesting  that  at  one 
time  the  opening  was  filled  with  timber-work. 

The  westernmost  window  on  the  north  side  of  the 
nave  evidently  replaces  a  north  doorway  and  may  have 
been  inserted  in  the  15  th  century.  The  stonework  has 
been  replaced.  The  roof  of  the  nave  is  also  of  the  1 5  th 
century.  It  is  of  the  trussed  rafter  type  with  moulded 
wall  plates  and  two  tie-beams.  The  framing  of  the 
westernmost  bay  suggests  that  at  one  time  there  was  a 
beO  turret  in  this  position. 

The  chancel  roof,  which  has  been  restored,  has  two 
original  tie-beams.  On  one  of  the  ties  is  a  nearly 
illegible  inscription  'it  anno  dom.  161 5  h.  l.'s^ 

The  addition  of  the  timber  bell  tower  beyond  the 
west  wall  of  the  nave  may  have  been  made  in  1 567,  a 
date  which  occurs  on  one  of  the  bells. 53  The  lower 
stage  is  surrounded  on  three  sides  by  an  aisle,  while  the 
upper  stage  forms  the  belfry.  The  heavy  timber  frame 
consists  of  four  angle  posts  resting  on  a  massive  plate. 
The  westernmost  posts  have  supporting  struts.  On  the 
east  and  west  sides  the  posts  carry  queen-post  trusses 
with  arched  braces  below  the  tie-beams  and  cross- 
bracing  between  the  queen  posts.  Externally  the  tower 
is  crowned  with  a  boarded  pyramidal  roof  which  was 
formerly  leaded. ^i  Halfway  down  there  is  a  penthouse 
roof  to  the  aisle.  In  the  lower  stage  there  is  a  window 
with  two  pointed  lights  and  there  are  louvred  openings 
to  the  belfry.  The  exterior  is  weather-boarded.  At  a 
vestry  held  in  April  1 709  it  was  agreed  that  'the  north 
side  of  the  belfry  shall  be  new  boarded  with  oak 
boards'. 55  The  old  boards  were  to  be  used  for  patching 
the  other  sides,5*  suggesting  that  some  form  of  weather- 
boarding  was  already  of  long  standing  by  1709.  The 
presence  of  holes  and  grooves  for  fitting  laths  between 
the  studs  proves,  however,  that  a  plastered  finish  was 
originally  intended. 

In  1856  the  church  was  repewed;  the  cost  of  this 
and  other  repairs  was  £136.^''  In  1875  there  was  a 
further  restoration. 5 8  In  1883  the  timberwork  of  the 
tower  was  strengtheneds'  and  the  boarded  vestry  inside 
the  tower  may  have  been  inserted  at  the  same  date.  In 
1887  the  south  porch  was  rebuilt;*"  it  is  of  timber 
framing  above  a  stone  base  and  replaced  a  plastered 
porch  of  uncertain  date.*'  In  1912  a  second-hand  pipe 
organ  was  bought  from  Christ  Church,  Albany  Street 

There  are  two  bells.*3  One  is  inscribed  to  the  honour 
of  St.  John,  and  is  probably  of  the  early  14th  century.*^ 
The  other  is  dated  1567.^5  In  1868  another  bell  was 
added**  but  this  must  have  been  subsequently  removed. 
In  19 1 9  there  were  cages  for  three  bells.*' 

A  damaged  15th-century  font,  which  stood  for  a 
time  in  the  rectory  garden,  was  restored  to  the  church 
early  in  the  20th  century .*8  It  has  an  octagonal  bowl 
with  quatrefoil  panels  and  carved  bosses.  The  stem 
also  has  carved  panels. 

Painted  boards  on  the  north  wall  of  the  nave  have 
round-headed  panels  inscribed  with  the  Ten  Com- 

mandments, the  Creed,  and  the  Lord's  Prayer.  These 
are  surrounded  by  decoration  of  18th-century  design. 

The  plate  includes  a  cup  of  1665  with  crest  and 
shield  of  arms,  given  by  George  Throckmorton,  lord 
of  the  manor,  in  1666;  a  large  flagon  and  a  small  paten, 
similarly  dated  and  engraved,  a  salver  of  1683,  similarly 
inscribed;  an  almsdish  presented  in  1925  to  com- 
memorate the  safe  return  from  a  tour  abroad  of  (Sir) 
Godfrey  J.  V.  Thomas,  then  private  secretary  to 
Edward,  Prince  of  Wales.  A  large  silver  communion 
cup  which  is  mentioned  in  an  inventory  of  church 
property  in  1678  as  'in  hands  of  John  King  of  Ashhns' 
is  not  now  among  the  church  plate.*' 

On  the  south  wall  of  the  nave  is  a  marble  tablet  in 
the  form  of  a  cartouche  shield  to  the  William  Cole,  lord 
of  the  manor,  who  died  on  24  February  1730.'"'  A 
funeral  helm  with  vizor  hangs  on  the  west  wall  of  the 
nave.  Three  brackets  for  other  trophies  are  now  empty. 
The  helm  is  probably  of  the  i6th  century:  its  crest, 
possibly  not  in  situ,  appears  to  be  that  of  Cole."  On 
the  south  wall  of  the  nave  is  a  tablet  to  John  Cozens'^ 
(1766)  and  members  of  his  family.  On  the  east  wall 
of  the  chancel  is  a  marble  tablet  surmounted  by  a 
segmental  pediment.  An  oval  panel  enclosed  by  a 
wreath  carries  a  Latin  inscription  to  George  Kindleton 
(1667),  rector  of  the  parish,  who  was  dispossessed 
during  the  Commonwealth. 

Outside  the  church  immediately  west  of  the  south 
porch  is  the  marble  altar  tomb  of  the  William  Cole, 
lord  of  the  manor,  who  died  on  i  February  17  30.'' 
Cole  had  the  tomb  built  before  his  death.74  The 
inscription  is  on  a  central  panel,  flanked  by  the  figures 
of  cherubs.  The  tomb  is  enclosed  by  a  heavy  iron  rail- 
ing, also  ordered  by  Cole,75  and  there  is  an  achieve- 
ment of  arms  on  the  wall  above. 

In  May  1709  Thomas  Redington  applied  to  have 

his     house,     called      Hum- 

NONCONFORMITT    phreys,  licensed  for  a  presby- 

terian    minister   to    preach'* 

but  there  is  no  further  evidence  of  dissent  in  the  parish. 

The  only  parish  book  which  survives  for  Magdalen 

Laver  contains  vestry 
PARISH  GOVERNMENT  minutes  and  summar- 
AND  POOR  RELIEF  ized   officers'  accounts 

for  the  period  1667- 
1764  and  detailed  churchwardens'  accounts  down  to 

Until  1 69 1  vestry  meetings  seem  to  have  been  held 
only  at  Easter  in  each  year.  From  1691  meetings  were 
held  regularly  at  Easter  to  examine  officers'  accounts 
and  appoint  or  nominate  fresh  churchwardens,  over- 
seers, and  constables,  and  at  Christmas  to  nominate 
fresh  surveyors.  Occasionally  meetings  were  held  in 
September  or  October.  Nearly  every  meeting  was 
attended,  and  its  minutes  recorded,  by  the  rector  or 
his  curate,  who  always  signed  first.  Meetings  were 
seldom  attended  by  more  than  six  parishioners. 

The  vestry  minutes  seldom  recorded  corporate 
resolutions  as  distinct  from  mere  approval  of  the  actions 
of  officers.  Two  of  the  most  notable  resolutions  were 

5^  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Essex,  ii,  i68. 

53  See  below. 

5*  T.  Wright,  Hist.  Essex,  ii,  349. 

55  E.R.O.,  D/P  62/5. 

5'  Ibid. 

5'  Ibid. 

5«  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (\i%6). 

50  Ibid. 

'»  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1890). 

'•  Shown  in  sketch  of  1820:  E.R.O., 

Prints,  Magdalen  Laver. 
'2  Inf.  from  the  Revd.  W.  D.  Topping. 
"  Ch.  Bells  Essex,  317. 
'*  Ibid. 
*5  Ibid. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  62/5.- 
"  Hist.  Mon.  Com.  Records. 
68  Ibid. 

'9  E.R.O.,  D/P  62/5. 
">  See  above.  Manor. 


"  See  below. 

'^  See  above.  Manor. 

73  Ibid. 

'••  E.R.O.,  D/DA  T199. 

'5    Ibid. 

"  E.R.O.,  e/SBb  43. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/P  62/5.  Unless  otherwise 
stated  all  the  following  information  is 
derived  from  this  book. 



in  1708,  when  it  was  agreed  that  a  cottage  should  be 
leased  for  the  use  of  the  parish,"  and  in  171 3,  when  it 
was  resolved  that  no  officer  should  relieve  a  passenger 
on  a  pass  with  parish  money."  Occasionally  there  were 
resolutions  on  matters  relating  to  poor  relief.  Generally, 
however,  the  officers  seem  to  have  been  allowed  to 
act  without  guidance  or  interference  from  the  vestry. 

From  1667  until  1686  one  churchwarden,  one  over- 
seer, two  constables,  and  two  surveyors  of  highways 
were  nominated  annually  at  Easter.  From  1686  until 
i6go  only  one  surveyor  was  nominated  each  year  but 
from  1 69 1  two  were  nominated  annually  at  Christmas. 
From  1706  only  one  constable  was  nominated.  From 
1732  two  names  appear  'in  nomination  for  overseer' 
but  it  seems  that  only  one  acted.  There  continued  to 
be  only  one  churchwarden.  A  paid  church  clerk  ap- 
pears first  in  1 73 1  when  the  churchwarden  accounted 
for  ;^l  paid  to  him  as  his  annual  salary.  In  1797  the 
clerk  was  receiving  ^2  a  year.  His  status  may  be 
deduced  from  the  payment  in  September  1778  of  is. 
to  'the  Clark  for  Cleaning  the  Churchyard'. 

The  surveyors  do  not  appear  to  have  levied  a  separate 
rate  but  each  of  the  other  officers  did  so  until  at  least 
1766.  The  proceeds  of  an  officer's  rates  were,  however, 
indiscriminately  applied  in  settlement  of  other  officers' 
accounts.*"  The  surveyors'  small  disbursements  of 
5/.- 10/.  a  year  were  always  paid  by  another  officer. 
Sometimes  officers'  own  personal  money  was  used  to 
provide  the  working  funds  of  the  parish.  This  occurred 
for  example  in  the  case  of  the  churchwarden  during  the 
period  17 13-15.  No  churchwarden's  rate  was  levied 
in  1713  or  in  1714.  At  the  end  of  171 3  the  parish 
owed  the  churchwarden  £4  <)s.  3a'.;  during  the  follow- 
ing year  the  debt  rose  to  £j  14J.  6d.  Not  until  171 5 
was  a  rate  levied  to  raise  £%  5/.  dJ.  in  partial  settlement 
of  his  account. 

In  1682  a  iJ.  rate  produced  ;^5  I2.r.  \ii.  Later,  only 
the  total  product  of  rates  was  recorded.  From  at  least 
1680  a  regular,  and  unexplained,  source  of  income  for 
the  churchwardens  was  'money  for  the  fair',  always 
6s.  iJ.  a  year;  it  was  last  received  in  173 1. 

There  was  a  parish  house  in  Magdalen  Laver  from 
at  least  1708.  In  October  of  that  year  the  vestry 
resolved  to  take  a  lease  of  a  cottage,  yard,  and  orchard 
called  Maggots  for  the  use  of  the  parishioners  for  2 1 
years  at  a  rent  of  £,z  c,s.  a  year.  The  lessor,  William 
Cole,  lord  of  the  manor,  covenanted  to  do  certain 
repairs.  The  vestry  which  met  in  October  17 14 
acknowledged  the  receipt  of  £5  from  him  in  discharge 
of  this  obligation  which,  it  was  stated,  he  had  been 
unable  to  perform  since  the  cottage  was  occupied  by 
'several  pensioners  of  the  parish'.  At  the  date  of  the 
meeting  the  cottage  was  empty.  The  preceding  Easter 
vestry  had  resolved  to  have  a  chimney  built  and  to  have 
an  oven  inserted  and  a  new  floor  made  'in  the  same 
room'.  In  September  17 16  Francis  Bowtell  was 
instructed  to  come  to  the  'little  end'  of  the  parish  house 
and  Goodman  Harrod  to  remain  in  the  other  end.  In 
March  1 7 1 7  it  was  agreed  that  Goodman  Storey  and 
his  family  should  be  removed  into  the  house. 

In  most  cases  poor  relief  was  given,  in  various  forms. 

outside  the  parish  house.  In  each  of  the  years  1813-15 
there  were  16-19  adults  on  'permanent'  outdoor 
relief*'  Provision  for  the  poor  was  made  in  various 
ways  including  the  payment  of  rents  and  the  provision 
of  wood,  food,  clothing,  and  medicine.  All  these  forms 
of  relief  were  used  in  the  first  years  of  the  period 
(1670-1764)  for  which  accounts  have  survived.  At 
a  vestry  held  in  October  1692  it  was  agreed  that  the 
overseer  should  have  full  power  'to  dispose  and  order 
all  things  necessary  and  convenient  for  the  poore  as 
hee  in  his  prudence  shall  think  fitt'.  In  March  1693, 
however,  a  vestry  meeting  agreed  that  the  same  over- 
seer should  'dispose  of  the  goods  of  the  widow  King 
for  the  use  of  the  parish  and  remove  Shipton  into  her 
house  and  pay  40/.  to  Mrs.  Wankford  for  Shipton's 
rent  and  do  all  other  things  for  the  good  of  the  poor 
and  the  parish  as  shall  seem  expedient'.  In  the  follow- 
ing September  it  was  agreed  that  the  overseer  should 
have  'full  power  to  provide  a  house  in  this  parish  or 
elsewhere  for  Richard  Benton  or  so  to  agree  with  his 
landlord  that  he  may  continue  where  he  now  is'.  One 
common  form  of  parish  relief,  the  weekly  dole,  was 
mentioned  in  the  parish  book  only  once,  in  December 
1693,  when  the  vestry  resolved  that  a  man  should  have 
a  'collection'  of  \s.  6d.,  but  the  use  of  the  common 
word  on  this  occasion  suggests  that  it  was  well  known 
to  the  parish. 

In  1 6 14  the  cost  of  poor  relief  was  48/.  ^^  Late  in 
the  17th  century  and  early  in  the  i8th  century  the  cost 
was  in  most  years  between  ^^13  and  ^22.  It  rose  con- 
siderably during  the  second  quarter  of  the  1 8th  century 
and  in  the  third  quarter  was  usually  above  ^60.  In 
1776  it  reached  ^ioi.'3  At  the  beginning  of  the  19th 
century  there  was  a  maximum  of  ^595  in  1801— 2  and 
the  cost  did  not  again  fall  below  £p.zi>  in  the  period 
before  i8i7.*'t 

In  1836  Magdalen  Laver  became  part  of  Epping 
Poor  Law  Union. 

In  1807  there  was  no  school  in  the  parish;  it  was 
reported  that  the  population  was  too  poor 
SCHOOL  to  support  By  1818  a  school  had 
been  established,  in  which  13  children 
were  being  taught  by  a  dame.**  This  school,  or  one 
that  replaced  it,  became  united  with  the  National 
Society  in  about  1820  and  apparently  continued  under 
church  guidance  at  least  until  1846-7.  The  number  of 
pupils  was  27  in  1828,  25  in  1832,  and  30  in  1846-7, 
the  girls  outnumbering  the  boys.  In  1 846-7  the  mistress 
was  paid  £j  los.  a  year.*^ 

In  1862  a  permanent  school  was  built  on  land  given 
by  Anna  Maria  Meyer.  The  trust  deed  appointed  the 
rector  and  churchwarden  as  managers.  The  building 
could  accommodate  60  pupils  and  had  a  teacher's 
residence  attached.**  The  school  was  endowed  with 
j^999  raised  in  subscriptions  from  the  congregation  of 
St.  George's  Chapel,  Albemarle  St.  (Lond.)  by  W.  W- 
Ellis,  then  minister  of  the  chapel,  and  presented  to 
Magdalen  Laver,  of  which  he  was  then  rector,  in 
1872.*'  The  money  was  invested.'"  Average  atten; 
dance  rose  from  39  in  1886  to  45  in  1899,  despite  the 
falling  population."    In  1904  there  were  47  children 

'^  Sec  below. 

'»  Despite  this  resolution  the  constables 
frequently  relieved  'passengers'  as  was 
their  statutory  duty. 

">  As  in  17 1 5  when  the  constable  and 
overseer  paid  the  churchwarden  and  in 
1725  when  the  constable  paid  the  church- 

81  E.R.O.,  g/CR  i/io. 

82  E.R.O.,  Q/SBa  3. 

83  E.R.O.,  Q/CR  i/i. 

84  E.R.O.,  e/CR  1/9. 

85  E.R.O.,  D/AEM  2/4. 

86  Retm.  Educ.  Poor,  H.C.  224,  p.  260 
(1819),  ix(i). 

87  Nat.   Soc.  Rep.    1820,    1828,    1832; 


Nat.  Soc.  Enquiry'  into  Church  Schs. 
1846-7,  pp.  12-13. 

88  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/196. 

89  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1899).        <">  Ibid. 
9'  Rep.  of  Educ.  Cttee.  of  Council,  1886 

[C.  5 1 23-1],  p.  520,  H.C.  (1887),  xxviii; 
Retn.ofSchs.  1899  [Cd.  315],  p.  71,  H.C. 
(1900),  Ixv  (2). 


on  the  roll  and  they  were  taught  by  a  teacher  and  a 

By  the  Education  Act  of  1902  the  school  passed 
under  the  administration  of  the  Essex  Education  Com- 
mittee as  a  non-provided  endowed  school.  Average 
attendance  rose  from  44  in  1900  to  53  in  191  5  but 
fell  again  to  33  in  1938.93  In  1944  the  school  was 
reorganized  for  mixed  juniors  and  infants,  the  seniors 
being  transferred  to  Chipping  Ongar.  In  1950  the 
managers  applied  for  aided  status;  a  decision  about  this 
was  still  awaited  in  September  1952.  There  were  36 
pupils  and  two  teachers  at  the  school  in  May  1952.''* 

The  school  is  situated  a  little  to  the  south-west  of  Tile- 
gate  Green,  just  within  the  southern  boundary  of  High 
Laver  and  it  is  attended  by  children  from  High  Laver 
as  well  as  by  those  from  Magdalen  Laver. '5  It  is  a 
single-storied  red-brick  building. 

The  Revd.  Thomas  James  Robinson,  by  will  dated 
1876,  left  an  annuity  of  ^^2  for  the  aged 
CHARITY  and  industrious  poor  of  the  parish.  The 
will  was  disputed  but  the  legacy  was 
paid  in  1883  in  the  form  of  ^^59  5/.  stock.  In  1952 
the  income  was  used  to  give  \os.  in  cash  to  three 


The  town  of  Loughton  lies  to  the  east  of  Epping 
Forest  and  west  of  the  Roding,  adjoining  Chigwell; 
it  is  12  miles  from  London.'  The  ancient  parish  of 
Loughton  became  an  urban  district  in  1900  and  in 
1933  was  united  with  the  Urban  District  of  Buckhurst 
Hill  and  Chigwell  civil  parish  to  form  the  ChigweU 
Urban  District.^  The  area  of  the  ancient  parish  was 
approximately  that  of  the  present  Loughton  (North) 
and  Loughton  (South)  Wards  of  the  urban  district, 
taken  together,  and  in  1931  comprised  3,961  acres.^ 
For  ecclesiastical  purposes  the  ancient  parish  was 
divided  in  1887  by  the  creation  of  the  new  parish  of 
St.  Mary,  in  the  south  of  the  town.'* 

The  best  approach  to  Loughton  is  from  the  north, 
by  the  road  through  Epping  Forest  from  the  'Wake 
Arms'.  The  forest  has  always  formed  an  important 
part  of  the  landscape  of  Loughton.  Over  1,300  acres 
of  the  forest  were  within  the  ancient  parish  and  were 
preserved  by  the  Epping  Forest  Acts  of  187 1-80.5 
The  road  leaves  the  forest  about  a  mile  south  of  the 
'Wake  Arms',  at  Goldings  Hill  and  runs  south  down 
hill,  becoming  Church  Hill  and  then  High  Road  and 
continuing  to  Buckhurst  Hill  and  London.  For  many 
centuries  this  road,  2  miles  long,  was  the  main  focus  of 
settlement  in  the  parish.  South-east  of  Goldings  Hill 
is  the  new  Loughton:  the  large  housing  estate  of 
Debden,  built  since  1945  by  the  London  County 
Council.  The  estate  takes  its  name  from  the  ancient 
manor  of  Debden,  which  lay  at  its  northern  end, 
around  Debden  Hall  and  Debden  Green.  Debden 
Green  itself  does  not  form  part  of  the  estate.  It  is  a 
pleasant  little  hamlet  of  about  eight  houses,  mostly  of 
the  19th  century  and  later,  grouped  about  the  ancient 
green.  Loughton  Hall,  on  the  site  of  another  ancient 
manor,  is  now  in  the  centre  of  the  Debden  estate,  a 
mile  south  of  Debden  Green.  Beside  the  hall  is  the 
Lttle  church  of  St.  Nicholas  (a  chapel  of  ease  to  St. 
John,  Loughton)  which  stands  on  the  site  of  the 
original  parish  church.  The  Roding  forms  the  boundary 
of  the  parish  in  this  direction.  There  is  an  ancient 
crossing  at  Loughton  Bridge  a  mile  south-east  of 
Loughton  Hall.  The  railway  from  London  via  Strat- 
ford and  Woodford,  now  part  of  the  Central  London 
Line,  enters  Loughton  from  the  south.  After  passing 
through  Loughton  station  it  makes  a  wide  arc  east  and 

92  Essex    Educ.    Cttee.    Handhk.    1904, 
p.  148. 

93  Min.  of  Educ.  File  13/196. 
9*  Inf.  from  Essex  Educ.  Cttee. 
95  Sec  above,  p.  104  and  also  parish  of 

High  Laver.  96  char.  Com.  Files. 

'  O.S.  2\  in.  Map,  sheet  51/49. 

^  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1902);  Ciigwell 
U.D.  Official  Guide  (2nd  edn.),  22. 

3  Official   Guide,    p.    22;    Kelly's    Dir. 

Essex  (1933).  The  ward  boundary  be- 
tween Loughton  (South)  and  Buckhurst 
Hill  is  \  mile  north  of  the  ancient  parish 

♦  See  below,  Church.  '  See  below. 

<>  y.C.H.  Essex,  \,  277;  Hist.  Mon. 
Com.  Essex,  ii,  165—6. 

'  See  below,  Manor. 

'  F.C.H.  Essex,  i,  447a,  446A,  515*, 
537a,  i>. 

north  to  Theydon  Bois  and  Epping.  Debden  (formerly 
Chigwell  Lane)  station  is  J  mile  south-east  of  Loughton 
Hall.  Rectory  Lane,  an  old  path  which  has  become  the 
main  road  through  the  new  estate,  runs  from  Church 
Hill  south-east  to  Debden  station  and  Loughton 
Bridge.  Alderton  Hall,  which  hke  Debden  Hall  and 
Loughton  Hall  was  the  centre  of  an  ancient  manor,  is 
at  the  south-west  edge  of  the  new  estate. 

An  early  settlement  in  the  parish  was  within  the 
forest  at  what  is  known  as  Loughton  Camp,  about  ij 
mile  north  of  the  railway  station.  The  camp  was  a 
rough  oval  some  6J  acres  in  area,  enclosed  by  a  single 
rampart  and  ditch.   It  is  thought  to  be  pre-Roman.* 

In  the  nth  century  there  were  eight  estates  in 
Loughton.  The  largest  were  Alderton  and  Debden, 
which  were  probably  the  main  centres  of  population 
at  that  time.'  In  1086  there  were  18  manorial  tenants 
at  Alderton  and  1 1  at  Debden  and  the  total  number  in 
the  parish  was  49.8  In  1377  the  parish  contained  44 

Although  the  total  area  of  the  parish  was  fairly 
large,  the  population  was  for  long  concentrated  in  a 
small  part  of  it.  Many  medieval  place-names  survive 
and  relate  almost  entirely  to  High  Road  and  its  im- 
mediate neighbourhood  and  to  the  areas  around  the 
three  manor  houses.  Traps  Hill,  Algers  Road,  Goldings 
Hill,  Borders  Lane,  Lyngs  Lane  (now  Pump  Hill), 
Pyrles  Lane,  OUards  Grove,  and  Ree  Lane  (now 
Englands  Lane)  have  medieval  names  or  the  names  of 
medieval  tenants  who  held  land  in  those  areas.'"  There 
appears  to  be  a  specific  reference  to  High  Road  in 
1404  when  a  tenant  was  presented  at  the  manor  court 
for  throwing  the  scourings  of  his  ditch  upon  the  high- 
way at  Richard  Algor's  Gate."  The  offence  was 
evidently  committed  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
present  Alger's  Road.'^ 

While  the  concentration  of  population  along  the 
High  Road  was  probably  of  medieval  origin  it  was  no 
doubt  increased  by  the  construction,  early  in  the  17th 
century,  of  the  new  road  through  the  forest  to  Epping 
(see  below).  In  1671  there  were  89  houses  in  the 
parish'^  and  there  were  only  119  in  1801,  when  the 
population  was  68 1.'''  Chapman  and  Andre's  map 
(1777)  suggests  that  the  appearance  of  Loughton  was 
not  very  different  from  what  it  had  been  100  years 

9  W.  C.  Waller,  Loughton  in  Essex,  i, 

'»  P.N.  Essex  (E.P.N.S.),  67-68.  For 
details  of  the  descent  of  properties  see 
Waller,  Loughton,  \,  App.  vii. 

"  Waller,  Loughton,  \,  112. 

"  For  the  location  see  Waller,  Loughton, 

'3  E.R.O.,  Q/RTh  5  (Hearth  Tax). 
M  Census,  1801. 

I  10 

a-"    F-^  ■L-.T-.^-i^,"..- 

Map  of   Loughton 






before. '5  It  shows  houses  dotted  along  High  Road  as 
far  north  as  Rectory  Lane.  There  were  some  houses 
around  Mutton  Row  (now  York  Hill)  and  small  groups 
round  Debden  Hall  and  in  the  centre  of  Englands  Lane. 
Other  roads  shown  were  Smarts  Lane,  Pump  Hill, 
Clays  Lane,  Traps  Hill,  and  Borders  Lane,  Pyrles 
Lane,  and  Debden  Lane.'*  Larger  houses  specifically 
named  were  the  Parsonage,  Loughton  Hall,  Alderton 
Hall,  Debden  Hall,  Golden  Hill  House,  Hempstalls 
(later  Borders  Farm),  'The  Reindeer'  (later  The' 
Warren)  and  High  Standing,  which  lay  in  the  south- 
west of  the  parish  on  the  edge  of  the  forest.  The 
ancient  parish  church  beside  Loughton  Hall  is,  of 
course,  shown  on  the  map. 

Very  few  of  the  houses  then  existing  have  survived 
to  the  present  day.  Loughton  Hall,"  which  had  been 
rebuilt  about  1616,  was  burnt  down  in  1836,  and 
Debden  Hall  has  been  twice  rebuilt  since  1777.'* 
Golden  Hill  House,  shown  on  the  map  as  the  residence 
of  Richard  Lomax  Clay,  stood  on  the  north  side  of 
Clay's  Lane  at  its  junction  with  the  main  road.  It  was 
the  centre  of  a  small  estate  built  up  by  R.  L.  Clay  and 
his  father  Richard  Clay,  a  London  draper.  The  estate 
included  the  White  Lion  Inn,  which  was  demolished 
by  R.  L.  Clay  in  1777."  Golden  Hill  House  was 
rebuilt  on  a  large  scale  early  in  the  19th  century.  It 
had  three  stories  and  the  view  from  it  was  said  to  be 
'exceedingly  rich  and  extensive,  including  most  of 
London  and  much  of  the  intervening  district  of  sub- 
urban villas  in  Chigwell,  Woodford,  Walthamstow 
etc.'^"  After  the  fire  at  Loughton  Hall  in  1836  W.  W. 
Maitland,  the  lord  of  the  manor,  moved  to  Golden 
Hill  (Goldings)  and  lived  there  until  his  death.^'  In 
1 940  the  house  was  destroyed  by  a  German  land  mine.^* 
The  former  stable  block  escaped  destruction  and  has 
now  been  converted  into  a  house  called  Stanmores. 
A  small  modern  house  of  red  brick  called  Goldings 
Manor  Cottage  has  been  built  on  the  site  of  Goldings. ^3 

Alderton  Hall,  which  dates  from  about  1600  is  the 
only  one  of  the  three  ancient  manor  houses  which  has 
survived.^^  North  Farm,  at  the  south  of  High  Road, 
is  of  the  1 6th  century.  It  has  two  stories  and  attics  and 
is  timber-framed  and  plastered.  The  north  part  has 
three  gables,  the  central  part  of  the  house  projecting 
and  supported  over  the  ground  floor  on  posts. 

Willow  Cottage,  High  Road,  about  J  mile  north  of 
the  farm  also  dates  from  the  i6th  century.  It  consists 
of  two  stories,  timber-framed  with  painted  weather- 
boarding.  There  are  gabled  cross-wings  at  each  end  of 
the  front. 

Beech  House,  High  Road,  bears  the  date  1648  and 
the  initials  rwm  (probably  William  and  Margaret 
Rutland)  and  ir  Age  4.  It  is  a  two-story  brick  building, 
altered  externally  but  with  some  oak  panelling  of  c. 
1648  inside. 

No.  363  High  Road  was  built  late  in  the  i8th 
century.  It  is  of  two  stories,  in  stock  brick  with  three 
sash  windows.  A  group  of  cottages  in  Pump  Hill, 
Nos.  20,  22,  and  24,  date  from  the  17th  century.  They 
are  of  two  stories  with  painted  weather-boarding.  Rose 
Farm,  Traps  Hill,  is  of  the  same  period  or  somewhat 

"  Chapman  and  Andre,  Map  of  Essex, 
J777,  sheet  xvi. 

'*  Of  these  only  Traps  Hill  is  named  on 
the  map. 

"  See  below,  Manor. 

'8  Ibid. 

'»  Waller,  Loughton,  i,  127-8. 

"  While's  Dir.  Essex  (1848). 

"  Waller,  Loughton,  i,  128;  Kelly's  Dir. 

later.  It  is  of  two  stories  with  painted  weather-boarding 
and  small  casements.  In  York  Hill  there  is  a  group  of 
cottages  (Nos.  107-19  inclusive)  most  of  which  date 
from  the  1 8th  century  and  are  probably  those  shown  on 
the  map  of  1777.  Some  are  of  red  brick,  others 
weather-boarded.  Algars  at  Debden  Green  dates  from 
the  17th  or  1 8th  century.  It  is  a  two-story  weather- 
boarded  building  having  grouped  chimney-stacks  and 
a  pedimented  doorway  with  architrave  and  shaped 

The  population  increased  steadily  after  1801.  By 
1 82 1  it  was  979  and  there  were  166  inhabited  houses.^* 
In  1 83 1  there  were  1,269  inhabitants,  but  the  popula- 
tion subsequently  remained  stationary  until  the  1850's 
when  the  railway  was  built.^*  The  construction  of  the 
new  by-pass  road  from  Woodford  to  Epping  (see 
below)  may  have  been  partly  responsible  for  halting 
the  growth.  The  tithe  map  (1850)  shows  the  parish 
just  before  the  coming  of  the  railway.^'  The  general 
picture  had  changed  httle  since  1777.  There  were  a 
few  more  houses  at  the  east  end  of  Smarts  Lane,  in  the 
York  Hill  area  and  along  High  Road.  Albion  Hill  was 
now  clearly  marked  as  a  road  and  some  cottages  had 
been  erected  at  Baldwins  Hill.  Hatfields,  in  Rectory 
Lane,  had  been  built  in  1799.  It  consists  of  two  stories 
and  attics  and  is  of  stock  brick.  There  is  a  central 
cemented  Roman  Doric  porch.  The  date  is  on  a  rain- 
water head. 

The  Warren  (formerly  'The  Reindeer')  had  been 
rebuilt  early  in  the  19th  century.  'The  Reindeer'  was 
a  resort  of  wealthy  visitors  and  famous  for  its  rabbit 
pie.  About  1800  it  was  converted  into  a  private  house 
and  became  the  home  of  General  (later  Field-Marshal) 
Thomas  Grosvenor  (1764-18  51),  a  friend  of  the  Duke 
of  Wellington.  The  house  is  of  two  stories,  in  Roman 
cement.  To  the  rear  is  a  weather-boarded  wing  of 
earlier  date.  The  front  looks  north  over  a  field  con- 
taining a  'monument'  said  to  have  been  erected  by 
Grosvenor  to  the  memory  of  his  favourite  horse, 
which  had  carried  him  at  Waterloo.^^  The  monument 
consists  of  a  plain  square  pedestal  above  which  is  an 
obelisk  resting  on  ball  feet.^' 

Other  buildings  erected  between  1777  and  1850 
were  the  original  National  School  at  the  corner  of 
Staples  Road  (on  the  site  of  the  present  Ashley  Grove 
flats),  the  British  School  in  Smarts  Lane,  and  the 
Whitaker  Almshouses.^o  A  directory  of  1 848  spoke  of 
the  'many  genteel  houses'  of  Loughton. 3i  Meanwhile, 
in  1846  a  new  parish  church  had  been  built  in  Bhnd  ' 
Lane  (now  Church  Lane)  nearer  to  the  main  road,  and 
there  was  also  a  police  station. 

Between  185 1  and  1871  the  population  doubled, 
and  there  were  considerable  changes  in  the  landscape 
of  the  parish. 3^  The  railway  was  the  most  important 
new  feature.  The  line  from  Woodford  and  London 
was  followed  within  ten  years  by  an  extension  to 
Epping  and  Ongar,  which  looped  north-east  in  order  to 
avoid  hills  and  the  forest.  The  station  was  placed  at  the 
south-east  end  of  the  town.  On  the  south  side  of  Albion 
Hill  a  number  of  large  houses  were  built,  and  the  land 
between  them  and  Warren  Hill  was  inclosed  to  form 

Essex  (1859,  1862);  E.R.O.,  Sale  Cat. 
A.  1075  (1893). 

22  Inf.  from  Mr.  Wm.  Addison. 

^5  Mr.  Wm.  Addison  has  a  photo,  of 
Goldings  House. 

^*  See  Manor. 

25  Census,  182 1. 

^*  For  these  and  later  census  figures  see 
y.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  350. 

"  E.R.O.,  D/CT235. 

28  Waller,  Loughton,  i,  22-23. 

29  The  monument  is  said  to  have  come 
from  Wanstead  House,  which  was 
demolished  in  1824. 

30  See  below,  Schools,  Charities. 
3'  fVhite's  Dir.  Essex  (1848). 

32  O.S:25  in.  Map  (ist  edn.). 

II  I 


their  gardens.  This  was  the  wealthiest  part  of  the 
town.  Farther  north  Upper  Park  Road  and  Lower 
Park  Road  were  laid  out  although  not  yet  built  up  by 
1 87 1.  Forest  Road  had  also  been  made,  and  it  was 
there  and  in  Smarts  Lane  that  much  of  the  new  build- 
ing had  taken  place.  The  houses  in  these  two  roads 
were  of  cottage  type,  in  short  terraces.  Another  new 
road  was  Staples  Road,  which  had  a  few  small  houses. 
Old  Station  Road  had  been  made,  but  was  not  built 
up,  and  the  present  Station  Road  was  marked  out. 
Many  smaller  houses  had  been  built  at  Baldwins  Hill. 
Some  of  the  new  building  on  the  west  of  the  town  took 
place  on  land  inclosed  from  the  forest,  but  expansion 
in  this  direction  was  stopped  by  the  Epping  Forest 
Acts  of  1 87 1—80.33  There  was  also  some  new  building 
in  High  Road,  including  St.  Mary's  Church  and  the 
present  Union  church. 

Loughton  grew  very  slowly  between  1 87 1  and  1 8  8 1 , 
but  between  1881  and  191 1  the  population  rose  from 
2,85 1  to  5,433.  The  progress  of  building  was  watched 
with  a  critical  eye  by  William  Chapman  Waller  (1850- 
19 1 7)  who  lived  at  Ash  Green  at  the  top  of  York 
Hill.  His  articles  in  the  parish  magazine  of  St.  Mary's 
and  the  entries  in  his  manuscript  notebooks  provide 
valuable  information  about  this  period.^'' 

The  new  building  after  1 881  took  place  mainly  on 
several  small  estates  along  or  near  the  main  road.  The 
'Queen's  Park'  estate,  consisting  of  14  acres  bounded 
by  York  Hill,  Pump  Hill,  and  Church  Hill,  was 
broken  up  for  building  in  1886  after  the  death  of  the 
last  owner,  George  Burney.^s  Building  was  much 
slower  than  had  been  expected.3*  By  1895  there  were 
some  25  houses  along  the  Church  Hill  front  of  the 
estate,  but  in  Queen's  Road,  which  had  been  built 
parallel  with  Church  Hill  to  the  west,  only  about  six 
had  so  far  been  built.3'  There  was  further  building  in 
Queen's  Road  up  to  1914  but  parts  of  the  road 
remained  empty  until  the  1930's. 

The  Uplands  estate,  which  lay  opposite  the  Queen's 
Park  estate  to  the  east  of  Church  Hill,  consisted  of  1 8 
acres,3  8  centred  on  a  large  house  which  had  been  a 
private  residence  and  later  a  children's  convalescent 
home. 39  The  estate  was  sold  in  1902  for  ^^5,250  and 
the  house  was  demolished.'"'  By  1914  a  number  of 
small  houses  had  been  built  along  the  Church  Hill  side 
of  the  estate.  Uplands  Park  Avenue  (now  The  Uplands) 
had  been  made  and  there  were  several  houses  there.*' 
But  there,  also,  building  was  not  completed  until  after 
the  First  World  War. 

Farther  south  the  development  of  the  area  between 
Smarts  Lane  and  Upper  Park  Road  had  begun.  By 
1895  High  Beech  Road,  Forest  View  Road,  Con- 
naught  Avenue,  Junction  Road  (now  Connaught  Hill), 
OUards  Grove,  and  Park  Hill  had  been  laid  out, 
though  as  yet  there  were  very  few  houses  there.''^  As 
elsewhere  in  Loughton  this  area  was  built  up  gradually. 
In  1914  there  were  a  number  of  houses  in  Ollards 

Grove,  Connaught  Avenue,  High  Beech  Road,  and 
Park  Hill  but  none  had  been  built  in  Forest  View 
Road  or  Connaught  Hill.+s 

On  the  east  side  of  High  Road  near  the  railway 
station  Meadow  Road  and  Algers  Road  had  been  laid 
out  by  1895.  Meadow  Road  was  half  built  up  but 
development  had  been  slower  in  Algers  Road  and  in 
Lower  Park  Road,  which  lay  between  the  two  new 
roads.'M  South  of  Algers  Road  was  then  the  Beech 
House  estate,  consisting  of  Beech  House,  Newnham 
House,  and  117  acres  land.  In  1899  this  estate  was 
put  up  for  sale  with  the  suggestion  that  it  might  be 
built  upon.45  By  19 14  The  Avenue,  The  Crescent,  and 
Spring  Grove  had  been  laid  out  on  the  north  side  of 
the  estate  and  there  were  houses  at  the  north  end  of  The 

The  areas  mentioned  above  were  those  in  which 
most  of  the  town's  development  took  place  between 
1880  and  1 9 14.  A  few  houses  were  also  built  between 
1895  and  1914  on  the  north  side  of  Alderton  Hill,  and 
there  was  some  new  building  in  the  older  streets  of  the 
town,  where  there  were  still  many  vacant  sites.  There 
were  also  some  new  public  buildings.  Religious  needs 
had  been  met  by  the  formation  of  a  new  Anglican 
parish  in  south  Loughton  and  by  the  building  of  a 
Wesleyan  church  and  three  mission  halls.  The  Lopping 
Hall  and  the  Loughton  Club,  both  in  Station  Road, 
provided  centres  for  secular  activities.  A  new  elemen- 
tary school  had  been  built  in  Staples  Road  and  the  High 
School  for  Girls  in  Alderton  Hill.  Many  of  the  new 
buildings  erected  before  1899  were  designed  by 
Edmund  Egan,  a  local  architect  who  died  in  that 

By  19 14  Loughton  had  changed  from  a  village  to  a 
residential  town,  though  still  a  very  small  one.  The 
preservation  of  Epping  Forest  had  prevented  any 
expansion  westward.'*^  To  the  east  of  the  town  much 
of  the  parish  was  owned  by  J.  Whitaker  Maitland 
(d.  1909),  rector  and  lord  of  the  manor,  who  rebuilt 
and  Uved  at  Loughton  Hall.  It  may  be  supposed  that 
he  would  hardly  have  welcomed  any  great  expansion 
of  the  town  on  this  side,  and  since  he  was  also  rich  he 
had  no  need  to  sell  any  of  his  land  for  building.  Social 
and  economic  factors  also  checked  the  development  of 
the  town.  Loughton  was  mainly  an  upper-middle  class 
residential  area,  and  its  inhabitants  (of  whom  W.  C. 
Waller  was  probably  typical)  were  jealous  of  its 
amenities.  There  was  no  large-scale  industry  to  attract 
workers  and  Loughton  was  not  one  of  the  suburbs  to 
which  population  was  drawn  from  London  by  cheap 
workmen's  fares."*'  A  sale  catalogue  of  19 12  quotes 
the  rates  for  season  tickets  to  Liverpool  Street:  ^^4  p.  <^d. 
a  quarter  first  class  and  ^3  \i.  3fl'.  second  These 
were  not  rates  to  attract  lower-paid  workers. 

Before  1 9 14,  therefore,  building  was  confined  to  a 
comparatively  small  part  of  the  parish  and  even  there 
it  proceeded  slowly."  The  population  of  Loughton  in 

35  For  some  details  of  new  roads  c.  1865 
see  Waller,  Loughton^  i,  107. 

3*  Offprints  of  the  articles  were  later 
collected  to  form  a  volume,  Loughton  in 
Essex^  of  which  1 2  copies  only  were  bound. 
The  MS.  notes  are  in  the  Essex  Record 
Office  :T/P  13. 

35  For  the  earlier  history  of  this  estate 
see  Waller,  Loughton,  i,  137—8. 

3'  E.R.O.,  5a/eCa<.  B.  490,  491.  These 
catalogues  give  details  of  a  proposed 
housing  layout  of  some  100  houses. 

3'  O.S.  25  in.   Map  (2nd  edn.),  sheet 

Ivii,  12. 

38  For  its  earlier  history  see  Waller, 
Loughton,  i,  115— 16. 

3»  Ibid.;  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1895). 

•to  E.R.O.,  T/P  13  ii.  The  house  stood 
almost  opposite  the  'King's  Head'.  Mr. 
Wm.  Addison  has  a  photo,  from  which  it 
appears  that  it  was  built  early  in  the  19th 

■♦'  O.S.  6  in.  Map  (3rd  edn.),  sheet  kix. 

■f^  O.S.  25  in.  Map  (2nd  edn.),  sheets 
Ivii,  12,  16. 

♦3  O.S.  6  in.  Map  {3rd  edn.),  sheet  Ixix. 

**  O.S.  25  in.  Map  (2nd  edn.),  sheet 
Ivii,  16.  ■•s  E.R.O.,  Sale  Cat.  A.  500. 

«*  0.5.  6  in.  Map  (3rd  edn.). 

"  E.R.O.,  T/P  13  ii. 

■♦8  For  the  Forest  see  below. 

*•>  Cf.  Retns.  of  fVorkmen's  Trains,  H.C. 
[C.  7541],  pp.  lo-ii  (1894),  Ixxv. 

5»  E.R.O.,  Sale  Cat.  B.  1 37. 

5'  For  an  interesting  account  of  Lough- 
ton c.  1900—14  see  articles  by  Will 
Francies,  fVest  Essex  Gazette,  24  Dec. 
1952,  16  Jan.,  20  Mch.,  24  Apr.,  21  &  28 
Aug.,  30  Oct.,  6  Nov.  1953. 


Roman  Catholic  Church  of  St.  Thomas  More,  opened  1953 

Bank  of  England  Printing  Works:  Interior  of  Main  Hall  under  construction,  1954 
Mid-Twentieth-Centtjry  Buildings  at  Debden 







192 1  was  5,749,  little  more  than  it  had  been  in  191 1. 
By  that  time,  however,  building  had  been  resumed, 
and  between  191 8  and  1939  it  went  on  steadily. 
Among  the  new  streets  laid  out  and  built  up  were 
Priory  Road,  Brooklyn  Avenue,  Brook  Road,Tycehurst 
Hill  and  Spareleaze  Hill,  all  to  the  east  of  St.  Mary's 
Church,  Woodland  Road  and  Habgood  Road  on  the 
other  side  of  the  main  road,  and  Hillcrest  Road  (near 
Newnham  House).  New  houses  were  also  built  in  The 
Drive,  Englands  Lane,  High  Beech  Road,  Forest  View 
Road  and  in  Connaught  Hill,  Connaught  Avenue, 
and  Upper  Park  Road.  Several  blocks  of  flats — a 
novelty  in  Loughton — were  built  at  the  south  end  of 
High  Road  and  in  York  Hill.  Development  also  took 
place  to  the  east  of  the  railway  between  Loughton  and 
Buckhurst  Hill,  in  Roding  Road,  Valley  Hill  and 
district.  Debden  Hall,  at  Debden  Green,  was  de- 
molished in  1929  and  replaced  by  a  modern  house  of  red 
brick.^^  Council  houses  were  built  in  England's  Lane, 
Goldings  Road,  and  Woodlands  Road. 53  The  most 
important  new  public  buildings  were  the  Council 
Offices  in  Old  Station  Road  and  the  post-office  in 
High  Road,  a  Roman  Catholic  Church  in  Traps  Hill 
and  a  Secondary  Modern  School  in  Roding  Road. 
The  north  end  of  High  Road  was  transformed  by  the 
building  of  new  shops,  including  an  impressive  block 
called  Brooklyn  Parade.  In  1939-40  the  railway 
station  was  rebuilt. 5*  The  population  in  193 1  was 
7,390  and  by  1939  had  increased  well  beyond  that 

Since  1945  the  landscape  of  Loughton  has  been 
transformed  by  the  building  of  the  Debden  London 
County  Council  estate,  which  occupies  most  of  the 
parish  to  the  east  of  the  old  town.  There  are  now 
(1953)  4,321  dwellings  on  this  estate. 55  The  urban 
district  council  has  also  provided  over  1,000  houses 
(including  prefabricated  bungalows  and  shops),  many 
of  which  are  in  the  Loughton  wards.  Apart  from  the 
Debden  estate  most  of  the  new  building  has  been  in 
the  Roding  Road  area.  Along  Oakwood  Hill  to  the 
east  of  Roding  Road  are  many  prefabricated  houses, 
some  of  which  have  been  built  by  the  L.C.C.  and  some 
by  the  local  council.  About  200  houses  and  flats  are  also 
being  built  by  the  Chigwell  council  on  the  Hilly  Fields 
estate,  in  the  England's  Lane  area.5*  The  population 
of  Loughton  is  now  (1953)  estimated  at  29,974.57 
Factories  are  being  built  on  the  Debden  estate  so  that 
it  will  be  more  than  a  dormitory  suburb.  A  number 
of  schools  and  churches  have  been  built  and  others  are 
projected.  Loughton  Hall,  now  in  the  middle  of  the 
estate,  is  used  as  a  community  centre.  The  main 
shopping  centre,  now  almost  completed,  is  in  the 

Planning  has  preserved  some  of  the  rural  landscape 
at  Debden.  Both  here  and  in  the  old  town  open  spaces 
and  many  fine  trees  survive  from  Loughton's  village 
days.  Most  of  the  houses  built  in  the  town  during  the 
past  1 50  years  are  of  red  or  yellow  brick,  some  of  which 

was  probably  made  locally  (see  below.  Industries,  also 
Chigwell).  There  are  a  few  19th-century  weather- 
boarded  houses  in  High  Road,  Smarts  Lane,  and  else- 
where. In  general  the  houses  are  well  built.  Even  in 
the  poorer  streets  they  look  solid  and  in  good  repair. 

Until  piped  supplies  were  available  water  was  often 
scarce  in  Loughton,  and  pumps  were  valuable  pro- 
perty, separately  assessed  to  the  rates.5  8  Piped  water 
was  first  supplied  by  the  East  London  (later  the 
Metropolitan)  Water  Board  in  1866.59  p^rt  of  south 
Loughton  was  sewered  about  i87i.'o  These  improve- 
ments were  overdue.  Since  1848  there  had  been 
several  Nuisance  Removal  Committees  which  tried  to 
improve  sanitation  by  the  threat  of  legal  proceedings 
against  householders.  In  1865  it  was  decided  that  a 
main  sewer  should  be  built  for  the  Smarts  Lane  district 
but  the  matter  had  later  been  shelved.*'  A  sewerage 
scheme  for  north  Loughton  was  carried  out  in  1890 
by  Epping  Rural  District  Council,  from  plans  by 
Edmund  Egan,  at  a  cost  of  ^{^6,500.*^  The  town  was 
supplied  with  gas  from  about  1873,  by  the  Chigwell, 
Loughton  and  Woodford  Gas  Co.*3  Electricity  was 
first  supplied  in  1926  under  the  Woodford  and  District 
Electricity  Special  Order  (1925).*'* 

Loughton  became  part  of  the  Metropolitan  Police 
District  in  1840.^5  There  was  a  pohce  station  by 
1845.**  In  1882  there  was  an  inspector  in  charge.*^ 
In  1902  there  were  a  station  sergeant,  three  sergeants, 
and  eleven  constables.*' 

During  the  Middle  Ages  Loughton  was  an  isolated 
parish  dominated  by  the  forest  to  the  west.  There  were 
no  roads  through  the  forest  from  Loughton,  though  no 
doubt  tracks  existed.  Until  the  17th  century  the  roads 
to  both  Epping  and  Waltham  Abbey  led  through 
Theydon  Bois.  There  was  a  road  south  to  Buckhurst 
Hill  and  one  to  Chigwell  over  Loughton  Bridge.  The 
earliest  reference  to  the  bridge  is  in  the  13th  century.*' 
In  1422  it  was  reported  that  the  road  near  the  bridge 
had  been  flooded  for  a  period  of  two  years. 7°  In  the 
early  17th  century  there  were  the  usual  disputes  con- 
cerning responsibility  for  repairing  the  bridge."  By 
the  end  of  the  century  it  had  been  accepted  as  a  county 
bridge  and  there  are  records  of  various  sums  spent  on 
its  repair.'^  In  1780  it  was  decided  to  rebuild  it  at  a 
cost  of  £\j  I  .'3  In  1 809  it  was  destroyed  by  floods.^* 
The  bridge  which  replaced  it  was  badly  sited  and  lasted 
only  until  1824.75  The  present  bridge  was  built  soon 
after  and  tunnels  were  inserted  under  the  causeway  on 
the  Chigwell  side  to  facilitate  the  passage  of  flood  ■ 

Early  in  the  17th  century  (probably  between  161 1 
and  1622)  a  road  was  constructed  through  the  forest 
from  Loughton  to  Epping."  This  was  of  more  than 
local  importance,  for  it  provided  a  new  and  shorter 
route  through  west  Essex  to  Cambridge,  Newmarket, 
and  East  Anglia.  It  was  the  subject  of  Acts  of  Parlia- 
ment from  the  reign  of  William  and  Mary  onwards 
and  in  1768  came  under  the  control  of  the  Epping 

**  See  Manor. 

"  Inf.  from  Planning  Officer,  Chigwell 

"  Inf.  from  Mr.  William  Addison. 

"  Inf.  from  Chigwell  U.D.C. 

56  Ibid. 

"  Ibid. 

**  Waller,  Loughton^  t,  106,  notes  the 
location  of  some  springs  and  pumpe  in 

"  Inf.  from  Metrop.  Water  Bd. ;  Kelly's 
Dir.  Essex  (1898). 

00  Inf.  from  Chigwell  U.D.C. 

"  Waller,  Loughton,  i,  108. 

<"■  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1894.). 

S3  Inf.  from  North  Thames  Gas  Bd.; 
of.  Chigwell,  Loughton  and  Woodford 
Gas  Act,  1873,  36  Vict,  c.21  (priv.  act). 

6*  Inf.  from  London  Elcc.  Bd. 

"  Land.  Gaz.  13  Oct.  1840,  p.  2250. 

«»  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (18+5). 

<•■'  Ibid.  (1882). 

S'  Ibid.  (1902). 

»'  P.N.  Essex  (E.P.N.S.),  67. 

'»  C47/58/7/300. 

"  E.R.O.,  e/CP  3,  p.  37;  Waller, 
Loughton^  i,  70. 

"  E.R.O.,  Q/CP  3,  pp.  404,  597,  563, 
697,  643. 

"  E.R.O.,2/SO  13,  pp.  144,  159. 

'♦  Ibid.  20,  p.  374. 

'5  Ibid.  28,  p.  547. 

"  Ibid.  p.  594. 

"  Winstone,  Epping  and  Ongar  High- 
way Trust,  9 1 . 

E8.  IV 



Highway  Trusts'  Between  1770  and  1774  the  trust 
remade  the  road  at  Goldings  Hill  in  order  to  reduce 
the  gradient.''  Soon  after  this  the  road  between 
Loughton  and  Buckhurst  Hill  was  also  remade. '<• 
Finally  in  1830-4  the  trust  built  a  new  road  through 
the  forest  from  Woodford  to  the  'Wake  Arms',  running 
along  the  western  boundary  of  Loughton  parish  and 
by-passing  the  village.*' 

In  1 79 1  a  daily  coach  ran  from  Loughton  to 
London,  and  a  wagon  on  Tuesday,  Thursday,  and 
Saturday.*^  In  18 17  a  daily  coach  from  Loughton 
called  at  the  'Three  Nuns'  and  the  'Bull',  Whitechapel, 
and  the  'Pewter  Plate',  Gracechurch  Street,  London.*' 
In  1839  there  were  coaches  to  London  and  Epping 
twice  a  day  and  carriers'  wagons  to  London  every 
weekday  except  Friday.  *■•  The  services  remained  un- 
changed until  1856,  when  the  railway  from  Stratford 
and  London  was  opened. *'  By  1 863  there  were  twelve 
trains  a  day  to  London;  coaches  still  ran  twice  a  day  to 
Epping.*^  The  extension  of  the  railway  from  Loughton 
to  Epping  and  Ongar  was  opened  in  1865.*'  By  1892 
there  were  42  trains  a  day  to  London.**  The  line 
from  Woodford  and  London  was  electrified  in  1948 
and  that  from  Loughton  to  Epping  in  1949.*'  This 
had  been  planned  before  1939.  It  is  now  possible  to 
travel  direct  from  Loughton  to  central  London.  A 
bus  service  from  London  started  in  191 5,  and  in  1920 
was  extended  to  Epping."" 

Loughton  had  a  postal  receiving  house  in  the  early 
19th  century.  The  delivery  was  extended  in  181 5" 
and  a  new  receiver  was  appointed  in  1828. '^  A  sub- 
post-office  was  set  up  by  1867.9'  Loughton  now  has 
a  central  post-office  and  sub-post-offices  at  Goldings 
Hill,  Roding  Road,  and  The  Broadway.  Telegraphy 
was  introduced  in  1 871''*  and  the  telephone  in  1906.'' 

The  history  of  Epping  Forest,  including  the  events 

which  led  up  to  its  pre- 

LOUGHTON  JND  servation    in    the    19th 

THE  PRESERVATION      century,  has  been  told  by 

Of  EPPING  FOREST      W.  R.Fisher  in  his /■ow/ 

of  Essex.'*''  Minor  in- 
cisures from  the  forest  had  been  going  on  in  Loughton 
and  other  forest  parishes  from  early  times."  In  1666 
Sir  Henry  Wroth,  lord  of  the  manor  of  Chigwell,  applied 
to  the  Crown  for  licence  to  inclose  1,500  acres  of  the 
wastes  of  the  manors  of  Chigwell  and  Loughton,  but 
this  was  refused.'*  Wholesale  inclosure  does  not  appear 
to  have  been  suggested  again  until  the  19th  century, 
and  then  the  Crown  took  the  initiative. 

In  1 8 17  the  Commissioners  of  Woods  and  Forests 
presented  to  Parliament  a  Bill  to  disafforest  the  whole 
forest,  to  extinguish  the  rights  of  common  and  to  vest 
part  of  the  forest  in  the  Crown."  Anthony  Hamilton, 
Rector  of  Loughton  1805-51,  was  one  of  the  few  sup- 
porters of  this  proposal,  which  was  withdrawn  after 

78  Winstone,  Epping  and  Ongar  High* 
nvay  Trusty  ch.  ii. 

"  Ibid.  ch.  V. 

*»  Ibid.  ch.  vi ;  and  see  Chigwell. 

"  Ibid.  ch.  ix.  For  a  map  of  this  road, 
1835  see  E.R.O.,  Q/RUm  1/54. 

»2  Univ.  Brit.  Dir.  (1791),  i,  Essex,  12. 

85  Johnstone' i  Comm.  Dir.  ( 1 8 1 7),  iv,  24. 
»■»  Pigot's  Dir.  Essex  (1839),  128. 
«5  Kelly's  Dir.  Essex  (1855);  inf.  from 

Brit.  Rlwys. 

86  fVhite's  Dir.  Essex  (1863). 
8'  Inf.  from  Brit.  Rlwys.;  cf.  E.R.  Iviii, 


88  Da-vis'  Epping,  Loughton  and  Ongar 
/ilmanack,  1892. 


Strong  opposition.  The  commissioners,  however,  were 
still  determined  to  inclose  the  forest.  They  connived 
at  illegal  inclosures  and  pressed  private  land-owners  to 
purchase  the  forest  rights  of  the  Crown.  Hainault 
Forest  was  disafforested  in  1 8  5 1  and  was  inclosed  soon 
after."  In  1857  the  commissioners  invited  W.  W. 
Maitland,  lord  of  the  manor  of  Loughton,  to  purchase 
the  Crown's  rights  over  1,377  acres  of  uninclosed  waste 
within  his  manor.  He  agreed  to  pay  j^5,468  and  the 
conveyance  was  made  in  1 8  5  8-60.2  These  facts  were 
never  disputed  during  the  evidence  before  the  Epping 
Forest  Commission  in  1873,  and  they  are  important 
because  they  show  that  the  first  move  towards  the 
inclosure  of  this  substantial  part  of  the  forest  was  made 
not  by  the  lord  of  the  manor  but  by  the  Crown. 
Inclosure  appears  to  have  been  considered  locally 
during  the  lifetime  of  W.  W.  Maitland,  and  in  1859 
a  proposal  to  the  Inclosure  Commissioners  was  dis- 
cussed.' Soon  after  this  Maitland  died  and  no  further 
action  appears  to  have  been  taken  until  1864,  when  his 
son  the  Revd.  J.  W.  Maitland  decided  to  inclose  the 
forest.*  According  to  the  steward  of  the  manor,  W.  C. 
Metcalfe,  Maitland  was  moved  to  this  action  'at  the 
instance  of  some  of  the  principal  freeholders  and  copy- 

Maitland  and  his  larger  tenants  stood  to  gain 
financially  by  the  inclosure  of  more  than  1,000  acres  of 
forest.  On  the  other  hand  those  who  desired  inclosure 
argued  that  the  close  proximity  of  the  forest  had  had 
some  bad  social  effects  on  Loughton  in  the  past.  In 
the  1 8th  century  the  forest  was  the  haunt  of  highway- 
men, among  them  the  notorious  Dick  Turpin  (1706— 
39)  who  is  said  to  have  roasted  an  old  woman  over  a 
fire  at  Traps  Hill  Farm  in  order  to  make  her  reveal 
where  her  money  was  hidden.*  As  a  defence  against 
such  attacks  many  of  the  houses  in  Loughton  con- 
tained 'Turpin  traps',  consisting  of  wooden  flaps  which 
were  let  down  over  the  head  of  the  staircase  and  kept 
there  by  a  pole  placed  against  the  ceiling  so  that  they 
could  not  be  raised  from  below.  As  late  as  1891  there 
were  those  still  living  who  had  seen  Turpin  traps  in 
some  of  the  houses.'  It  was  not  suggested  in  the  i86o's 
that  highwaymen  were  still  a  serious  menace,  but  the 
forest  still  harboured  some  unwelcome  characters, 
including  gipsies.*  The  supporters  of  inclosure  also 
believed  that  the  poorer  people  of  Loughton  were 
tempted  to  idleness  and  crime  by  the  custom  of 
'lopping'  for  firewood  in  the  forest  during  the  winter 
months.  The  views  of  the  inclosures  were  summed 
up  by  a  writer  in  1861:  'inclosures,  however,  seem  to 
be  commencing  in  the  neighbourhood,  which  will 
probably  check  these  irregular  and  to  a  certain  extent 
demoralizing  tendencies.''  As  a  final  argument  it  was 
asserted  that  part  of  the  forest  was  stunted  and  of  poor 

89  Inf.  from  Brit.  Rlwys. 

90  Will  Francies,  'Memories  of  the  High 
Road',  fVest  Essex  Gazette,  20  Mar.  1953. 

«■  P.M.G.  Mins.  1815,  vol.  29,  p.  64. 

92  Ibid.  1828,  vol.  33,  p.  267. 

93  Brit.  Post.  Guide,  1867. 
9't  P.M.G.  Mins.  1871,  vol.  92,  Min. 


95  E.R.O.,  T/P  13  iii. 

96  Cf.  F.C.H.  Essex,  ii,  615  f.  For 
additional  details  about  the  forest  and 
Loughton  see  Waller,  Loughton,  \,  21  f., 
32  f.,  50  f.,  66  f.    See  also  Manor,  below. 

9'  W.  R.  Fisher,  Forest  of  Essex,  321  f. 
And  see  Agriculture. 
98  Ibid.  329. 


99  Ibid.  339. 
^  See  Chigwell,  Lamborne. 

2  Proc.  of  Epping  Forest  Com.  {1873), 
i.  S3'-3- 

3  Ibid.   574-5. 

*  Ibid.  543-4. 

5  Ibid.  544. 

6  E.R.  xi,  21,  80. 

7  Ibid,  xxiv,  204. 

8  About  1830  there  appear  to  have  been 
many  criminals  in  hiding  in  the  forest  at 
Buckhurst  Hill  and  in  Hainault  Forest: 
see  Chigwell,  Parish  Govt. 

9  D.  W.  CoUer,  People's  Hist.  Essex, 

">  Proc.  of  Epping  Forest  Com.  i,  582. 



It  was  with  these  views  that  Maitland  proceeded  to 
inclose  the  forest  within  the  manor  of  Loughton.  He 
owned  the  forest  rights  formerly  held  by  the  Crown 
and  there  were  ancient  precedents  in  the  court  rolls  of 
the  manor  for  the  inclosure  of  forest  waste."  His 
principal  tenants  welcomed  inclosure.  In  1864  they 
agreed  that  the  lord  should  have  two-thirds  of  the 
inclosed  land  and  the  commoners  one-third.'^  Grants 
of  land  or  money  were  subsequently  made  to  a  number 
of  tenants  of  the  manor  in  order  to  extinguish  their 
common  rights.  Maitland  then  inclosed  some  1,000 
acres  of  forest,  started  to  drive  roads  through  it  and 
sold  some  plots  for  building  and  other  purposes. '^ 

The  opposition  to  these  inclosures  will  always  be 
associated  with  the  Willingale  family.  The  story  has, 
however,  gathered  some  accretions  of  legend  and  the 
whole  truth  is  difficult  to  determine.  The  inhabitants 
of  Loughton  had  an  ancient  right  of  lopping  wood  from 
the  forest  from  12  November  each  year  until  23  April 
following.'*  They  seem  to  have  thought  it  necessary 
for  the  preservation  of  their  rights  that  lopping  should 
begin  as  the  clock  struck  midnight  on  1 1-12  November. 
They  met  in  the  woods  for  the  purposes,  usually  at 
Staples  Hill,  and  celebrated  with  a  bonfire  and  beer- 
drinking.' 5  The  other  forest  parishes  had  also  pos- 
sessed lopping  rights.'*  At  Theydon  Bois  there  was  a 
lopping  custom  similar  to  that  at  Loughton.  At 
Waltham  Abbey  and  Sewardstone  the  lopping  rights 
had  been  converted  into  fuel  assignments  attached  to 
certain  tenements  in  those  manors."  A  polemical  tract 
published  in  i860,  at  the  beginning  of  the  inclosure 
controversy,  claimed  that  the  people  of  Waltham  Abbey 
had  been  deprived  of  their  ancient  lopping  rights  by 
means  of  a  'general  drunk  and  supper',  on  1 1  November 
1641  '.  . .  which  was  a  snare'  and  caused  them  to  forget 
and  so  to  lose  those  rights.'  *  The  writer  of  the  tract 
stated  that  the  same  scheme  was  tried  without  success 
at  Loughton:  'although  many  accepted  the  supper 
there  given,  an  old  man  gave  the  signal,  when  he  with 
others  at  once  proceeded  to  the  forest  and  duly  secured 
their  charter.'"  These  stories  may  have  some  value  as 
traditions  explaining  the  different  arrangements  as  to 
lopping  at  Loughton  and  Waltham  Abbey.  Their 
publication  in  i860  must  have  increased  the  suspicion 
of  the  cottagers  of  Loughton  that  their  rights  were  in 
danger.  It  is  significant  that  it  is  from  the  i86o's  that 
there  comes  the  story  that  Thomas  Willingale  saved 
the  lopping  rights  in  Loughton  in  a  manner  similar  to 
that  described  in  the  tract.^"  Willingale  is  supposed  to 
have  been  one  of  the  loppers  who  were  entertained  by 
the  lord  of  the  manor  to  a  supper  on  1 1  November  1 860. 
As  midnight  approached  he  'rose  up  hastily  from  the 
table,  shouldered  his  axe,  called  to  his  fellows  and  went 
out  to  lop  as  usual',  thus  'defeating  the  lawyers'.  There 
is  good  evidence  that  he  did  something  of  this  kind,  in 
the  belief  that  the  continued  existence  of  the  lopping 
rights  depended  upon  his  action.    But  he  has  a  more 

"  Ibid.  54.7-8. 

"  Ibid.  558. 

'3  Ibid.  561;  Waller,  Loughton,  i,  107; 
W.  R.  Fisher,  Forest  of  Essex,  357. 

'♦  Fisher,  Forest  of  Essex,  249  f.  Rep, 
of  Eppiug  Forest  Com.  H.C.  187,  p.  4 
(1877),  xxvi.  By  the  original  custom 
lopping  began  on  All  Saints  Day  (r 
November)  and  ended  on  St.  George's 
Day  (23  Apr.).  In  1753  the  opening  date 
was  moved  to  12  Nov.  following  the 
national  adjustment  of  the  calendar.  For 
this  custom  see  also  below.  Parish  Govern- 
ment an